Chapter 1 power point adapted

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Chapter 1 power point adapted

  1. 1. Chapter 1Introduction to Child Development
  2. 2. What is child development? • Changes in physical, social, emotional and intellectual functioning over time, from conception through adolescence • Changes include alterations in: – Size – Shape – FunctionCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|2
  3. 3. Areas of Development • Physical development – Growth and change in a person’s body and bodily functions • Cognitive development – Mental processes used to process information, become aware, solve problems, and gain knowledge • Social-emotional development – Processes related to one’s interactions with others Photo credit of Gabriela Martorell.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|3
  4. 4. Critical Issues • INFLUENCES ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT • NATURE AND NURTURE • CONTINUITY AND DISCONTINUITY • CRITICAL/SENSITIVE PERIODS • INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN DEVELOPMENTCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|4
  5. 5. Influences on Child Development • Maturation – Involves a series of preprogrammed transformations in the form, structure, or function of an individual • Environmental factors – Influences behavior through learning, which occurs as a result of observation, experience, instruction, or practice – Socialization is when children learn social roles and become members of groupsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|5
  6. 6. Nature and Nurture • Nature – Biological and genetic factors • Nurture – Environmental factorsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|6
  7. 7. Continuity and Discontinuity • Continuous – Development is smooth and gradual – Quantitative change • Discontinuous – Development is abrupt and unstable – Qualitative change – Implicit in stage theoriesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|7
  8. 8. Stage Theories and the Size of the Lens • Organize information in a meaningful way but gloss over individual differences • Changes may appear – Abrupt if viewed from farther away – Gradual if viewed closely • Change is best conceived of as both gradual and abrupt © Royalty-Free, Daniel Pangbourne/Getty ImagesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|8
  9. 9. Critical and Sensitive Periods • Critical period – a specific period during which the environment has its greatest impact on development Photo Researcher, Inc./SPL • Sensitive periods – times that are optimal, but not necessary, for the development of certain behaviors or functionsCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1|9
  10. 10. Individual Differences in Development • Universal characteristics develop in similar ways in all humans. • But there are also vast individual differences between children. • • These differences tend to be stable yet still can show great flexibility (change over time and situations)Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 10
  11. 11. Historical Roots of Field • CHILDREN OF ANTIQUITY • MEDIEVAL CHILDREN • EARLY PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS • EVOLUTION AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT • APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC METHODCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 11
  12. 12. Children of Antiquity: Ancient Greece and Rome • Children viewed as – Helpless – Lacking in self-control – Easily susceptible to corruption • Environment seen as critical – Discipline emphasize – Plato proposed children be separated from their parents – Only individuals of the highest moral character be allowed to rear and train childrenCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 12
  13. 13. Medieval Children • Children viewed as miniature adults • Life was harsh • Child labor was a necessity • High infant mortalityCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 13
  14. 14. Early Philosophical Roots: John Locke • Tabula rasa – “Blank slate” • Environment is driving force in development • Early experiences have a long-term impactCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 14
  15. 15. Early Philosophical Roots: Jean-Jacques Rousseau • Doctrine of innate morality • Children are intrinsically good and moral • Natural qualities of child dictate development The Art Archive/CorbisCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 15
  16. 16. Evolution and Child Development Charles Darwin • Challenged idea that human behavior and development are fixed. • Also, argued that human behavior reflects adaptive pressures. Bettmann/CorbisCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 16
  17. 17. Evolution and Child Development Charles Darwin• Concept of Natural Selection – Individuals who are bested adapted to their surroundings survive and reproduce. These adaptive characteristics are passed on to the next generation Bettmann/CorbisCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 17
  18. 18. Application of the Scientific Method • G. Stanley Hall • Pioneered the use of scientific procedures for the study of child development • First to focus on adolescence and write a developmental textbookCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 18
  19. 19. Changes in Contemporary Life • CHANGES IN FAMILY STRUCTURE • CHILDREN OF SAME-SEX PARENTS • ETHNIC AND RACIAL DIVERSITY • POVERTY AND CHILD DEVELOPMENTCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 19
  20. 20. Changes in Family Structure • Nuclear family – Biological father and mother and their children – Prevalence is declining • Single-parent family – Primary cause is divorce – Usually headed by women – Prevalence is risingCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 20
  21. 21. Changes in Family Structure • Blended family – formed when a widowed or divorced person remarries • Stepfamily – formed when at least one partner in a blended family has children • Extended family – consists of one or more parents, one or more of the parents’ children, and one or more relatives living together in one householdCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 21
  22. 22. Changes in Family Structure • Other trends – Parents, especially mothers, are working more – More non-parental caregiversCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 22
  23. 23. Children of Same-Sex Parents • Number of families including gay or lesbian parents is substantial and likely to rise • Research suggests these children are no different than children Image Works raised in heterosexual familiesCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 23
  24. 24. Ethnic and Racial Diversity • The U.S. is becoming more diverse • Both birthrates and immigration factor into this • Researching diversity is complicated by within- group variationCopyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 24
  25. 25. Ethnic and Racial Diversity • Race – refers to a group of people who share a genetic heritage. • Ethnicity – refers to a group of people who share a common cultural heritage and a sense of belonging. • Multiracial – refers to people who are of two or more races.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 25
  26. 26. Poverty and Child Development • In 2007, 13 million children in the U.S. lived under the poverty line. • The intellectual, social, and physical development of children living in low-income households lags behind that of their more affluent peers. • Poverty is associated with a variety of risk factors that hinder optimal brain development. • Not all children are at equal risk. • Problems with poverty are intergenerational, complex and enduring.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 26
  27. 27. Transactional Model of Development • Development results from the continuous and dynamic interplay between the diverse qualities that individuals bring to their environments and the diverse environments that individuals experience. • The emphasis on understanding development in the context of human relationships reflects the belief that children learn about themselves through their relationship with others.Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. 1 | 27

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