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Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I
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Ch. 20 Imperialism to World War I

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Imperialism refers to the events in history in which European countries started colonizing and then taking advantage of countries around the world to monopolize natural resources. …

Imperialism refers to the events in history in which European countries started colonizing and then taking advantage of countries around the world to monopolize natural resources.
World War I

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  • 1. 758–759 CORBISImperialism and World War I The Palace of Westminster in London, England, home to Big Ben and the Houses of Parliament 1860 1880 1900 1920 1869 1884 1900 1914 1917 Suez France sets up Boxer World Lenin seizes Canal protectorate Rebellion War I power in opens in Vietnam sweeps China begins Russia
  • 2. Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit jat.glencoe.com for a preview The early 1900s was a period of conflict in much of the of Chapter 20.world. Read this chapter to find out how a war in Europebecame a world war that affected millions of people. View the Chapter 20 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The New Imperialism By 1900, many industrial nations, including Britain, France, Germany, Spain, and the United States, had expanded their trade and built empires in different parts of the world. Nationalism in China and Japan During the 1800s, Chinese and Japanese societies were influenced by Europeans and Americans. World War I Begins Growing tension between European powers eventually led to World War I. World War I Changes the World World War I led to the fall of empires, a revolution in Russia, and the creation of new nations and governments. Identifying Make this foldable to help you identify and learn key terms. Step 1 Stack four Step 2 With the Reading and Writing sheets of paper, one papers still stacked, As you read the chapter, on top of the other. cut out all four write the terms from On the top sheet of circles at the same Locating Places, Meeting paper, draw a large time. People, and Building circle. Your Vocabulary in your foldable. Write a definition for each term. Step 3 Staple the paper circles Step 4 Label the Then turn your foldable together at one point around the edge. front circle as over (upside down) to Chapter 20 shown and take Key write a short sentence This makes notes on the Terms using each term. Staple a circular pages that open here. booklet. to the right. 759
  • 3. Prioritizing What’s Important? As you study history, it may seem impossible to keep all the facts in your head. Once you understand that the author does not expect you to remember every word of the text, you can begin to focus on what is truly important or prioritize. Prioritize means “to list in order of importance.” Prioritizing will help you read more critically and do better on tests. Read the sentences below. World War I, also called the The words in Great War, was different from blue show the any earlier war. Both sides ideas that the developed new, more power- author intended to be most ful weapons to help them important. break through enemy lines. Machine guns fired bullets one after the other at a rapid The other speed. Huge artillery guns sentences act as fired shells more than supporting 75 miles (120 km). Poison details. te- gases were used for the lumn no Use th e two-co n yo u hod whe t first time, and tanks and tak ing met e mos cord th flamethrowers were read. Re s in one nt point impor ta e suppo r t- introduced. colu m n and th ther in the o in g ideas column. 760
  • 4. Bettmann/CORBIS Read this paragraph from Section 4, page 791. Read to Write Discuss the questions that follow with a learning Choose any three topics partner to practice prioritizing. from Chapter 20 with interesting headings. Write a “study sheet” for each topic, noting the most important fact, In January 1919, peace talks began sentence, or concept. at Versailles (vuhr•SY) outside Paris. Then explain why your The principal figures at the talks were statement reflects the most important part of U.S. president Woodrow Wilson, the topic. British prime minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau, and Italian prime minis- ter Vittorio Orlando. 1. Is it important to remember the date of the peace talks? 2. Is it important to remember where the peace talks occurred? 3. Is it important to remember the principal figures at the talks? 4. If you had to remember only one of the principal figures, who would it be? 5. Is it important to read further to find out more about the peace talks? Read the first page of Section 2 on page 772. What do you think is the most important idea on that page? Support your answer. Unit Title 761 761
  • 5. The New Imperialism What’s the Connection? Philippines (FIH • luh • PEENZ) In past chapters, you learned how Panama (PA • nuh • MAH) the Industrial Revolution changed the lives of Europeans. By the 1800s, Meeting People industry had also changed Europe’s Robert Clive relationship with the world. Leopold II William McKinley Focusing on the • European nations built empires to Building Your Vocabulary help their economy and to spread imperialism their ideas. (page 763) (ihm • PIHR • ee • uh • LIH • zuhm) • Control of India passed from the colony East India Company to the British. protectorate (page 764) (pruh • TEHK • tuh • ruht) • European nations ruled almost all of sphere of influence Africa by 1914. (page 766) sepoy (SEE • POY) • The United States became an Reading Strategy imperial nation after defeating Spain Organizing Information Use a chart and taking control of the Philippines like the one below to show the colonies and Puerto Rico. (page 769) that each imperialist nation controlled. Locating Places Imperialist Nation Colonies Singapore (SIHNG • uh • POHR) Cuba (KYOO • buh) 1850 1875 1900 1857 1869 1884 1914 NORTH EUROPE Revolt against Suez Canal France sets up PanamaAMERICA CHINA British in India opens protectorate in Canal INDIA Vietnam opens AFRICA SOUTH AMERICA AUSTRALIA762 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 6. The Rise of ImperialismRoger Viollet/Liaison/Getty Images European nations built empires to help their economy and to spread their ideas. Reading Focus A store owner with too many goods on the shelves must find new customers or he or she will lose money. Read on to find out how Europeans solved a similar problem on a grander scale. As nationalism spread, the industrial countries of Europe looked abroad for raw materials and new markets. In the 1800s, they rushed to take over lands in Asia and Africa where these markets and goods were found. As a result, the world entered the Age French military officers with peasants in the Tonkin region of Vietnam of Imperialism. Imperialism (ihm • PIHR • ee • uh • LIH • zuhm) is a type of relationship between countries in which one nation Philippines and the East Indies. During the directly or indirectly controls the govern- 1800s, Europeans began taking over ment or the economy of another nation. Southeast Asia’s mainland. There they grew crops, such as coffee and tea. They also Building Empires Europeans wanted new began to use the area’s raw materials, such lands for more than just trade and profit. as petroleum, rubber, and tin. They believed that ruling foreign peoples In 1819 a British official named Thomas would add to a country’s power. They also Stamford Raffles founded a colony on a believed that imposing their ideas and small island at the tip of the Malay practices on others would improve the lives Peninsula. Known as Singapore (SIHNG • uh • of foreign peoples. POHR), or “the city of the lion,” it became an Imperial nations ruled other people in important port for ships going to and from many different ways. Sometimes they cre- China. ated a colony, which they ruled directly. The French followed the British to main- Sometimes they set up a protectorate (pruh • land Southeast Asia. Both countries soon TEHK • tuh • ruht). There the local people had competed for territory. The British took their own government, but the imperial gov- control of the rest of the Malay Peninsula ernment controlled the military and could and Burma to the north. Meanwhile, French tell the local rulers what to do. In other cases Catholic missionaries entered nearby they set up a sphere of influence, a region Vietnam. Fearing the British would move where only one imperial power had the right into Vietnam, the French sent in troops, and to invest or to trade. in 1884 Vietnam became a French protec- torate. In all of Southeast Asia, only Siam— The First Empires: Southeast Asia As today known as Thailand—kept its freedom. early as the 1500s, Europeans were drawn to Southeast Asia for its spices. They took con- Contrast What is the dif- trol of many island groups, including the ference between a colony and a protectorate? CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 763
  • 7. Britain’s Empire in India What Was the East India Company? In 1600 British traders from the East India Company Control of India passed from the East arrived in India. Over the nextIndia Company to the British. 50 years, they built a string of trading fortsReading Focus Has a new business ever moved into along India’s coasts. The East Indiayour neighborhood? What things did it make better or Company set up an army and supportedworse? As you read, ask how Britain made things better local Indian rulers who agreed to work withand worse in India. them. The company’s army also fought the French, Britain’s main rival in India. Earlier you learned that the Moguls ruled One of the most energetic East IndiaIndia in the early 1600s. As time went on, Company officials was Robert Clive. He ledtheir power weakened. Rulers spent too British and Indian soldiers against Frenchmuch money on wars and palaces, and forts. By 1757, Clive and his army hadIndian people began to resent this waste. At pushed the French out of most of India. Thethe same time, Hindus did not like the French were left with only one fort and a fewMoguls trying to make them Muslims. Rising coastal holdings.discontent made it easy for Europeans to take During the next 100 years, Britain’s Eastover India. India Company took over much of India and Imperialism in Asia This photo shows an upper-class Indian family during the time of British rule. Troops traveling through India These native workers are shown on a plantation in Ceylon. What year did British traders arrive in India?764 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I(tl)Bridgeman Art Library, (tr)Laurie Platt Winfrey, Inc., (b)North Wind Picture Archives
  • 8. grew wealthy. It brought many European India’s government was now called. The ideas and practices to the Indian people. viceroy’s government both helped and Many Indians, however, felt that the British hurt the Indian people. were trying to change their culture. The British brought order to India. The In 1857 sepoys (SEE • POYZ), or Indian government was run well, and schools soldiers in the company’s army, rebelled were founded. In addition, the British against their British officers. The revolt introduced railroads, the telegraph, and a then spread rapidly across northern India. postal service throughout India. Britain quickly sent more soldiers to India British rule, however, brought great and put down the rebellion. Afterward, there hardships as well. Cheap British textiles were bitter feelings between the British and flooded India and destroyed the local tex- the Indians. tile industry. The British also forced many farmers to grow cotton instead of food. British Rule in India Soon after the upris- Soon India did not produce enough food ing, Britain took direct control of India to feed its people. In the 1800s, millions of from the company. A viceroy, an official Indians died from starvation. standing in for Britain’s Queen Victoria, Cause and Effect Why did arrived to head the Raj (RAHJ), as British the Indians rebel against the British? Imperialism in Southern Asia c.1900 70°E 90°E 110°E N 130°E KOREA . AN W E H East JAPAN G AF NEPAL BHUTAN S China Sea CHINA INDIA Hong Formosa Kong (Taiwan) 150°E BURMA Hanoi Macau 20°N M Bay of ek Arabian on Sea Bengal PACIFIC g R. THAILAND Manila Sea Goa FRENCH OCEAN PHILIPPINES ina INDOCHINA Ch Saigon 0 500 mi. NORTH h ut 500 km So 0 CEYLON MALAYA BRUNEIBORNEO Mercator projection SARAWAK SINGAPORE EQUATOR Su 0° ma U.K. Borneo Celebes tra INDIAN DUTCH EAST INDIES New Guinea OCEAN JavaEuropean nations had colonized much of TimorSouth and Southeast Asia by the late 1800s.1. Which two European nations controlled the KEY most territory in South and Southeast Asia? Possessions:2. Which Southeast Asian country did not British Japanese come under European rule? Dutch Portuguese AUSTRALIA 20°SFind NGS online map resources @ French United Stateswww.nationalgeographic.com/maps German
  • 9. seized control of the territories that areEurope Divides Africa today the countries of Algeria and Tunisia. European nations ruled almost all of The last territory France claimed in NorthAfrica by 1914. Africa was Morocco, which it divided withReading Focus Have you ever bought something just Spain in 1904.because everyone else had it? Read to learn why At the eastern end of North Africa,Europeans competed to take over Africa. European businesses began operating in Egypt. In 1869 they opened the Suez Canal. Africa was the last populated continent Built by Egyptian workers and paidto be colonized by Europeans. In previous for with French funds, it linked thechapters, you learned that Europeans in the Mediterranean and Red Seas. The Suez1500s built trading stations along Africa’s Canal provided a shorter water route towest coast. In the 1800s, European mission- India and East Asia. In 1875 the Britisharies and explorers finally opened up took control of the Suez Canal. AfterAfrica’s inland areas to European control. Egyptians rebelled, the British made Egypt a protectorate.The Struggle for North Africa The first By 1900, only Tripoli, today known aspart of Africa to be conquered by Europe Libya, remained free from European con-was also the closest. In the early 1800s, trol. Then, in 1911, Italy defeated theEuropeans crossed the Mediterranean and Ottoman empire in a brief war and wastook control of North Africa. French soldiers given control of Tripoli. “Standard Treaty” British colonists in Nigeria The British Royal Niger Company presented this fill-in-the-blank treaty to many African leaders. “We, the undersigned Chiefs of _____, with the view to the bettering of the condition of our country and people, do this day cede [give] to the Royal Niger Company, for ever, the whole of our territory extending from _____. . . . The said Royal Niger Company agree to pay native owners of land a reasonable amount for any portion they may require. The said Royal Niger Company bind themselves to protect the said Chiefs from the attacks of any neighboring aggressive tribes.” —Royal Niger Company, “Standard Treaty” What does the Royal Niger Company offer to the Africans in exchange for their land?766 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War IHulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS
  • 10. Imperialism in Africa c.1914 0 1,000 mi. ATLANTIC SPANISH Algiers 0 1,000 km MOROCCO OCEAN TUNISIA Mediterranean Sea Bipolar Oblique projection MOROCCO IFNI Tripoli Cairo ALGERIA RIO DE LIBYA ORO EGYPT Re dS 20N ea FREN FRENCH WEST AFRICA CH FRIC N Khartoum ERITREA FRENCH GAMBIA SOMALILAND A EQ A PORTUGUESE ANGLO- BRITISH UA W GUINEA E EGYPTIAN Addis SOMALILAND TO S SIERRA GOLD NIGERIA SUDAN Ababa INDIAN AL RI LEONE COAST ETHIOPIA TOGO CAMEROON ITALIAN OCEAN SOMALILAND LIBERIA UGANDA RIO MUNI EQUATOR Príncipe BRITISH Mogadishu 0 S`˜ao Tom´e EAST BELGIAN AFRICA Annob´on CONGO GERMAN CABINDA EAST AFRICA Zanzibar Aldabra Is. NYASALAND Comoro Is. ANGOLA NORTHERN E RHODESIA QU AR BI SC GERMAN AM SOUTHERN GA SOUTHWEST RHODESIA OZ 20S AFRICA DA M BECHUANA- KEY MABy the early 1900s, nearly all of Africa LANDwas under the control of European SWAZILAND Belgian Johannesburg Britishnations. UNION OF French1. Which two African nations remained SOUTH AFRICA BASUTOLAND German independent? Cape Town 20E Independent2. Which European 20W country controlled 0 40E 60E Italian the Suez Canal? Do you think that Portuguese control helped the country in its Spanish colonization of other areas in Africa? West and Central Africa During the 1800s, took over areas along Africa’s Atlantic coast. most of West and Central Africa also came Eventually, they moved inland. Meanwhile, under European rule. For hundreds of the only place in West Africa where non- years, Europeans had been involved in Europeans ruled was Liberia. There, African trading enslaved West Africans. By the Americans freed from slavery had founded early 1800s, however, many Europeans had the republic of Liberia in 1847. decided slavery was wrong and should be In Central Africa, European control stopped. When Britain declared the slave began when King Leopold II of Belgium trade illegal, other European nations soon decided to conquer the region. The king followed its lead. spoke often about improving the lives of Europeans then sought out West Africa’s Central Africa’s people. His main concern, gold, timber, hides, and palm oil. To control however, was making money by selling this trade, Britain, France, and Germany rubber grown on plantations in the Congo. CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 767
  • 11. In the 1600s, Dutch settlers Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS arrived on Africa’s southwest- ern coast. There they founded the port of Cape Town. The Dutch settlers became known as Afrikaners or Boers. In the early 1800s, Britain seized the Dutch territory and renamed it Cape Colony. The Boers resented British rule. So they moved inland and settled areas that they named the Orange Free State and the Transvaal. As the Boers moved into these areas, they fought African groups that were already living there. One group known as the Zulu had created a large empire in the 1800s. The Zulu often These African workers are shown on a rubber plantation in French fought with the Boers. By the Equatorial Africa. The pails are full of liquid rubber tapped from late 1800s, the Zulu were also rubber trees. Which European country was the first to conquer fighting the British, who even- territory in Central Africa? tually destroyed the Zulu Empire. Leopold ordered his soldiers to force Tensions grew between the British andAfricans to collect rubber for him. Anyone Boers when British settlers discovered goldwho resisted was shot. After missionaries and diamonds in the Transvaal. Britain’sand other Europeans protested, however, Cecil Rhodes—Cape Colony’s prime minis-the king turned over the Congo to Belgium’s ter and the owner of several gold and dia-government. The government did away with mond companies—decided to take theforced labor. Transvaal from the Boers. War erupted in Leopold’s move into the Congo spurred 1899 and ended with the Boers’defeat threeother European powers into action. Over the years later.next few years, they divided the rest of the In 1910 Britain united the Boer republics,African continent among themselves. By the Cape Colony, and one other British1914, Liberia and Ethiopia were the only colony into the Union of South Africa.independent African countries. This new country became self-governing within the British Empire. The Boers andWhat Was the Boer War? The European British ran the government, keeping outrace for the African continent led to a war in South Africa’s much larger nonwhiteSouth Africa. This conflict became known as population.the Boer War. It was fought between theBritish and the Boers. How did this war Identify What territoriesbegin? in Africa had rubber plantations?768 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 12. Pacific. In the late 1800s, Spain still ruled theThe War of 1898 Caribbean islands of Cuba (KYOO • buh) and The United States became an imperial Puerto Rico. However, in 1895 Cubanation after defeating Spain and taking control of rebelled against Spain.the Philippines and Puerto Rico. American newspapers printed vividReading Focus Did you know Puerto Rico is part of stories of killing and cruelty in Cuba. As athe United States? Read to learn how the United States result, U.S. president William McKinleybuilt its early empire. sent the U.S. battleship Maine to protect Americans who lived and worked there. In the late 1800s, the United States joined While anchored in the harbor of Havana,European powers in the race for colonies. By Cuba’s capital, the ship exploded.that time, the United States had become an American newspapers blamed Spainindustrial nation. As its economic power and pressured the president to take action.rose, many Americans in business and gov- In April 1898, McKinley asked Congressernment came to believe that their country to declare war. Four months later, theneeded raw materials and new markets United States had won the war. Spain lostoverseas to keep the economy growing. much of its remaining empire. Cuba became a republic under American protec-America Defeats Spain In its search for tion. Puerto Rico and the Pacific islands ofmarkets and raw materials, the United States Guam and the Philippines (FIH • luh • PEENZ)looked to Latin America and islands in the became American territories. Panama CanalThe Panama Canal, completed in1914, enables ships to pass fromthe Atlantic to the Pacific Oceanwithout traveling all the wayaround South America. The canalis made up of three main locks.These locks raise and lower shipsfrom oceans to lakes and backagain. The Gatun Lock, thelargest in the canal, is picturedhere. It contains three gates thathold ships in the water before 60Nthey are raised or lowered to the 120W 90W 60W 30W New York Citynext gate. Going through the San Francisco ATLANTIC 0Gatun Lock, a ship will be raised OCEAN 30Nor lowered by over 85 feet. 12,600Passage through the 50 mile miles 4,900long canal takes 8 days! miles EQUATOR PanamaHow did the building of the canal PACIFIC Canal Naffect trade in North and South OCEAN W EAmerica? 0 1,000 mi. S 0 1,000 km 30S Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Strait of Magellan
  • 13. The Philippines, however, rejected coasts. The trip around South America tookAmerican rule. Led by Emilio Aguinaldo a long time. It also slowed down trade(ah • MEEL • yoh AH • gee • NAHL • doh), the between the coasts. As a result, U.S. presi-Filipinos rebelled against the U.S. and dent Theodore Roosevelt decided to build aattacked American troops. By 1903, the canal across Panama (PA • nuh • MAH) to con-Americans had crushed their uprising. nect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. At that In 1898 Hawaii also came under time, Panama was part of the country ofAmerican control. American settlers in Colombia.Hawaii had overthrown the Hawaiian queen Because Colombia was unwilling toLiliuokalani (lih • LEE • uh • woh • kuh • LAH • nee) give up its land, in 1903 Americans helpedin 1893. However, it was not until after the Panamanians rebel against Colombia. AfterWar of 1898 that Congress approved winning independence, Panama signed aAmerican control of Hawaii. treaty allowing the United States to build the canal. The Panama Canal opened inImperialism in Latin America The War of 1914, greatly shortening the route between1898 had shown how important it was for the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.the United States to be able to move its Analyze How did control ofnavy quickly between the east and west the Philippines help the U.S. economy? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? 1. Besides economics, what rea- 5. Compare and ContrastReading Summary sons did European countries How did British rule both helpReview the have for building empires? and hurt India?• Following the Industrial 2. What was the Boer War and 6. Analyze Describe the actions Revolution, European nations why was it fought? taken by the United States in began building empires in Asia Panama in the early 1900s. Critical Thinking Why was the United States and Africa. 3. Summarizing Information interested in Panama?• The East India Company built Draw a diagram like the one 7. Descriptive Writing Imagine Britain’s empire in India. below. Fill in the ovals with the you are a native of India in the names of areas under British late 1800s. Write a letter to a• Nearly all of Africa came under control in the 1800s. friend describing how you feel foreign rule as the Europeans about British rule. sought resources. British 8. Prioritizing Look Possessions• After the War of 1898, the back on the rise of imperialism. United States took control of Determine what the most Puerto Rico, Guam, the 4. Explain Why were European important reasons were for Philippines, and Hawaii. nations interested in the coun- countries to take control of tries of Southeast Asia? other nations.770 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 14. Nationalism in China and JapanWhat’s the Connection? Meeting People European imperialism changed Sun Yat-sen (SUN YAHT • SEHN)the shape of the world in the late Yuan Shigai (yu • AHN SHIHR • KY)1800s. However, Chinese nation- Oda Nobunagaalism and Japanese imperialism also (ohd • ah noh • bun • ah • gah)made their mark on global affairs. Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh • kug • ah • wah ee • eh • yahs • u) Matthew PerryFocusing on the• The arrival of Europeans greatly Mutsuhito (MOOT • suh • HEE • toh) changed Chinese society. (page 772) Building Your Vocabulary• Sun Yat-sen introduced ideas that extraterritoriality (EHK • struh • TEHR • helped cause the collapse of the Qing uh • TOHR • ee • A • luh • tee) dynasty. (page 774) daimyo (DY • mee • OH)• After Americans visited Japan, the Japanese reorganized their society Reading Strategy and economy and began building an Summarizing Information Use a empire. (page 777) chart like the one below to summarize the work of three Asian leaders.Locating Places Leader AccomplishmentsHong Kong (HAHNG KAHNG)Edo (EH • doh)Port Arthur 1850 1875 1900 1842 1868 1900 1905 The Opium Meiji era Boxer Rebellion Japan Beijing Tokyo War ends begins in erupts in China defeats (Edo) Japan Russia Shanghai Hong Kong CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 771
  • 15. Bridgeman/Art Resource, NY The British then tried to get the ChineseChina and the West to buy more cotton from India. When that The arrival of Europeans greatly failed, the British started selling opium tochanged Chinese society. the Chinese. Opium is an addictive drug, soReading Focus Have you ever played sports where demand shot up in southern China. Silvereveryone on the team gets a chance to play? Read to learn began flowing into, rather than out of,how the Open Door policy applied the same idea to China. British pockets. The Chinese emperor warned the During the Age of Imperialism, China British to stop trading opium. When thewas ruled by the Qing dynasty. The Qing British refused, war broke out in 1839.came to power in 1644. Qin rulers were Chinese troops surrounded the port atdescended from the Manchus, warriors Guangzhou. They demanded that traderswho lived to the northeast of China. The surrender their opium. British warshipsQing dynasty ruled China until 1911. responded by destroying forts on China’s Under Qing rule, the Chinese followed coasts and rivers. The Chinese emperortheir traditional way of life until the 1800s. surrendered, and the Opium War endedThen came the Industrial Revolution in in 1842.Europe. European businesses and merchants After the war, the Chinese agreed towanted to increase their trade with China. open five ports to British ships, limit taxes on British goods, and pay for the costs ofWhat Was the Opium War? By 1800, the the war. They also gave the British theChinese already were trading with many island of Hong Kong (HAHNG KAHNG),Europeans, including the British. Chinese which in time became one of the world’sdemand for British goods, however, was busiest ports. Europeans who lived inlow. On the other hand, British demand for China were subject to their own laws butChinese goods, especially tea, was high. As a not Chinese laws. This legal practice isresult, the British had to trade more valuable called extraterritoriality (EHK • struh • TEHR •goods, such as silver, for Chinese products. uh • TOHR • ee • A • luh • tee). Britain’s navy was important to the spread of British power around the world. Here a British warship attacks Chinese naval forces. What did the British gain by their victory in the Opium War?
  • 16. Spheres of Influence in China 1911 60E 0 600 mi. SIBERIA 0 600 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Amu rR N 50N . W RUSSIA E S MANCHURIA MONGOLIA Vladivostok Sea of Japan JAPAN (East Sea)AFGHANISTAN Beijing KOREA Port Arthur Tokyo (Edo) He g Weihai 30 N an Qingdao (U.K.) Hu Yellow Sea CHINA Nanjing INDIA TIBET g Wuhan Shanghai (U.K.) ia n East a ng J China PACIFIC Ch Sea OCEAN 140E GUANGDONG Guangzhou Taiping TAIWAN BURMA Macao (Port.) Hong Kong (U.K.) (U.K.) Zhanjiang KEYIn the late 1800s, many European PHILIPPINES Qing Empire, 1911 THAILAND (U.S.)countries established spheres of South Spheres of influence: FRENCH Chinainfluence in China. INDOCHINA Sea 10N British1. Which country had the largest French sphere of influence in China? German2. Which country do you think had the Italian best-placed sphere of influence in Japanese China? Explain. Russian China Tries to Reform During the 1850s, captured many cities and controlled much Chinese peasants were subject to high of southern China. Eventually, Europeans taxes and suffered from harsh weather. helped the Chinese government destroy the Crops failed, and many Chinese starved to rebel army. About 20 million people lost death. As a result, peasant unrest spread their lives in the Tai Ping Rebellion. across China. Reform-minded Chinese officials con- In 1851 a religious leader named Hong vinced the emperor that Western technology Xiuquan (HAHNG ZHOO • GWAHN) organ- could help stop uprisings and foreign ized a huge rebellion. He convinced many takeovers. As a result, the Chinese built rail- Chinese peasants that the time had come to roads, weapons factories, and shipyards. overthrow the emperor and build a Despite these changes, Europeans continued “Heavenly Kingdom” in China where life to chip away at the emperor’s power. would be much better. The words Tai Ping mean “Heavenly Kingdom,” so this rebel- European Spheres of Influence After the lion became known as the Tai Ping Tai Ping Rebellion, powerful leaders arose in Rebellion. It lasted for 13 years. The rebels China’s heartland. They sold the right to CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 773
  • 17. trade, build, and mine in their area toEuropean nations. In this way, different parts The Revolution of 1911of China became spheres of influence under Sun Yat-sen introduced ideas thatthe control of Russia, Britain, France, and helped cause the collapse of the Qing dynasty.Germany. Even Japan, now a rising power, Reading Focus If you could, how would you changetook part of China—the offshore island of the government? Read to find out what Chinese rebelsTaiwan. did when they had the chance to make changes. The United States did not claim a sphereof influence in China. Instead, it called for an Chinese leaders tried to hold on to theirOpen Door policy under which China was power by making more changes. For exam-open to trade with all countries. In 1899 the ple, they replaced China’s civil service exam-other nations agreed to this policy. ination system with a European-style Many Chinese hated the foreigners in educational system. They also set uptheir country and began to organize secret regional assemblies and a national assembly.societies to drive them out. Some members of Middle-class Chinese considered theseChina’s government, including the Empress changes to be too little too late. They grewTzu Hsi (TSOO SHEE), supported these angry when they learned that the assem-secret societies. Europeans and Americans blies could not pass laws but only givecalled them Boxers, because the name of their advice to the emperor. Furthermore, peas-secret society meant “righteous and harmo- ants, artisans, and miners continued tonious fists.” resent the high taxes the government had In 1900 the Boxers attacked foreigners imposed to pay its debts to foreign nations.and Chinese Christians in Beijing. Britain, In 1905 a young medical doctor namedFrance, Germany, Russia, Japan, and the U.S. Sun Yat-sen (SUN YAHT • SEHN) foundedsent in troops and crushed the Boxer a movement of revolutionaries that laterRebellion. became known as the Nationalist Party. Its Describe What did Great members believed the Qing dynasty couldBritain gain from winning the Opium War? no longer rule the country. Unless China was united under a strong govern- ment, it would be at the mercy of other countries. Sun developed a three-stage plan to change China: (1) take over the government, (2) prepare the people for self-rule, and (3) establish a constitution and a democracy. In 1911 Sun’s followers staged an uprising, and the Qing dynasty fell. Sun’s Nationalists did not have the military or political backing to set up a government, however. As a result, Members of the secret society known as the Boxers are they turned to the head of the rounded up after the failed rebellion. Why did the Boxer Chinese army, General Yuan Shigai Rebellion fail? (yu • AHN SHIHR • KY).774 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War IBettmann/CORBIS
  • 18. Hong Kong Modern Hong Kong Hong Kong is made up of one large island,235 small rocky islands, a peninsula, and somemountains on the mainland. When China gavethe large island to Britain in 1842, theBritish named it Hong Kong, which means“fragrant harbor.” At that time, only a fewfarmers and fishermen lived on the island.The British soon built it into a majortrading center. Hong Kong today is a center of finance, trade, and manufacturing. It is home to nearly 7 million people. In 1997 Britain returned Hong Kong to China. China agreed that Hong Kong could trade freely with the world and have a separate government for 50 more years. What effect did British colonization have on Hong Hong Kong waterfront, 1879 Kong’s economy? General Yuan agreed to serve as presi- provinces and fought one another. Theirdent of a new Chinese republic. However, soldiers caused widespread destruction.Yuan understood little about democracy Sun Yat-sen returned to China in 1917and freedom. He ruled in a traditional and worked to rebuild the Nationalist Party.way and refused to listen to those who In the early 1920s, he decided to create acalled for democracy. When Yuan put an Nationalist army with the help of Chiangend to the new parliament, the Nationalist Kai-shek, a young Chinese officer. Sun diedParty launched a revolt. The rebellion in 1925, but three years later Chiang led thefailed, and Sun Yat-sen fled to Japan. army to victory and reunited China under a Yuan died in 1916. One of his officers Nationalist government.succeeded him, but the central govern-ment started to fall apart. Warlords, or Identify What was Sunlocal military leaders, seized power in the Yat-sen’s three-stage plan to change China? CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 775 (l)Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS, (r)Derek M. Allan; Travel Ink/CORBIS
  • 19. SUN 925 AT-SEN –1 Y 1866 Sun Yat-sen was born in 1866 to a e farming family from the small Chines ng village known as Cuiheng. From a you what age, he wanted a life different from to be his society offered. He did not want fields a farmer, although he did help in the did he and raised chickens and ducks. Nor ice. He want to enter the Chinese civil serv to begged his parents to let him travel other lands with his older brothe r, Sun Sun Yat-sen Mei. At first they refused because of his young they age, but once Sun Yat-sen turned 12, agreed to let him go to Honolulu, Haw aii. There“[N]ationalism does not mean he attended an Anglican boys’ school , where he discriminating against people was introduced to Christianity. Because his brother became a wealthy and of different nationality.” Yat-sen —Sun Yat-sen respected businessman in Hawaii, Sun did most did not have to become a laborer, as ead, Sun Yat-sen concentrated on his other Chi nese who migrated to the West. Inst ge and European and American studies. He studied the English langua that China needed a revolution. political ideas. He became convinced ounced that he wanted to become He attended Oahu College and ann o sent him back to China. a Christian. This upset his brother, wh friends purposely damaged In China, Sun Yat-sen and some of his , a patron god of Cuiheng. His a wooden statue of the Northern God ily and the villagers. He was sent rebellious behavior shocked his fam dical degree and became to Hong Kong, where he earned a me involved in politics. pare him How did Sun Yat-sen’s education pre research to for his role as a Chinese leader? Do cation find how our current president’s edu . prepared him for his leadership role Pagoda at the tomb of Sun Yat-sen(t)Keystone, Paris/Sygma, (b)Bettmann/CORBIS
  • 20. The Rise of Imperial JapanCourtesy of the United States Naval Academy Museum After Americans visited Japan, the Japanese reorganized their society and economy and began building an empire. Reading Focus Have you ever watched what some- one else did and then changed how you did things to match what they did? Read to learn how the Japanese changed their society to be more like Europeans and Americans. Like China, Japan felt pressures from Europe and the United States. Previously you learned that Japan was in chaos at the end of the 1400s. The shogun, or the coun- try’s military ruler, no longer controlled the country. Daimyo (DY • mee • oh), or heads of This Japanese painting shows Commodore noble families, ruled their own lands and Perry’s arrival in Edo Bay in 1853. Before Perry waged war on their neighbors. arrived in Japan, who were the only Europeans During the 1500s, three powerful leaders allowed to trade there? restored strong central government to Japan. banned Christian activities, expelled all The first was Oda Nobunaga (ohd • ah noh • missionaries, and persecuted Japanese bun • ah • gah). He seized Kyoto, the capital, Christians. European merchants were the and placed the shogun under his control. next to go. Ieyasu allowed only the Dutch to Then, he spread his rule over Japan’s central remain in Japan at the port of Nagasaki. plains. After Nobunaga, another strong Tokugawa rulers oversaw major military leader named Toyotomi Hideyoshi changes in Japan. The samurai gradually (toh • yoh • toh • mee hee • dee • yoh • shee) ruled ceased to be a warrior class. Many became Japan. Hideyoshi was, in turn, followed by managers on the lands of the daimyo. Trade the powerful daimyo Tokugawa Ieyasu (toh • and industry spread, especially in cities kug • ah • wah ee • eh • yahs • u), who became such as Edo (known today as Tokyo), shogun in 1603. Ieyasu’s descendants Kyoto, and Osaka. The class system became remained in power until 1868. The Tokugawa rigid. It excluded eta, or outcasts, who family’s long rule was known as the “Great worked in trades thought to be impure, Peace.” such as killing animals and tanning hides. Europeans in Japan Meanwhile, Europeans Laws stated where the eta lived, how they were starting to trade with Japan. In fact, dressed, and even how they wore their hair. Hideyoshi and Ieyasu used European Women also led very restricted lives. firearms to help unify Japan. Jesuit mission- aries arrived soon after the traders and con- Perry Arrives in Japan In 1853 Commodore verted thousands of Japanese to Christianity Matthew Perry and four American warships by the late 1500s. arrived in Edo Bay (now Tokyo Bay). Perry The Jesuits angered Hideyoshi by presented a letter from U.S. president Millard destroying Japanese shrines. As a result, he Fillmore to the shogun. The letter invited CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 777
  • 21. The Japanese Empire 0 600 mi. The Meiji Restoration At the time the Sakhalin N 0 600 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection W shogun was overthrown, Emperor E S Mutsuhito (MOOT • suh • HEE • toh) was RUSSIA 50N South Sakhalin known as the Meiji, or “Enlightened,” (Karafuto) KURIL emperor. Thus, the late 1800s and early ISLANDS MANCHURIA 1900s is known in Japan as the Meiji era. Just as shoguns controlled earlier emper- Vladivostok ors, Japan’s new ruling samurai now con- Sea of trolled Mutsuhito. Japan (East Sea) The Meiji leaders were determined to JAPAN Beijing make Japan a great power able to stand up KOREA Kyoto Tokyo Port (Edo) to the Europeans and Americans. First, ait Arthur CHINA they did away with the old social system. Str Shikoku a Yellow him Sea 30N The daimyo lost much of their land, power, us Ts Nagasaki KEY Shanghai and privileges. Then, in 1889, Japanese Japanese Empire, 1870 East PACIFIC 140E leaders wrote a new constitution to set up China OCEAN Japanese Sea a constitutional monarchy. The people RYUKYU ISLANDS acquisitions by 1910 TAIWAN elected lawmakers to the legislature. Japanese Power, however, was held by the spheres of Meiji leaders, who acted on behalf influence, 1918 of the emperor. They chose the In the late 1800s, Japan began to South China build an empire in Asia. prime minister and his advisers. Sea 1. What areas had Japan acquired by Japan’s new government set up 120E 1910? 2. How might Japan’s geography a modern army and navy. All have influenced the nation to Japanese men were expected to expand? serve for a certain amount of time in the armed forces. Meiji leaders also made major changes in Japan’sJapan to have trade and diplomatic relations society. They improved roads and openedwith the United States. public schools. Education was required for Within six months, Perry and an even all, including women.larger fleet returned to Japan for an answer Above all, the Meiji pushed for Japan toto the president’s letter. Fearing an industrialize. They helped build new facto-American attack, the Japanese agreed to ries and gave certain privileges to the richopen ports to U.S. trade and to exchange and powerful families who ran them. Japan’sambassadors. Japan soon made similar new industrial society also had a dark sideagreements with European nations. though. Mill workers often worked 20-hour Many Japanese were unhappy with the days, and miners were shot when they refused to work in extreme heat.treaties and considered them unfair. Theyfeared the treaties would keep Japan weak.In 1868 a group of samurai attacked the Japan Builds an Empire As they watchedshogun’s palace in Kyoto and took power European nations and the United States risein the emperor’s name. in power and wealth, Japanese leaders came778 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 22. to believe a nation needed an empire to beCulver Pictures strong. Colonies would supply Japan with raw materials, cheap labor, and markets for manufactured goods. As the first step toward building an empire, in 1876 the Japanese navy forced Korea to open its ports to Japanese trade. The Chinese had controlled Korea for a long time and resented Japan’s presence there. In 1894 China and Japan went to war. The Japan’s modern naval fleet easily defeated Japanese destroyed China’s fleet and cap- Russia’s forces. Why did Japan come into tured the Manchurian city of Port Arthur. In conflict with Russia? the peace treaty that followed, China agreed to give Taiwan to Japan and independence to Meanwhile, Russia sent its main fleet all Korea. the way around the world to attack Japan. Russia also wanted to trade with Korea. When it arrived, Japan’s new modern navy As a result, Japan and Russia competed for quickly sank the Russian ships. In 1905 markets there. In 1904 Japan attacked a Russia agreed to give up Port Arthur and Russian naval base at Port Arthur, which part of Sakhalin (SA • kuh • LEEN), an island Russia had seized from China in 1898. The north of Japan. The whole world now recog- Japanese army then marched into nized Japan as a major power. Manchuria. Russian troops in the area tried Explain Why did the samu- to stop them but were driven back. rai attack and replace the shogun? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn? Reading Summary 1. What were the causes of the Boxer Rebellion? 4. Cause and Effect How did trade between Britain and Review the China lead to the Opium War? 2. Why did Admiral Perry sail to • In the 1800s, European powers Japan? What was the result of 5. Compare and Contrast created spheres of influence and his mission? What was the Open Door pol- controlled trade within China. icy, and how was it different Critical Thinking • A revolution overthrew the Qing from European policies? dynasty in 1911 but failed to 3. Sequencing Information Draw a time line like the one 6. Summarize Describe Japan’s create a democratic government rise to power in the in the late for China. below. Fill in dates and events related to changes in China in 1800s and early 1900s. • The Meiji Restoration changed the 1800s and 1900s. 7. Persuasive Writing Write an Japan’s society and economy editorial for a newspaper in and made Japan into a major China presenting your views on world power. 1842 1916 China’s treatment by the European powers. CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 779
  • 23. World War I Begins What’s the Connection? Meeting People You have seen how imperialism Franz Ferdinand contributed to tensions among (FRANZ FUHR • duhn • AND) Europeans. Eventually, these tensions Woodrow Wilson led to a worldwide conflict. Building Your Vocabulary militarism Focusing on the (MIH • luh • tuh • RIH • zuhm) • Alliances, militarism, conscription (kuhn • SKRIHP • shuhn) and nationalism led to a crisis in entente (ahn • TAHNT) Europe. (page 781) mobilization • The assassination of Archduke Franz (MOH • buh • luh • ZAY • shuhn) Ferdinand sparked World War I. rationing (page 784) propaganda (PRAH • puh • GAN • duh) • Americans supported the Allies blockade because of pro-British feelings and business links. (page 786) Reading Strategy Contrasting Use a Venn diagram like the one below to show the major Locating Places countries that made up the Allies and Balkans (BAWL • kuhnz) the Central Powers. Serbia (SUHR • bee • uh) WWI Central Allies Alliances Powers 1910 1915 1920 BRITAIN 1908 1914 1915 1917 London GERMANY RUSSIA Austria-Hungary World War I German sub- U.S. enters Paris Berlin takes over begins marine sinks World War I FRANCE AUSTRIA- Bosnia the Lusitania HUNGARY Rome780 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 24. much of the tension in Europe. As you read The Causes of World War I in earlier chapters, nationalism led to the Alliances, militarism, and nationalism birth of new nations, such as Italy and led to a crisis in Europe. Germany. The actions of Germany soon Reading Focus Do you cheer for the American team challenged the position of older nations during the Olympics and feel proud of your nation? such as Britain and France. At the same Read to learn how national pride and feelings of inde- time, the spread of nationalism threatened pendence led Europe to the brink of war. to break apart other countries in Europe. Some groups of people, such as those in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, demanded After Napoleon was defeated, it would independent nations of their own. be almost 100 years before another major war erupted in Europe involving all the coun- The Race for Empires Tensions in Europe tries. In the early 1900s, however, tension also grew out of the desire of nations to was growing among the European powers. enlarge their empires. As you read earlier, European nations competed for colonies in Nationalism Nationalism, a feeling of Africa, Asia, and other parts of the world. intense loyalty to one’s country, caused These not only created new markets and Europe Before World War I 1914 NORWAY North SWEDEN Moscow 20°W a UNITED Sea 50°E Se 50 DENMARK tic °N KINGDOM l Ba RUSSIA London NETH. Berlin ATLANTIC 0 OCEAN 400 mi. BELG. GERMANY LUX. N Paris 0 400 km E Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection Alsace & Lorraine W Budapest S FRANCE SWITZ. Vienna AUSTRIA- HUNGARY ITALY AL 40° N ROMANIA Black Sea UG SER Madrid Sarajevo RT BULGARIA BIA Rome MONTE- Constantinople PO SPAIN NEGRO ALBANIA Mediterranean Sea OTTOMAN EMPIRE GREECE 10°W 0° 10°E AFRICA 20°E 30°E 40°ETensions in the part of southeast Europe knownas the Balkans helped lead to World War I. CYPRUS (U.K.)1. The area of Alsace and Lorraine was on the border of which countries?2. Germany was a relatively new nation in the early 1900s. About how far across was Germany at its widest point? CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 781
  • 25. Prior to World War I, Germany built up its navy, including these battleships anchored in the har- bor at Kiel, Germany. Which country had the The competition for colonies led to a focus on world’s largest and strongest navy around 1900? military strength. This photo shows British troops on parade. Which European countries used conscription to build large armies? serve in the military for a certain period of time. In the United States, people refer tosupplied raw materials, they also added to conscription as “the draft.”a nation’s prestige, or sense of greatness. Britain had the world’s largest and Britain and France already possessed strongest navy. In the early 1900s, Germanylarge overseas empires and wanted to began to build up its navy. The British sawexpand them even more. Germany, Italy, this action as a threat and began to buildand Russia also wanted to increase their even more warships. A bitter rivalry soonholdings. Because few areas were left to grew between Britain and Germany.colonize, expansion by one nation oftenbrought it into conflict with another. Forming Alliances As militarism grew, nations began to make alliances, or defenseMilitary Buildup As nations competed for agreements to help each other if war breakscolonies, they strengthened their armies out. By 1914 two major alliances had beenand navies to protect their interests. If one formed. Germany, Austria-Hungary, andnation increased its military might, its Italy banded together in the Triple Alliance.rivals felt threatened and built up their own Britain, France, and Russia joined in themilitary in response. As a result of these Triple Entente. An entente (ahn • TAHNT) isbuildups, Europeans were caught up in a an understanding among nations.spirit of militarism (MIH • luh • tuh • RIH • zuhm). The alliances helped to keep peace byThis term refers to a fascination with war creating a balance of power. A balance ofand the military. power keeps any one country from becom- In this atmosphere of militarism, ing too strong. Yet Europe’s alliances actu-Germany, France, and Russia developed ally created a great danger. An attack on onehuge armies. They used conscription to fill nation was all that was needed to trigger atheir armies with soldiers. Conscription war involving many countries. Europe was(kuhn • SKRIHP • shuhn) requires citizens to like a barrel of gunpowder. Only a spark782 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I(l)Bettmann/CORBIS, (r)CORBIS
  • 26. was needed to set it off. It seemed likely saw their chance to win back land andthat the spark would be lit in Europe’s attacked Bulgaria. The Treaty of BucharestBalkan Peninsula. ended the fighting, but Europeans expected the Balkan region to go to war again soon.The Balkan Crises In the early 1900s, the Identify What was the dan-Balkan Peninsula in southeastern Europe ger created by forming alliances?was a hotbed of nationalist rivalries. Forhundreds of years, the Ottoman and theAustro-Hungarian Empires had ruled theBalkans (BAWL • kuhnz). As nationalismspread, groups within these empiresdemanded independence. Among these nationalist groups werethe South Slavs. They included the Serbs,Bosnians, Croats, and Slovenes. The Serbswere the first to win their freedom. They Assassination of anformed a state called Serbia (SUHR • bee • uh) Archduke June 28, 1914and believed their mission was to unite the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-South Slavs. Hungary visited Sarajevo in June of The Russians, who were Slavs as well, 1914 with his wife Sophie. Sarajevobacked Serbia. Austria-Hungary, fearing was a city in the Austro-Hungarianthe South Slavs in their empire would want Empire. Some people who lived in thatto break away, tried to limit Serbia’s part of the empire wanted to be freegrowth. In 1908 Austria-Hungary took over from Austria-Hungary. Those peopleSerbia’s neighbor, Bosnia, from the were especially angry because theOttomans. The Serbs were furious. They archduke and his wife arrived on thewanted Bosnia to be part of their country. anniversary of a battle in which Serbia With Russian support, the Serbs pre- lost its independence. A terroristpared for war. Then Emperor William II of organization made plans to kill theGermany demanded that Russia accept archduke and his wife during theirAustria-Hungary’s takeover of Bosnia or visit. On June 28, a terrorist namedface war with Germany. Russia backed Gavrilo Princip shot them while theydown. However, it was determined not to were riding in a motorcade. A monthbe humiliated by Germany again. later, Austria-Hungary declared war on In 1912 the Balkan League—Bulgaria, Serbia. Each nation received help fromGreece, Montenegro, and Serbia—declared its allies. The result was World War I.war on the Ottoman empire. As a result,the Turks lost nearly all their European ter- Archduke Ferdinand and his wife inritory. However, the Balkan League soon their car infell apart. Sarajevo Greeks and Serbs demanded land thatBulgaria had won in the war, so Bulgariaattacked the Greeks and Serbs. The Turks Bettmann/CORBIS
  • 27. It declared war on Serbia. Russia, Serbia’sThe War Begins ally, began mobilization ( MOH • buh • luh • The assassination of Archduke Franz ZAY • shuhn) , or assembly and movementFerdinand sparked World War I. of troops. By mobilizing, Russia showedReading Focus Remember how the terrorist attack that it was ready to go to war to protecton 9/11 led to a war? The same thing happened in 1914. Serbia. Germany then showed its supportA single terrorist helped set off World War I. of Austria-Hungary by declaring war on Russia. Shortly after, France entered the war on the side of Russia. Germany’s The spark that finally set off a major war plan for attacking France requiredwas lit in Sarajevo (SAR • uh • YAY • voh), a German troops to go through Belgium.small town in Bosnia. There, in June 1914, a Britain had promised to help Belgiumman named Gavrilo Princip shot and killed stay neutral, so when Germany invadedArchduke Franz Ferdinand (FRANZ FUHR • Belgium, Britain declared war onduhn • AND), heir to the throne of Austria- Germany too.Hungary. Princip was a member of a secret When the war broke out in 1914, France,nationalist group called the Black Hand. Russia, and Great Britain became known asThis group wanted the Bosnian Serbs, ruled the Allies. Later, in 1915, Italy joined them.by Austria-Hungary, to be ruled by Serbia. Austria-Hungary, Germany, the Ottoman Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian empire, and Bulgaria were known as thegovernment for the archduke’s death. Central Powers. Trenches of World War I The more powerful, longer-range weapons of World War I led to the development of complex systems of trenches. Frontline troops lived in the trenches between attacks. Soldiers stationed in forward listening posts gave advance warning of enemy offensives. Attacks were made in “no-man’s land”: the open ground between the trenches. Shell craters and barbed wire slowed down attackers, leading to their slaughter by machine guns and artillery. Communications trenches allowed reserves to be brought up to the front lines safely. How did the trenches help protect soldiers during battle? Communications Trench Forward Listening Post Communications Trench Forward Listening Post No Man’s Land and Barbed Wire No Man’s Land and Barbed Wire Front-line Front-line784 Dugout
  • 28. No Quick Victory Much of the fighting in more powerful weapons to help them breakWorld War I took place on the Western through enemy lines. Machine guns firedFront, the battle zone between France and bullets one after the other at a rapid speed.Germany. There, the French and the British Huge artillery guns fired shells more thanstopped the German advance in September 75 miles (120 km). Poison gases were used1914. However, the battle line barely moved for the first time, and tanks andfor three years. flamethrowers were introduced. Newly Troops on both sides dug themselves into developed submarines attacked ships atthe ground in trenches protected by barbed sea, while early versions of airplanes bat-wire. This kind of fighting is called trench tled in the sky.warfare. To get at the enemy, soldiers on World War I was also the first war ineach side had to climb out of trenches and which civilians, or people who are not sol-cross open land while machine guns and diers, were important to winning the war. Asartillery—modern versions of cannons— the war dragged on, it became a total war.fired at them. In major battles, several hun- This means governments made use of alldred thousand soldiers were killed or their resources and people. Total warwounded. affected the lives of all citizens, not just soldiers.A New Kind of War World War I, also Supplies had to be made and bought forcalled the Great War, was different from millions of soldiers. To do this, governmentsany earlier war. Both sides developed new, decided what civilians could buy and sell. Soldiers in trenches during a battle in World War I Artillery Machine Gun Bunker Headquarters Dugout 785 Imperial War Museum
  • 29. They used rationing, or a system of limiting the amount of foods and materials in use. America Enters the War They controlled trade and took over indus- Americans supported the Allies tries and railroads. because of pro-British feelings and business links. Total war also led to government control Reading Focus Have you ever had to choose sides in of public opinion. Wartime governments an argument? How do you decide who to support? Read used propaganda (PRAH • puh • GAN • duh), or to learn why America chose sides in World War I. biased government-controlled information, to shape what people thought about the When World War I began, U.S. president war. The government also controlled what Woodrow Wilson declared that the United was printed in newspapers and sometimes States was not supporting either side. “We even stopped their publication. must be impartial [not involved] in thought Describe Why did so many as well as in action.” Despite the president’s soldiers die in World War I? plea, many Americans took sides. World War I 1914 –1918 20°W 60°N Petrograd NORWAY (St. Petersburg) SWEDEN N4 Lusitania sunk 1 Tannenberg May 7, 1915 DENMARK Aug. 1914 E a UNITED W Se North KINGDOM Sea Ba l ti c S RUSSIA x London NETH. Berlin 0 500 mi. 5 Battle of the Somme July–Nov. 1916 BELG. GERMANY LUX. 0 500 km Paris Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection 7 Battle of the ArgonneATLANTIC 2 Battle of Sept.–Nov. 1918 Ca OCEAN the Marne sp Vienna Budapest Sept. 1914 FRANCE SWITZ. i an AUSTRIA-HUNGARY Se 6 Caporetto aPORTUGAL Oct.–Dec. 1917 Ad Sarajevo ROMANIA Black Sea 40° ria N SPAIN ITALY SERBIA ti c Se MONTE- BULGARIA a NEGRO Constantinople Rome ALBANIA 3 Gallipoli OTTOMAN Apr. 1915– EMPIRE SPANISH Mediterranean Sea GREECE Jan. 1916 40°E MOROCCO ALGERIA MOROCCO TUNISIA KEY Allied Powers Allied offensives Fighting in World War I occurred from France Central Powers Central Powers offensives to Russia to the Middle East. 0° LIBYA 20°E Neutral nations Allied victory 1. Which side was victorious at the Battle of German unrestricted Gallipoli? submarine warfare zone Central Powers victory 2. Which countries remained neutral in World War I?
  • 30. Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.comSubmarine Warfare Many of Wilson’s and click on Chapter 20—Student Web Activity to learn more about World War I.advisers backed Britain. They believed thatan Allied victory was the only way to keepa balance of power in the world. Americanloans to Germany were limited. In contrast, Germans began using the world’s firstAmerican loans to the Allies skyrocketed. oceangoing submarines. The GermansBy 1917, the Allies owed American banks called them U-boats. In February 1915, themore than $2 billion. Germans warned that U-boats would sink In addition to loans, the Allies received any ship sailing the waters around Britain.food, equipment, and other supplies from Despite the warning, the British passen-the United States. The British imposed a ger liner Lusitania entered the war zone.blockade on Germany. That is, they used A German submarine fired on the ship,their warships to stop goods from leaving killing nearly 1,200 passengers—includingor entering German ports. To fight back, the 128 Americans. Many Americans were The Western Front 0 50 mi. 4°E World War I 0 50 km Albers Conic Equal-Area projection NETHERLANDS 52°N Military Deaths* 98% N Ypres W Oct.–Nov. 1914 E Apr.–May 1915 Italy British Empire France Rhin 650,000 908,400 1,385,000 S July 1917 Russia ne l Antwerp e R. Romania 1,700,000 an Sept. 1914 335,700 Ch Neuve sh United Chapelle gli States Allies Mar. 1915 BELGIUM En107,000 GERMANYOthers So m Somme74,200 me Central Powers Somme R. Offensive July–Nov. 1916 1918 Bulgaria LUX. 87,500 Se in e Aisne Offensive #C20-36A R. 1918 Ottoman Belleau Wood Empire Austria- Germany June 1918 Argonne Forest 325,000 Hungary 1,773,000 Sept.–Nov. 1918 1,200,000 Paris* Figures are approximate FRANCE Battle of Chˆateau–Thierry the Marne May 1918 Sept. 1914 48°N KEY Allied Powers On the Western Front, trench Central Powers warfare meant that the battle lines Neutral nations moved relatively little over the Allied victory course of the war. Central Powers 8°E 1. Which of the battles shown was victory fought closest to Paris? Allied offensives 2. Based on the map, which side Central Powers offensives experienced the most success Farthest advance of Central Powers early in the war? Late in the war? Line of trench warfare, 1915–1917 787
  • 31. Bettmann/CORBIS Germany if war broke out between Germany and the United States. In return, Mexico would regain “lost territory in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona” after the war. The British intercepted the Zimmermann telegram and gave it to American newspapers. Outraged Americans American soldiers helped turn the tide of the began demanding war with Germany. war against Germany. Why did the United In February, German submarines States decide to enter World War I? began sinking ships again without warn-outraged, but the U-boats kept sinking ing. German leaders knew the attacksships. By 1916, however, German leaders might draw the United States into the war.had grown worried that the United States However, they did not believe thatmight enter the war. They promised to give Americans could mobilize quickly enoughships warning before sinking them, so peo- to save the Allies. Between February 3 andple could get off safely. March 21, U-boats sank six American mer- chant ships without warning. On April 6,United States Declares War In January 1917, President Wilson asked Congress to1917, a German official named Arthur declare war on Germany.Zimmermann cabled the German ambas- Explain Why did thesador in Mexico. In the cable, Zimmermann United States favor Britain over Germany inproposed that Mexico ally itself with World War I? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. What happened in Sarajevo in 1914, and why was it impor- 5. Cause and Effect Why did the soldiers decide to useReview the tant? trench warfare?• In the early 1900s, nations of 2. Name three things that led to 6. Analyze Why was World Europe formed alliances and built World War I. War I a “total war”? up their military forces. Critical Thinking 7. Expository Writing Write a• The assassination of an Austro- headline and a brief article Hungarian archduke led to decla- 3. Organizing Information Use a chart like the one below about the U.S. entry into World rations of war across Europe. to list the countries that War I. Discuss the reasons why• German submarine attacks fought in World War I. the United States finally against American ships eventually entered the war. brought the United States into Allies the war on the side of the Allies. Central Powers 4. Explain What is militarism and what problems did it cause in Europe?788 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 32. World War I Changes the World What’s the Connection? Atatürk (AT • uh • TUHRK) As you read, by 1917 neither side Vladimir Lenin (VLAD • uh • MIHR was gaining ground in World War I. LEH • nuhn) The arrival of American troops would mark a turning point in the war. Building Your Vocabulary armistice (AHR • muh • stuhs) Focusing on the reparation (REH • puh • RAY • shuhn) • With American help, the Allies stopped mandate (MAN • DAYT) the German advance. (page 790) duma (DOO • muh) • The Bolsheviks rose to power as a soviet (SOH • vee • EHT) result of the czar’s poor leadership. (page 793) Reading Strategy Organizing Information Use a Locating Places diagram like the one below to show Argonne Forest the new territories created from the Versailles (vuhr • SY) Ottoman empire. Meeting People David Lloyd George Georges Clemenceau (zhawrzh Ottoman Empire KLEH • muhn • SOH) Vittorio Orlando (veet • TAWR • yoh awr • LAN • doh) 1916 1920 1924BRITAIN SOVIET GERMANY UNION 1917 1918 1921 1923 Berlin Lenin seizes World War I Communists Turkey FRANCE power in ends win Russian becomes ITALY TURKEY Russia Civil War a republic CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 789
  • 33. The War Ends advanced toward Paris in 1918. On June 1, American and French troops blocked the With American help, the Allies stopped advance at the town of Château-Thierry.the German advance. Four months later, Americans launchedReading Focus Have you ever heard the expression their own massive attack in the Battle of“the cavalry to the rescue”? As you read, decide which the Argonne Forest. The Americans suf-group represented the cavalry during World War I. fered major losses but shattered the German defenses. In late 1917, troopships carried wave Meanwhile, the Austro-Hungarianafter wave of American soldiers to Europe. Empire was in chaos, and the OttomanAllied hopes soared. They would soon get Turks surrendered. Faced with a mutiny inthe help they needed to win the war. the navy and a popular revolt in Berlin, the In November 1917, the Russians pulled German emperor stepped down. Onout of the war. German troops on the November 11, 1918, Germany signed anEastern Front were sent west. There, they armistice (AHR • muh • stuhs), or cease-fire,strengthened Germany’s army as it that ended the war. Europe After World War I 0 500 mi. 0 500 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection FINLAND 60°N N NORWAY 20°W W SWEDEN E ESTONIA 60°E S North Sea a LATVIA Se IRELAND DENMARK SOVIET UNION ti c Independent NETHER- from 1921 UNITED B a l LITHUANIA LANDS EAST KINGDOM PRUSSIA Ger. GERMANY ATLANTIC BELGIUM POLAND OCEAN Versailles LUX. C ZE CHO SLOV A KIA SWITZ. AUSTRIA RY Ca GA sp FRANCE H UN ia YU ROMANIA n GO Se L SL a GA 40° N AV Black Sea SPAIN IA BULGARIA U ITALY RT PO GREECE TURKEY SPANISH ALBANIA MOROCCO MOROCCO Mediterranean The treaties that ended World War I changed TUNISIA Sea the map of Europe. 1. Use the map of Europe in 1914 on page 781 and name the countries that gave up territory ALGERIA to create the new country of Yugoslavia. 0° LIBYA 20°E 40°E 2. Which countries appear to have lost the most land following the war?790
  • 34. Bettmann/CORBIS The Treaty of Versailles In January 1919, peace talks began at Versailles (vuhr • SY) outside Paris. The principal figures at the talks were U.S. president Woodrow Wilson, British prime minister David Lloyd George, French premier Georges Clemenceau (zhawrzh KLEH • muhn • SOH), and Italian prime minister Vittorio Orlando (veet • TAWR • yoh awr • LAN • doh). Wilson presented a plan called the The four most important leaders at the Fourteen Points. The plan stated that Versailles conference were (left to right) Vittorio Orlando, David Lloyd George, Georges national groups in Europe should form Clemenceau, and Woodrow Wilson. How did the their own countries. It also called for a peace terms at Versailles affect Germany? League of Nations, an organization in which member nations would cooperate to The idea that peoples had a right to rule keep the peace. themselves shaped many of the decisions at The Treaty of Versailles stripped the peace talks. However, different groups Germany of most of its armed forces and in Eastern Europe were mixed together. The required the Germans to pay reparations treaties were not able to draw national (REH • puh • RAY • shuhnz), or war damages, of borders neatly so that all people of a single $33 billion to the Allies. The treaty also called ethnic group could be within one country. for the creation of a League of Nations. As a result, almost every new Eastern President Wilson returned to the United European country had a dominant group States to win approval for the treaty. Some and many smaller groups. As time went on, senators argued that the League might force friction between the different groups made the United States to fight in more foreign wars. these countries very unstable. Twice the Senate voted on the treaty and twice rejected it. As a result, the League of Nations What Happened to the Ottoman Empire? was formed without the United States. In making peace, the Allies also looked at the Middle East. Their major concern was New Nations in Europe The war and the what to do with the Ottoman empire, which treaties that followed redrew the map of had been defeated along with the other Europe. Both the German and Russian Central Powers. empires lost territory in southeastern The Allies decided to break up the Europe. The Austro-Hungarian Empire dis- Ottoman empire. The only area left to the appeared completely. Ottomans was the area of present-day The lands from these three empires Turkey. In 1919 Greece invaded Turkey and became nation-states: Finland, Latvia, seized the western parts of the Anatolian Estonia, Poland, Lithuania, Czechoslovakia, Peninsula. In response, Turkish general Austria, and Hungary. In addition, Romania Mustafa Kemal rallied forces to his country’s gained territory from Russia, Hungary, and defense. Turkish armies under Kemal finally Bulgaria. Serbia became the center of a new drove out the Greeks. The Turkish victory state called Yugoslavia, which combined led to the end of the Ottoman sultan’s rule. Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes. In 1923 Turkey became a republic. CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 791
  • 35. Middle East 1919–1935 30°E Black 50°E Sea SOVIET These new territories were Ca Istanbul UNION spi (Constantinople) called mandates (MAN • DAYTZ). a n Se ANATOLIAN Ankara 0 200 miles Under the mandate system, the PENINSULA TURKEY 0 200 kilometers League of Nations governed each a Republic established 1923 Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection territory but allowed a member T i g ri Cyprus Tehran nation to run it. Because these SYRIA sR LEBANON mandated territories were largely . Beirut Damascus IRAQ Baghdad IRAN Known as PALESTINE British mandate Persia until created by outsiders, most people Jerusalem Amman until 1932 1935 up in the Middle East did not feel E hra tes R. loyal to them. The Arabs did, Cairo TRANS- Suez Canal JORDAN Pe however, share a strong sense of KUWAIT rs Arab nationalism. N il N SAUDI ia ARABIA nG eR EGYPT Kingdom ulf In the 1920s, a local leader . British W E established Dhahran named Ibn Saud united Arabs on Reprotectorate 1932 dS until 1922 S Riyadh the Arabian Peninsula. In 1932 he ea Madinah Makkah created the kingdom of (Mecca) Saudi Arabia. At first the new country was desper- KEY Following World War I, the Ottoman Oil-producing areas empire was divided into a number of ately poor. Then American countries in the Middle East. businesses struck oil at 1. Where are the oil-producing areas in Dhahran on the Persian the Middle East generally found? Gulf and the kingdom grew 2. Which European nation ruled the largest area of mandated territory in wealthy. the Middle East? Which countries did Meanwhile, in Pales- it rule? tine—a mandate run by the British—nationalism caused Kemal, whom the people called Atatürk new problems. In the late 1800s, national- (AT • uh • TUHRK), became president of Turkey. ism began to affect Jews living in Europe. Atatürk introduced many social and politi- Jewish nationalists, known as Zionists, cal changes to modernize the country. wanted to create a Jewish homeland in Turkey began to consider itself European as Palestine where the ancient Jewish city of well as Asian. For example, all Arabic fea- Jerusalem was located. Zionist settlers tures were erased from the Turkish lan- began moving to the Middle East in the guage, and Turkish citizens had to adopt 1890s. During World War I Britain issued last names, like Europeans. Atatürk also the Balfour Declaration promising Jews a tried to reduce the influence of Islamic reli- nation in Palestine. Angry Arabs wondered gious leaders on the government. how the Jews could establish a national home where the people were 80 percent Muslim. However, by 1939, more than New Countries in the Middle East After 400,000 Jews lived in Palestine. To satisfy the war, the Allies divided up the Arab the Arabs, the British tried to limit the flow regions of the Ottoman empire. France took of Jewish settlers into the territory. control of Lebanon and Syria. Britain Analyze Why did the acquired Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine. United States not join the League of Nations? 792 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 36. The Russian RevolutionBettmann/CORBIS The Bolsheviks rose to power as a result of the czar’s poor leadership. Reading Focus Have you ever seen a protest march? Do you think protest can change things? Read to learn how protests led to a revolution in Russia. During World War I, Russia fought alongside Britain and France. However, the war only worsened Russia’s problems at home. Russia’s ruler, Czar Nicholas II, was unable to solve these problems. His rigid rule no longer fit the times. As a result, the Russian people turned against him when he failed to meet Russia’s new challenges. Problems in Russia During the early 1900s, most Russians were very discontent. This 1913 photo shows Czar Nicholas II and his Peasants paid high taxes. Groups that were family, all of whom were killed during the not Russian were often mistreated, and revolution. How did World War I help cause the Russian Revolution? middle-class reformers wanted a voice in the government. Urban workers were per- assembly, was created, but it had only lim- haps the most dissatisfied. They toiled long ited powers. The czar, however, closed down hours in dirty, airless factories and received the duma when it tried to act independently. little pay. In 1904 a war between Russia and Japan The Czar Is Overthrown World War I made matters worse. The war cost Russia brought still more hardships to the Russian land and money. As a result, food prices people. The country did not have enough went up and wages went down. Peasants, factories to produce weapons or enough rail- urban workers, and middle-class students roads to carry supplies to the front. As a blamed the czar for the poor economy. result, Russia suffered higher casualties than In 1905 an uprising took place. It began any other country. Nearly 8 million soldiers when thousands of workers appeared in were killed or wounded in battle. Civilians the square before the czar’s palace in St. suffered from a lack of food and fuel. Petersburg. They carried petitions asking The Russian people could stand no for a national assembly, freedom of speech more. In March 1917, they revolted. Striking and religion, and better conditions for workers, led by women textile workers, workers and peasants. Government sol- jammed the streets of St. Petersburg. They diers fired on the crowd, killing hundreds demanded bread and peace. The workers of unarmed people. Workers in the city were soon joined by soldiers stationed in responded by going on strike. Finally, Czar the city. Finally, the czar gave up his throne, Nicholas II agreed to some of the workers’ and the 300-year-old Romanov dynasty demands. A duma (DOO • muh), or national came to an end. CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 793
  • 37. carry out reforms at home and lost the sup- CORBIS Ten Days That port of the people. Shook the WorldJohn Reed was an American journalist who Who Is Lenin? Many workers, soldiers,witnessed the Russian Revolution. The and peasants believed that the provisionalevents described in this passage took place government was too middle class. Theyon November 8, 1917. formed soviets (SOH • vee • EHTS), or commit-“It was just 8:40 when a tees, to represent their interests. Soon thethundering wave of cheers soviets and the provisional governmentannounced the entrance of became locked in a bitter struggle for con-the presidium [committee], trol of Russia.with Lenin—great Lenin—among them. . . . Members of the soviets were workers and peasants from different socialist groups.Now Lenin, . . . stood therewaiting, apparently oblivi- As you read in earlier chapters, socialistsous to the long-rolling wanted workers to overthrow capitalismovation, which lasted sev- and build a society in which all could shareeral minutes. When it fin- equally in the wealth. The most radical ofished, he said simply, ‘We these groups was the Bolsheviks. Theyshall now proceed to con- believed that a small party of revolutionar-struct the Socialist order!’Again that overwhelming ies could use force to bring about this idealhuman roar. . . . John Reed society. Their leader was Vladimir Lenin‘The revolution of 6 and 7 November,’ he ended, (VLAD • uh • MIHR LEH • nuhn).‘has opened the era of the Social Revolution. . . . Under Lenin, the Bolsheviks promisedThe labour movement, in the name of peace and to take Russia out of the war and to give allSocialism, shall win, and fulfil its destiny. . . . ‘“ land to the peasants. They vowed to give —John Reed, Ten Days That the factories to the workers and the govern- Shook the World ment to the soviets. Three slogans summed up the Bolshevik program: “Peace, Land, Bread,” “Worker Control of Production,” and “All Power to the Soviets.” Does John Reed agree or disagree with Lenin? How do you know? The Bolsheviks Seize Power In October 1917, Bolsheviks controlled the soviets in Russia’s two largest cities: St. Petersburg and Moscow. As a result, the Bolsheviks Members of the duma then formed a were in a good position to take overprovisional, or temporary, government. Russia’s government.Alexander Kerensky served as its leader. In November 1917, the BolsheviksDespite the suffering caused by the war, the seized the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg.provisional government did not withdraw This was the location of the provisionalRussian troops from the front. In fact, the government. The government collapsedprovisional government became preoccu- with little bloodshed. Lenin became thepied with the war. As a result, it did not head of the new government.794 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 38. VLAD4IMIR LENIN –192 Vladimir Lenin 1870 shevik Party and the first Vladimir Lenin, the founder of the Bol as Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov in aleader of the Soviet Union, grew up eloped a great passion forhappy, close-knit family. Ulyanov dev of his parents were educated.learning early in his childhood. Both inspector. His mother was the His father was a teacher and school daughter of a landowning physician. his studies, particularly in In school, young Ulyanov excelled in his class from high school Latin and Greek. He graduated first in olar. However, two tragic and seemed destined to become a sch . First, in 1886, his father events affected the direction of his life age. Then, the next year, his suddenly died from a brain hemorrh for involvement with a oldest brother, Alexander, was hanged ther’s revolutionary revolutionary group. Because of his bro activities, Ulyanov was denied many academic opportunities. “We shall now proceed Russia’s political system. to construct the In response, he renounced religion and t. In January 1889, he became a Marxis Socialist order!” him get into Ulyanov’s high school principal helped once again first in —Vladimir Lenin, as quoted in law school, and he graduated in 1891, Ten Days That Shook the World his class. Two years later, he moved to St. Petersburg, where he worked as nd Marxist movement. a lawyer and developed an undergrou lutionary propaganda efforts, Ulyanov became more involved in revo ed to Siberia for three years. and in 1895 he was arrested and exil ved to Munich, Germany, After exile, Ulyanov and his wife mo that attempted to unite Marxist where they published a newspaper 1 Ulyanov adopted the groups throughout the world. In 190 Russia’s Lena River, which is pseudonym “Lenin”—a reference to s in the opposite direction. longer than the mighty Volga and flow for Lenin was arrested and sent to Siberia arch to Parade in three years for his protests. Do rese al or Moscow find an example of a modern politic honoring Marx, his or Engels, and social leader who has been exiled for Lenin in 1988 her political beliefs. 795 (t)Bettmann/CORBIS, (b)Pete Turnley/CORBIS
  • 39. Leon Trotsky used theThe Russian Civil War Soon after, Lenin draft to fill the Redsigned a peace treaty with Germany. A price Army and created a strong military forcewas attached, however. In exchange for based on strict discipline.peace, the Bolsheviks had to give up large Why did the Whitesareas of land that had once been part of eventually lose the CivilRussia’s empire. Although the treaty ended War?Russia’s involvement in World War I, it didnot solve Russia’s troubles at home. the Reds quickly and get Russia back into Several groups—the czar’s supporters, World War I. As a result, the Allies and theliberals, and moderate socialists—opposed United States sent them aid.Lenin’s government. In 1918 these groups The Reds and Whites fought for threetook up arms against the Bolsheviks—now grim years. Both sides burned villages andknown as Communists. In the war that fol- killed civilians. Meanwhile, workers andlowed, the Communists were called Reds peasants were starving. The Whites werebecause they flew a red revolutionary flag. disorganized, outnumbered, and poorlyLeon Trotsky organized the Red Army. He equipped. In 1921 they finally gave up.used force and education to make his sol- Lenin and the Communists now controlleddiers loyal to the Communist cause. the entire country. The Communists’ enemies became Identify Why did the pro-known as Whites. They promised to defeat visional government lose support? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. What were the Fourteen Points 4. Analyze Were the attempts and why were they important? to create countries along eth-Review the 2. What changes did Atatürk nic lines following World War I• With American help, the successful? Why or why not? Germans were defeated, ending make after becoming president the war. A number of new of Turkey? 5. Sequencing Information nations in Europe and the Middle Describe the major events Critical Thinking East were created following the leading to the fall of the 3. Organizing Information Russian czar. war. Draw a diagram similar to the one below. In the outer ovals, 6. Analyze How were Lenin and fill in the names of new coun- the Bolsheviks able to come to• In Russia, the czar was over- tries created after World War I. power in Russia? thrown, and the Bolsheviks, or 7. Writing Questions Imagine Communists, took power. you are a reporter in the era of World War I. Write a series of New Nations four or five questions that you would like to ask the leaders of Europe. Include possible answers to your questions.796 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War IBettmann/CORBIS
  • 40. Section The New ImperialismVocabulary Focusing on theimperialism • European nations built empires to help their economy and to spread theircolony ideas. (page 763)protectorate • Control of India passed from the East India Company to the British. (page 764)sphere of influence • European nations ruled almost all of Africa by 1914. (page 766)sepoy • The United States became an imperial nation after defeating Spain and taking control of the Philippines and Puerto Rico. (page 769)Section Nationalism in China and JapanVocabulary Focusing on theextraterritoriality • The arrival of Europeans greatly changed Chinese society. (page 772)daimyo • Sun Yat-sen introduced ideas that helped cause the collapse of the Qing dynasty. (page 774) • After Americans visited Japan, the Japanese reorganized their society and economy and began building an empire. (page 777)Section World War I BeginsVocabulary Focusing on themilitarism • Alliances, militarism, and nationalism led to a crisis in Europe. (page 781)conscription • The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand sparked World War I.entente (page 784)mobilization • Americans supported the Allies because of pro-British feelings and businessrationing links. (page 786)propagandablockadeSection World War I Changes the WorldVocabulary Focusing on thearmistice • With American help, the Allies stopped the German advance. (page 790)reparation • The Bolsheviks rose to power as a result of the czar’s poormandate leadership. (page 793)dumasoviet CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 797
  • 41. Review Vocabulary Review Main IdeasWrite the vocabulary word that completes each Section 1 • The New Imperialismsentence. 9. Why did European nations establish a. soviets e. reparations empires? b. conscription f. colony 10. Why were European nations interested in Africa? c. armistice g. daimyo d. protectorate h. entente Section 2 • Nationalism in China and Japan 1. Heads of noble families in Japanese society 11. How did the arrival of the Europeans were called ___. change Chinese society? 2. Russian workers formed ___ to voice their 12. How did Sun Yat-sen’s ideas lead to the concerns. collapse of the Qing dynasty? 3. The government of a(n) ___ is guided by a foreign power. Section 3 • World War I Begins 4. A cease-fire is also called a(n) ___. 13. Explain the causes of World War I. 5. ___ requires citizens to join the military. 14. Why did Americans support the Allies? 6. A(n) ___ was directly ruled by an imperial nation. Section 4 • World War I Changes the World 7. Germany paid war damages, or ___, 15. What resulted from the German advance to the Allies. on the Allies? 8. An understanding among nations is called 16. Why were the Bolsheviks able to rise to a(n) ___. power in Russia? Prioritizing What’s Important? Read the passage below from page 784. The spark that finally set off a major war was lit in Sarajevo, a small town in Bosnia. There, in June 1914, a man named Gavrilo Princip shot and killed Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary. 17. If you had to answer the question “What event started World War I?”, which information in this passage would be most important? 18. If you had to answer the question “When did the war begin?”, which information would be most important? To review this skill, see pages 760–761.798 CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I
  • 42. Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare forCritical Thinking the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.com19. Cause and Effect What caused the Boer War?20. Analyze Instead of importing opium to China, what else might the British have Read to Write 26. Expository Writing Write a brief essay done to restore the balance of trade? comparing and contrasting the causes of the21. Explain How did the assassination of revolutions in America, France, and Russia. Ferdinand lead to war?22. Analyze Do you think the Treaty of 27. Using Your Create a crossword Versailles asked too much of Germany? puzzle using the terms on your foldable. Why or why not? Use the terms’ definitions as the crossword clues. Be sure to provide an answer key.Geography Skills Using TechnologyStudy the map below and answer the follow- 28. Researching Use the Internet and youring questions. local library to research the total costs of23. Place Which nation in the Middle East World War I. On a computer, create a table remained neutral during World War I? or graph that shows the costs and number24. Movement Why were Allied troops of deaths during the war. moving into the Ottoman empire?25. Analyze Which group won most of the Linking Past and Present battles fought in the Ottoman empire? 29. Expository Writing Choose one nation in Africa and research its history from the colonial era to the present. Write a short World War I in the Middle East essay about your chosen country’s history. 30°E 40°E 50°E Ca BULGARIA Black sp Sea ian Gallipoli 1915 RUSSIA CE40°N Analyze Sea IA ARM E N EE Dardanelles OTTOMAN GR 1915 EMPIRE Journalist Henry Stanley located Tikrit Aleppo 1917 explorer and missionary David Crete Cyprus 1918 U.K. Damascus Baghdad 1917 PERSIA Livingstone in Africa in 1871: Mediterranean Sea Beirut 1918 Ramadi 1918 1917 “We have at last entered the town. There Gaza Basra Suez Canal 1915 1917 Kut-el-Amara 1916 1914 are hundreds of people around me. . . . It is30°N Aqaba a grand triumphal procession. . . . EGYPT 1917 U.K. KUWAIT . . . [A]s I come nearer I see the white face of Persian ARABIA Gulf an old man among them. . . . I am shaking N hands with him. We raise our hats, and I say: W E ‘Dr. Livingstone, I presume?’” 0 S 500 mi. —H.M. Stanley, “Stanley Finds KEY Livingstone, 10 November 1871” 0 500 km Allies Lambert Azimuthal 20°N Equal-Area projection Central Powers Red Neutral nations Sea Why do you think the Africans held Allied victory a “grand triumphal procession” for Central Powers victory Mr. Stanley? Allied offensive CHAPTER 20 Imperialism and World War I 799

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