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Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
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Ch. 17 The Renaissance and Reformation

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How the Renaissance marked a rebirth for Europe and how the Christian church split during the Reformation

How the Renaissance marked a rebirth for Europe and how the Christian church split during the Reformation

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  • 1. 604–605 Bill Ross/CORBIS The Renaissance andReformation The Duomo, or Cathedral of Santa Maria del Fiore, in Florence, Italy 1350 1450 1550 1650 c. 1350 1434 1517 1648 Renaissance Medici family Martin Luther Thirty Years’ begins in Italy begins rule of writes Ninety- War ends Florence Five Theses
  • 2. Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit jat.glencoe.com for a preview New ideas brought the Middle Ages to an end. Read this of Chapter 17.chapter to find out how advances in the arts and learningand dramatic changes to Christianity led to the beginning ofmodern times in Europe. View the Chapter 17 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The Renaissance Begins During the Renaissance, new values and new art developed in wealthy Italian city-states. New Ideas and Art Wealthy leaders in Italian city-states supported talented artists and writers, and Renaissance art and ideas spread from Italy to northern Europe. The Reformation Begins Martin Luther and other reformers, such as John Calvin, broke from the Catholic Church and began a new Christian movement that came to be called Protestantism. Catholics and Protestants While the Catholic Church attempted to carry out reforms, Catholics and Protestants fought bloody religious wars across Europe. Compare-Contrast Make this foldable to help you compare and contrast what you learn about the Renaissance and Reformation. Step 1 Fold a sheet of paper in half from Reading and Writing side to side. As you read the sections on the Renaissance and Fold it so the left Step 2 Turn the paper edge lies about Reformation, record and fold it into thirds. 1 important concepts and 2 inch from the right edge. events under the appropriate tabs. Then Step 3 Unfold and cut the top record ideas similar to layer only along both folds. Step 4 Label as shown. both under the middle tab. This will make Renais- Refor- three tabs. Both mation sance 605
  • 3. Analyze andClarify Go Beyond the Words Analyzing a passage means going beyond the definition of the words. It is a way of reading for deep understanding, not just memorizing or studying to pass a test. Read the following paragraph from Section 2. Renaissance painters also used new techniques. The most important was perspective, a method that makes a drawing or painting look three-dimensional. Artists had tried to use perspective before, but Renaissance artists per- fected it. Using perspective, objects in a scene appear to be at different distances from the viewer. The result is a more realistic image. —from page 623 How can you analyze this passage? Here are some suggestions: 1. Look at the drawing on page 626. Is the drawing realistic as described by the paragraph? 2. Look at another painting or drawing in this book. Compare the perspective to the drawing on page ak ing, bre 626. Which is more realistic? Why? Wh en r ead ler 3. With a partner, sketch a view of your classroom. to smal th e text in under- Exchange sketches and see if you can tell where help you par ts to whole. your partner was standing when he or she made s tand the the sketch. Based on your experience, what are some difficulties an artist might encounter in trying to draw a large area realistically? 606
  • 4. Musee du Louvre, Paris/Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock Analyze as You Read Read to Write Choose any painting or Read this paragraph from Section 2. drawing in this book and analyze, in writing, what is taking place. Use the questions who, To make their paintings more what, when, or how to realistic, Renaissance artists also help you get started. used a technique called chiaroscuro. Chiaroscuro softened edges by using light and shadows instead of stiff outlines to separate objects. In Italian, chiaro means “clear or light,” and oscuro means “dark.” Chiaro- scuro created more drama and emo- tion in a painting. —from page 623 Analyze the above paragraph by doing the following: 1. Look at the painting of Mona Lisa from page 622. Do you see the use of chiaroscuro? If so, in what way does it create drama or emotion? 2. Choose another painting in this or a dif- ferent text. Look at it carefully to see if the technique of chiaroscuro was used. Describe to a partner the light and dark The Mona Lisa areas that you see. 3. Try your hand at drawing an object or scene using the tech- nique of chiaroscuro. As you read this chapter, choose at least one section to study and ana- lyze for deeper meaning. Exchange your analysis with a classmate who has analyzed a different passage. 607
  • 5. The Renaissance Begins What’s the Connection? Locating Places Previously, you learned about life Florence (FLAWR • uhns) in medieval Europe. In this section, Venice (VEH • nuhs) you will see how Europeans began to look to the ideals of the ancient Meeting People Greeks and Romans as they left the Marco Polo (MAHR • koh POH • loh) Middle Ages behind. Medici (MEH • duh • chee) Niccolò Machiavelli (NEE • koh • LOH Focusing on the MA • kee • uh • VEH • lee) • The wealthy urban society of the Italian city-states brought a rebirth of Building Your Vocabulary learning and art to Europe. (page 609) Renaissance (REH • nuh • SAHNS) • Italy’s location helped its city-states secular (SEH • kyuh • luhr) grow wealthy from trade and banking, diplomacy (duh • PLOH • muh • see) but many of the cities fell under the control of strong rulers. (page 611) Reading Strategy • Unlike medieval nobles, the nobles of Summarizing Information Complete the Italian city-states lived in cities a chart like the one below showing the and were active in trade, banking, reasons Italian city-states grew wealthy. and public life. (page 614) Wealth Grows in City-States 1350 1450 1550Genoa Venice Florence c. 1350 1434 1513 Renaissance Medici family begins Machiavelli writes Rome begins in Italy rule of Florence The Prince 608 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
  • 6. Greeks and Romans had studied. After theThe Italian Renaissance horrible years of the Black Death, Europeans The wealthy urban society of the began looking to the past when timesItalian city-states brought a rebirth of learning and seemed better. They wanted to learn how toart to Europe. make their own society better.Reading Focus Hollywood makes many of the During the Renaissance, Europeans alsoworld’s movies. Why is it the center of the movie indus- began to stress the importance of the indi-try? Read to learn why the city-states of Italy became vidual. They began to believe that peoplethe center of art during the Renaissance. could make a difference and change the world for the better. Renaissance (REH • nuh • SAHNS) means People were still very religious during“rebirth.” The years from about 1350 to the Renaissance, but they also began to cel-1550 in European history are called the ebrate human achievements. PeopleRenaissance because there was a rebirth of became more secular (SEH • kyuh • luhr). Thisinterest in art and learning. means they were more interested in this In some ways the Renaissance was a world than in religion and getting torebirth of interest in the same subjects the heaven. Italy c. 1500 P S L A KEY Ferrara Milan Po R. Venice Florence Genoa Genoa Mantua 45°N Lucca Mantua Florence Milan Pisa A Ad Modena Siena 0 200 mi. P ri E Two Sicilies at ic N 0 200 km Papal States Corsica Se Chamberlin Trimetric projection N Siena Rome a IN Venice E S Naples N Sardinia 40°N Tyrrhenian W Sea E S Medi te rr an ea Many Italian city-states prospered n Sicily during the Renaissance. S 1. In which territory was Rome ea located? 5°E 10°E 15°E 2. Why do you think the city-state25°E of Venice spread out along the coastline? Find NGS online map resources @ www.nationalgeographic.com/maps 609
  • 7. Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy? Renaissance. Wealthy nobles and mer- akg-imagesFirst of all, Italy had been the center of the chants wanted artists to produce works thatRoman Empire. Ruins and art surrounded increased the fame of their cities.the Italians and reminded them of their In most of Europe, the vast majority ofpast. It was only natural that they became people lived in the country, including theinterested in Greek and Roman art and knights and nobles who owned estates. Intried to make their own art as good. Italy’s city-states, the population was Another reason the Renaissance began becoming more urban. That means morein Italy was because by the 1300s, Italy’s people were living in the city, rather than incities had become very wealthy. They the country. So many people living togethercould afford to pay painters, sculptors, in a city meant more customers for artistsarchitects, and other artists to produce and more money for art.new works. The large number of people living in A third reason was because the region cities also led to more discussion and shar-was still divided into many small city-states. ing of ideas about art. Just as the city-statesFlorence (FLAWR • uhns), Venice (VEH • nuhs), of ancient Greece had produced many greatGenoa, Milan, and Rome were some of the works of art and literature, so too did urbanmost important cities of the Renaissance. society in Italy. The Italian city-states competed with Explain Why did theeach other. This helped bring about the Renaissance start in Italy?Florence Cathedral The FlorenceFlorence, Italy, was one of the centers of the Renaissance. The Cathedral todayFlorence Cathedral became a symbol of the city, as well as oneof the finest examples of Renaissance architecture. What wereother important Italian Renaissance cities? The cathedral’s dome measures 140 feet (42.7 m) across. New techniques allowed the tall, massive dome toThe large, round be built withoutwindows in the the supports used base of the in earlier Gothicdome, called the cathedrals. drum, allow in plenty of light.
  • 8. and the Byzantine and Ottoman Empires layThe Rise of Italy’s City-States to the east. North Africa was only a short trip Italy’s location helped its city-states to the south.grow wealthy from trade and banking, but many of From the Byzantines, Turks, and Arabs,the cities fell under the control of strong rulers. the Italians bought Chinese silk and IndianReading Focus Do you have a bank account? What spices and sold them to people in Westernare banks for? Read to learn how banking helped to Europe for very high prices. At the samemake the Italian city-states wealthy and powerful. time, from the Spanish, French, Dutch, and English, they bought goods such as wool, During the Middle Ages, no ruler was wine, and glass that they could sell in theable to unite Italy into a single kingdom. Middle East. The Italian cities also hadThere were several reasons for this. First of many skilled artisans, who could take rawall, the Roman Catholic Church did every- materials the merchants bought and makething it could to stop the rise of a powerful goods that could be sold for high prices.kingdom in Italy. Church leaders were Geography was not the only reason forafraid that if a strong ruler united Italy, that the success of the Italians. Several eventssame ruler would be able to control the led to trade becoming even more importantpope and the Church. in the city-states. First, the Crusades brought At the same time, the city-states that Italian merchants into contact with Arabdeveloped in Italy were about equal in merchants. Second, the rise of the Mongolstrength. They fought many wars and often Empire united almost all of Asia into onecaptured territory from each other, but no vast trade network.state was able to defeat all the others. The Mongols encouraged trade and pro- Probably the most important reason the tected the Silk Road from China to thecity-states stayed independent was because Middle East. This made it cheaper and easierthey became very wealthy. With their great for caravans to carry goods from China andwealth, they could build large fleetsand hire people to fight in theirarmies. A person who fights in anarmy for money is called a mercenary.The city-states also loaned money tothe kings of Europe. The kings left thecity-states alone so they could borrowmore money in the future.Italy’s City-States Grow WealthyThe Italian city-states becamewealthy through trade. The geogra-phy of the long Italian peninsulameant that most of the city-states hada coastline and ports where merchantships could dock. They were also per- This painting shows a wealthy Italian family during thefectly located on the Mediterranean Renaissance. How did competition between the city-Sea. Spain and France lay to the west, states lead to great works of art? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 611 Palazzo Ducale, Mantua, Italy/M. Magliari/Bridgeman Art Library, London/SuperStock
  • 9. India to Muslim and Byzantine cities. As The Wealth of Florence No city wasmore and more silk and spices were shipped more famous in the Renaissance thanfrom Asia, the price of these goods fell. More Florence. It was the first to grow wealthy,Europeans could afford the luxuries, and and it produced many famous artists. Itdemand for the items greatly increased. In sat on the banks of the Arno River sur-turn, business for Italian merchants contin- rounded by beautiful hills. It was walledued to grow. and had many tall towers for defense. Its people were known for their love of elegantWho Was Marco Polo? Europeans were clothing.fascinated with Asia and its goods after At first, Florence’s wealth came fromreading a book written by Marco Polo trading cloth, especially wool. The city’s(MAHR • koh POH • loh), a merchant from the merchants sailed to England to get sheep’scity of Venice. In the 1270s, Marco Polo wool. Artisans in Florence then wove it intowent on an amazing journey with his father fine fabrics. Florentines also found anotherand uncle to China. They set off to meet way to make money—banking.Kublai Khan, the ruler of the Mongol With goods pouring into Italy fromEmpire. around the world, merchants needed to When the Polo family finally made it to know the value of coins from differentthe khan’s court, the great emperor was countries. Florentine bankers became theimpressed with Marco Polo. He sent Marco experts. They used the florin, the gold coinPolo on business all over China. Marco of Florence, to measure the value of otherPolo asked many questions and learned money. Bankers also began lending moneymore about Asia than any other European. and charging interest. Florence’s richestWhen he returned to Europe, he publisheda book about his travels. His storieshelped increase interest in China andmade many people want to buyChina’s goods. Lorenzo de’ Medici This painting shows bankers in Florence doing business at a counter topped with brightly embroidered cloth. Why did banking become so important in Florence?612 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationScala/Art Resource, NY
  • 10. The Ducal Palace today This painting from Renaissance Italy shows the busy pier and the Ducal Palace in Venice. What industry provided some of Venice’s wealth?family, the Medici (MEH • duh • chee), were many of the streets in the older partsbankers. They had branch banks as far of Venice are canals and waterways.away as London. Gondolas—a type of long, narrow boat— still carry people along these canals.The Rise of Venice The wealthiest city- Some of Venice’s wealth came fromstate of all was Venice, where Marco Polo building ships. Artisans worked on ships atwas born. Venice is at the northern end of a shipyard known as the Arsenal. Teamsthe Adriatic Sea. The Venetians were great of workers cut the wood, shaped it intosailors and shipbuilders. They built their hulls, caulked (or sealed) the wood, andcity on many small, swampy islands just off made sails and oars. Sometimes Venetiansthe coast. Early Venetians learned how to needed ships quickly. When the Turks trieddrive long wooden poles into mud to sup- to take a Venetian colony in theport their buildings. Mediterranean, the Arsenal built 100 ships Instead of paving roads, the Venetians in only two months to prepare for battle.cut canals through their swampy islands Describe How did Florenceand used boats to move about. Even today, and the Medici family become so wealthy? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 613 (l)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (r)Kindra Clineff/Index Stock
  • 11. they looked down on trade and believedThe Urban Noble themselves to be above the town merchants. Unlike medieval nobles, the nobles of In the Italian city-states, old noble fami-the Italian city-states lived in cities and were active lies moved to the cities. They mixed within trade, banking, and public life. wealthy merchants and decided that moneyReading Focus How does our society measure from trade was just as good as money fromwealth? Before the Renaissance, wealth was based on land.the amount of land a person owned. Read to learn how Meanwhile, wealthy merchants copiedthat changed during the Renaissance. the manners and lifestyle of noble families. Soon, the sons and daughters of nobles and The wealthy men of the Italian city- rich merchants were marrying each other.states were a new type of leader—the urban Eventually, the old nobles and wealthynoble. Before this time, European nobles got merchant families blended together totheir wealth from land, not trade. In fact, become the upper class of the city-states. How Were Italian City-States Run? At first, many of the city-states were republics. A republic is a government controlled by its citizens. Not everyone was a citizen, how- The Prince ever, only the artisans and merchants who In Machiavelli’s masterpiece, he explains his had membership in the city’s guilds. theories about human nature. From your study of the ancient Romans, “You should consider then, that there are two you might recall that when their cities faced ways of fighting, one with laws and the other war or rebellion, they gave power to a dic- with force. The first is tator. The Italian city-states did some- properly a human thing similar. In many cases, the cities method, the second belongs to beasts. were ruled by one powerful man who But as the first ran the government. method does not In Venice, the head of state was the always suffice [meet duke, or doge (DOHJ). At first, the your needs], you doge had great power over his council sometimes have to of nobles. Later, he lost power to a turn to the second. small group of nobles. Thus a prince must know how to make In Florence, the powerful Medici good use of both the family gained control of the govern- beast and the man.” ment in 1434. The Medici ran Florence —Niccolò Machiavelli, for many decades. Lorenzo de’ Medici The Prince Niccolò ruled the city from 1469 to 1492. Machiavelli Known as “the Magnificent,” Lorenzo used his wealth to support artists, architects, and writers. Many of Italy’s Renaissance artists Why must a good leader know more than owed their success to his support. one way to fight? Politics in Italy was complicated. Within each city, the rulers had to keep the poor from614 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationArchiv/Photo Researchers
  • 12. rebelling and prevent other wealthy peoplefrom seizing power. They had to make dealswith merchants, bankers, landlords, churchleaders, and mercenaries. At the same time,they had to deal with the leaders of the othercity-states. To deal with the other states aroundthem, the Italians developed diplomacy(duh • PLOH • muh • see). Diplomacy is the art This palace served as a government building in Rome for hundreds of years. What form ofof negotiating, or making deals, with other government did many of the city-states have atcountries. Each city-state sent ambassadors first?to live in the other city-states and act as rep-resentatives for their city. Many of the ideas greedy and self-centered. Rulers should notof modern diplomacy first began in Italy’s try to be good, he argued. Rather, theycity-states. should do whatever is necessary to keep How could a ruler maintain power in power and protect their city, including killingthe Italian city-states? Niccolò Machiavelli and lying. Today when we say someone is(NEE • koh • LOH MA • kee • uh • VEH • lee), a being Machiavellian, we mean they are beingdiplomat in Florence, tried to answer this tricky and not thinking about being good.question when he wrote The Prince in 1513. Compare How wereMachiavelli claimed that people were medieval and Renaissance nobles different? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. Why is the era from 1350 to 1550 in Europe called the 4. Economics Link How did Renaissance cities gain theirReview the Renaissance? wealth? Give several examples.• A rebirth of learning called the Renaissance began in wealthy 2. Why did the Renaissance begin 5. Summarize Describe the gov- Italian city-states in the 1300s. in Italy? ernments of Italian city-states during the Renaissance. Critical Thinking 3. Organizing Information Draw 6. Analyze Who were the• Italian city-states, including a diagram like the one below. Medicis and why were they Florence and Venice, grew Add details about the character- important? wealthy through trade, manufacturing, and banking. istics of the Italian Renaissance. 7. Persuasive Writing Write a letter to the editor of a Renaissance newspaper telling• In the Italian city-states, a noble’s whether you agree or disagree Italian Renaissance wealth was based on trade, rather with Machiavelli’s beliefs about than the amount of land owned. rulers and power during the Renaissance. CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 615 Araldo de Luca/CORBIS
  • 13. SuperStockThe Value of City-States select a good “I tell you that you must ove ly was rnment, and ab aissance, Ita form for your new gove himself Duri ng the Ren 0 city-states. ink of making more than 2 all n o one must th ty.”divided into the city-state form h to live in liber o Savonarola, ple think that ad- head if you wis —Giro lamSome peo d idea. The le ur Final Destruc tion” of g overnm ent was a goo -states “This Will Be Yo the city hy nobles of ers and wealt iences. This p ro- antages and d isad- encouraged the arts and sc gelo, Exa mine the adv of gov- by Michelan ty-state form masterpieces uld tages of the ci ou duced others. Wo van e whether y Raphael, L eonardo, and have ernmen t. Then decid enefi- and sciences is primarily b this re birth of arts ndent ci ty- thin k this system aly’s indepe ly harmful. h appened if It cial or primari t existed? states had no ch as Girola mo r people, su Advantages: t Othe inst the city-s tate eir independen were aga • Because of th on Savonarola, After the fall of , each territory government. rence, governments able to form of ily in Flo insula was Medici fam new the Italian pen the oke out in fav or of a culture. have its own Savonarola sp tes were led b y ip: • Some city-sta s, but most were typ e of leadersh ie wealthy famil leader. Almost led by a single ltural and sci- al l supported cu - ment. The com entific advance so g city-states al petition amon t e developmen encouraged th nce. of art and scie rs helped pre- • City-state rule and teach- es serve the valu s ings of the ancient Greek They gave and Romans. sts, architects, their own arti writers oppor- scholars, and A detail from the ceiling of the Sistine dy classical tunities to stu Chapel painted by Michelangelo rpret them works and inte ays. in their own w 616 616
  • 14. Disadvantages: were led by one • Many city-states people were on man. The commArchivo Iconografico, S.A./CORBIS d until they revolte often mistreated eir leaders. This and threw out th ence’s Medici happened to Flor family in 1527. ker -states were wea • The divided city would have been, y than a united Ital so they were of ten invaded by foreign groups. did not always • Smaller territories r iers to defend thei have enough sold r- ey hired mercena cities and land. Th outside armies from ies—generals and them fight. Some- their city—to help - took over the city times mercenaries red them. states that had hi , alians were poor • Because many It - ble class differ there were noticea - tates. These differ ences in the city-s ts Renaissance nobles bloody conflic ences often led to al classes. between the soci often battled with • Wealthy families s. tate rol of the city-state • Many citizen s liked their city-s each other for cont aged lers became even lp it. This encour and wanted to he • Some city-state ru eing banking and se patriotism. wealthier by over xury, rous to the citi- trade. These le aders lived in lu • Som e rulers were gene ens were very po or. r example, while many citiz zens of th eir city-states. Fo Montefeltro Duke Federigo da ino, pular ruler in Urb (1422–1482), a po a ls, churches, and bu ilt schools, hospita n money. He was library with his ow the commoners kn own for talking to poor. and helping the Checking for Understanding lped bring an end 1. Do you think that the art of the • The city-states he ing merchants, Renaissance would have been cre- mak to feudalism by d ated if Italy had not been divided ners, wealthy an as well as landow into individual city-states? Why or p between lords endi ng the relationshi why not? s. 2. Do you think Italian artists had and vassal more artistic freedom under this form of government? Why or why not? 3. Would you have enjoyed living during the Renaissance? Would you have wanted to be a ruler, noble, artist, or commoner? Why? 617
  • 15. New Ideas and Art What’s the Connection? Meeting People In Section 1, you learned about Dante Alighieri (DAHN • tay the growth of Italian city-states. In A • luh • GYEHR • ee) this section, you will learn how the Johannes Gutenberg (yoh • HAHN • wealth of the city-states led to an uhs GOO • tuhn • BUHRG) age of artistic achievements. Leonardo da Vinci (LEE • uh • NAHR • doh duh VIHN • chee) Focusing on the Michelangelo Buonarroti (MY • kuh • • Humanists studied the Greeks and LAN • juh • LOH BWAW • nahr • RAW • Romans, and the development of the tee) printing press helped spread their William Shakespeare (SHAYK • SPIHR) ideas. (page 619) • Renaissance artists used new Building Your Vocabulary techniques to produce paintings that humanism (HYOO • muh • NIH • showed people in an emotional and zuhm) realistic way. (page 623) vernacular (vuhr • NA • kyuh • luhr) • Renaissance ideas and art spread Reading Strategy from Italy to northern Europe. Organizing Information Create a (page 625) diagram to show features of Renaissance art. Locating Places Art Flanders (FLAN • duhrz) 1400 1500 1600 c. 1455 1494 1512 1601 Johannes Gutenberg Leonardo Michelangelo finishes Shakespeare uses printing press begins painting painting Sistine writes to print the Bible The Last Supper Chapel’s ceiling Hamlet618 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation(cr)Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY, (r)Art Resource, NY, (others)Mary Evans Picture Library
  • 16. Roman works very well. In addition, when Renaissance Humanism(l)Maiman Rick/CORBIS Sygma, (r)Giraudon/Bridgeman Art Library the Turks conquered Constantinople in Humanists studied the Greeks and 1453, many Byzantine scholars left and Romans, and the development of the printing press moved to Venice or Florence. helped spread their ideas. One famous scholar of the ancient Reading Focus Have you ever tried to draw a copy of works was Petrarch (PEH • TRAHRK). Francesco a painting you like? Is it harder to copy what other peo- Petrarch was a poet and scholar who lived ple have done or to come up with new ideas for your own in the 1300s. He studied Roman writers pictures? Read to learn how Renaissance writers bor- like Cicero and wrote biographies of rowed ideas from the past but tried to be original too. famous Romans. Petrarch encouraged Europeans to In the 1300s, a new way of understand- search for Latin manuscripts in monaster- ing the world developed in medieval ies all over Europe. In time, his efforts paid Europe. This new approach was called off and new libraries were built to keep the humanism (HYOO • muh • NIH • zuhm). It was manuscripts. The largest was the Vatican based on the values of the ancient Greeks Library in Rome. and Romans. Humanists believed that the Italians studied more than ancient individual and human society were impor- books. They studied the old buildings and tant. Humanists did not turn away from reli- statues all around them. All over Rome, one gious faith, but they wanted a balance could see workers cleaning the dirt and between faith and reason. Their new ideas rubble from broken columns and statues. encouraged men to be active in their cities Italian artists eagerly studied the propor- and achieve great things. tions of the ancient works. If they knew how long a statue’s arms were compared to Ancient Works Become Popular In the its height, they would be able to under- 1300s, Italians began to study early Roman stand why it looked so perfect. and Greek works. For most of the Middle Ages, Western Europeans knew little about ancient Greek and Roman writings. When they went on the Crusades, however, they opened trade with the Middle East and began to get information from the Arabs. Arab scholars knew classic Greek and Francesco Petrarch has been called the father Ancient Greek manuscript of Italian Renaissance on Archimedes humanism. How did Petrarch contribute to the preservation of Roman knowledge? 619
  • 17. to write poems to the woman he loved, he wrote in the vernacular (vuhr • NA • kyuh • luhr). The vernacular is the everyday language people speak in a region—Italian, French, or German, for example. When authors began writing in the vernacular, many more people could read their work. Movable Type c. 1450 In the early 1300s, Dante Alighieri (DAHN • tay A • luh • GYEHR • ee), a poet of Johannes Gutenberg, a German Florence, wrote one of the world’s greatest goldsmith, built a printing press poems in the vernacular. It is called The modeled after a winepress. Once the Divine Comedy. As a young man, Dante was press was completed, Gutenberg spent active in politics, but when noble families two years printing his first book. For began fighting over power, he had to leave each page, he set metal letters in a Florence. That was when he wrote his long frame, rolled ink over the frame, and poem—more than 14,000 lines. The Divine pressed the frame against paper. Comedy tells the gripping tale of the main Around 1455, he completed printing character’s journey from hell to heaven. what is now known as the Gutenberg The horrible punishments for different sins Bible, or the 42 Line Bible. This was were vividly described. the first book printed using movable Another important writer who used the metal type, sparking a revolution in vernacular was Chaucer. Chaucer wrote in publishing and reading. English. In his famous book, The Canterbury Gutenberg Bible Tales, he describes 29 pilgrims on their journey to the city of Canterbury. The Canterbury Tales describes the levels of English society, from the nobles at the top to the poor at the bottom. The English Chaucer used in his writing is the ancestor of the English we speak today. The Printing Press Spreads Ideas The printing press was a key to the spread of humanist ideas through- out Europe. In the early 1450s, Johannes Gutenberg (yoh • HAHN • uhs GOO • tuhn • BUHRG) developed a printing press that used movable metal type. This type ofChanges in Literature During the printing press made it possible to printRenaissance, educated people wrote in many books much more quickly. With“pure” Latin, the Latin used in ancient more books available, more people learnedRome. Petrarch thought classical Latin was to read. Scholars could read one another’sthe best way to write, but when he wanted works and debate their ideas in letters.620 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationThe Pierpont Morgan Library/Art Resource, NY
  • 18. Ideas grew and spread more quickly than animals, human anatomy and medicine, andever before in Europe. the stars and planets. Their study of mathe- The Chinese had already invented mov- matics helped them in many subjects.able type, but it did not work well with One of the best Renaissance scientiststheir large alphabet of characters. For was also a great artist, Leonardo da VinciEuropeans, the printing press was a big ( LEE • uh • NAHR • doh duh VIHN • chee) .improvement. It was easy to use with linen Leonardo dissected corpses to learnpaper, another Chinese invention. anatomy and studied fossils to understand Gutenberg’s Bible, printed in the 1450s, the world’s history. He was also an inventorwas the first European book produced on and an engineer.the new press. Soon books flooded Europe. Most of what we know about LeonardoAbout 40,000 books were published by comes from his notebooks. Leonardo filled1500. Half of these were religious works their pages with sketches of his scientificlike the Bible or prayer books. and artistic ideas. Centuries before the airplane was invented, Leonardo drewHow Did Humanism Affect Society? sketches of a glider, a helicopter, and aHumanist scholars studied the Greeks and parachute. Other sketches show a versionRomans to increase their knowledge of of a military tank and a scuba diving suit.many different topics. They were curious Explain What was the ben-about everything, including plants and efit of writing in the vernacular? Leonardo’s Inventions Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks contained sketches of inventions that would not be Compare Leonardo’s sketches of a produced for hundreds of years. helicopter and subway to their modern counterparts. How accurate was Leonardo? A multibarreled artillery piece A helicopter-like flying machine Cross section of a palace with subways for carriages CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 621 (l)The Art Archive/Manoir du Clos Luce/Dagli Orti, (c)Baldwin H. Ward & Kathryn C. Ward/CORBIS, (r)Alinari Archives/CORBIS
  • 19. LEONARDO DA VINCI –15191452 a peasant woman Leonardo was born in Vinci, Italy, to do’s birth, she left the named Caterina. Shortly after Leonar time Leonardo was boy in the care of his father. By the had artistic talent. 15 years old, his father knew his son e an apprentice to He arranged for Leonardo to becom chio. the famous painter Andrea del Verroc ster in the painters’ By 1472, Leonardo had become a ma ce until 1481, and guild of Florence. He worked in Floren re he kept a large then he went to the city of Milan. The tices. During this time, workshop and employed many appren of paper tucked in his Leonardo began keeping small pads the drawings by theme belt for sketching. Later he organized oks. and assembled the pages into notebo d to Florence, Seventeen years later, Leonardo returne or. During this time, Leonardo da Vinci where he was welcomed with great hon pieces. He also made Leonardo painted some of his master s, observations of the scientific studies, including dissection “Nothing can be loved or flight of birds, and research on the movement of water hated unless it is first currents. known.” In 1516 Leonardo —Leonardo da Vinci accepted an invitation to live in France. The king admired Leonardo and gave him ing the freedom to pursue his interests. Dur lived in a small house near last three years of his life, Leonardo most of his time sketching the king’s summer palace. He spent s. and working on his scientific studie ity and Leonardo’s curiosity fueled his creativ created in interest in science. What invention impress The Mona Lisa by the last 100 years do you think would Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo the most? Why?(t)Timothy McCarthy/Art Resource, NY, (b)Musee du Louvre, Paris/Giraudon, Paris/SuperStock
  • 20. Artists in Renaissance Italy Renaissance artists used new tech-niques to produce paintings that showed people inan emotional and realistic way.Reading Focus Have you ever had trouble makingyour drawings look real and three-dimensional? Readto learn how Renaissance artists learned to make theirart look natural and real. During the Renaissance, wealthy Italianfamilies and church leaders paid artists to The sculpture, La Pieta, by Michelangelo shows Mary holding the body of Jesus after his death.create paintings, sculptures, and buildings What did Renaissance artists try to portray infor display throughout their cities. The their works?pope himself funded many works of art todecorate the Vatican. Renaissance artists Chiaroscuro softened edges by using lightfollowed the models of the ancient Romans and shadows instead of stiff outlines to sep-and Greeks but expressed humanist ideas. arate objects. In Italian, chiaro means “clear or light,” and oscuro means “dark.”What Was New About Renaissance Art? Chiaroscuro created more drama and emo-If you compare medieval and Renaissance tion in a painting.paintings, you will see major differences intheir styles. Renaissance art tries to show The Peak of the Renaissance The artisticpeople as they would appear in real life. It Renaissance lasted from about 1350 to 1550,also tries to show people’s emotions. When but it hit its peak between 1490 and 1520. Ata medieval artist depicted the birth of Jesus, that time, three great artists were producinghe wanted to remind Christians about their their masterpieces—Leonardo da Vinci,belief that Jesus was born to save the world. Raphael Sanzio, and MichelangeloA Renaissance artist painting the same Buonarroti (MY • kuh • LAN • juh • LOH BWAW •scene might try to show how tender Mary nahr • RAW • tee).looked with her tiny baby. Although Leonardo also became a great Renaissance painters also used new tech- scientist and inventor, he trained as anniques. The most important was perspective artist. Born in 1452, he began his training in(puhr • SPEHK • tihv), a method that makes a Florence at a young age. Training in work-drawing or painting look three-dimen- shops was an old tradition, but during thesional. Artists had tried to use perspective Renaissance, individual artists began to dobefore, but Renaissance artists perfected it. something no medieval artist had done—Using perspective, objects in a scene appear they signed their own work.to be at different distances from the viewer. One of Leonardo’s most famous worksThe result is a more realistic image. is The Last Supper, which he began painting To make their paintings more realistic, in 1494 on a wall behind a church altar. HeRenaissance artists also used a technique painted on wet plaster with watercolorcalled chiaroscuro (kee • AHR • uh • SKYUR • oh). paint. A painting done this way is called a CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 623 Vatican Museums & Galleries, Rome/Canali PhotoBank
  • 21. fresco (FREHS • koh), which in Italian means Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY “fresh.” Frescoes were painted in churches all over Italy. One of Leonardo’s great artistic skills is visible in The Last Supper. In this painting ofThe Life of a Renaissance Artist If a Jesus and his disciples, Leonardo was able toyoung boy in Renaissance Italy wanted show human emotions through small differ-to be an artist, he would become an ences in how each apostle held his head orapprentice at a workshop run by an the apostle’s position in relation to Jesus.established artist. The main job of Leonardo showed this skill again in the Monaapprentices was preparing materials for Lisa. People still argue about what thethe master artist and his assistants. woman in the portrait is thinking—what isApprentices used minerals, spices, egg the mystery behind her smile?yolk, and other everyday materials to Although Raphael worked at the samemix paints. They readied wax and clay time as Leonardo, he was much younger.for sculpture modeling. Eventually, Even as a young man, Raphael worked with ease and grace and became known asapprentices became assistants. Talented one of Italy’s best painters. Italians espe-assistants could become masters of cially loved the gentle Madonnas hetheir own workshops. painted. He also painted many frescoes in Master artists could afford to have the Vatican Palace. Perhaps his best-knownworkshops because of the patronage painting is the School of Athens, whichsystem in Italy. Patrons—people who depicts a number of Greek philosophers.pay to support someone else’s work— The third great Renaissance artist waswould commission, or hire, an artist to Michelangelo. Like many other artists of thecomplete a project. That artist was time, Michelangelo painted, sculpted, andusually helped by his assistants and designed buildings. He painted one ofapprentices. the best-known Renaissance works—thePatrons were ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome.usually political Although he painted many outstand-and church ing works, Michelangelo was a sculptorleaders, at heart. He believed his talents were inspired by God. He carved his statues toorganizations, show perfect versions of human beingsand wealthy as a symbol of God’s beauty and perfec-bankers and tion. Michelangelo’s best-known sculp-merchants. Renaissance ture is the 13-foot-tall statue David. The painter and sculptor made David seem calm, yet ready apprentice for action. Also impressive is Michelangelo’s statue of the biblical Moses. The huge figure Connecting to the Past appears both wise and powerful. 1. What was the main job of apprentices? 2. Does the patronage system or the Compare and Contrast apprentice system exist today? If so, What were some of the differences between in what fields? medieval and Renaissance artists?
  • 22. a region that is in northern BelgiumThe Renaissance Spreads today—oils let artists paint intricate details Renaissance ideas and art spread from and surface textures, like the gold braid onItaly to northern Europe. a gown.Reading Focus If you were a Canadian artist, would Jan van Eyck was a master of oil paint-your painting look different than if you lived in ing. In one of his best-known paintings, aArizona? Read to learn how the Renaissance changed as newly married couple stands side by side init moved into northern Europe. a formal bedroom. Van Eyck showed every fold in their rich gowns and every detail of In the late 1400s, the Renaissance spread the chandelier above their heads.to northern Europe and later to England. Albrecht Dürer (AHL • brehkt DUR • uhr) isThe printing press helped humanist ideas perhaps one of the greatest artists of theto spread, as did people who traveled. Northern Renaissance. Dürer was able to master both perspective and fine detail. HeWhat Is the Northern Renaissance? The is best known for his engravings. An engrav-Northern Renaissance refers to the culture ing is made from an image carved on metal,in places we know today as Belgium, wood, or stone. Ink is applied to the surface,Luxembourg, Germany, and the Netherlands. and then the image is printed on paper.Like Italian artists, northern artists wanted Dürer’s Four Horsemen of the Apocalypsetheir works to have greater realism, but they is an outstanding example of a woodcut, aused different methods. One important print made from carved wood. In it, fourmethod they developed was oil painting. fierce horsemen ride to announce the end ofFirst developed in Flanders (FLAN • duhrz)— the world.Globe TheaterWilliam Shakespeare’s plays were performed at the GlobeTheater in London. It could hold about 3,000 people. Plays were Flags announced the type of play.performed every day of the week except Sunday. White flags meant comedies, blackPerformances occurred during the day, since the flags meant tragedies, and red flagstheater had no lights. When did the Renaissance stood for history plays.spread to northern Europeand England? Wealthy and important people sat beneath the Poor commoners,covered section. called groundlings, stood on the ground for the show. They often brought fruit and vegetables to throw at actors they did not like. CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 625
  • 23. Who Was William Shakespeare? InEngland, the Renaissance took place inwriting and theater more than in art. TheRenaissance began in England in the later1500s, during the rule of Elizabeth I. Theater was popular in England in the1500s. Admission was only one or two cents,so even the poor could attend. English play-wrights, or writers who create plays, wroteabout people’s strengths, weaknesses, andemotions. The greatest English writer of that erawas William Shakespeare (SHAYK • SPIHR).He wrote tragedies, comedies, and historical Dürer’s Four Horsemen of the Apocalypseplays. Some of his great tragedies includeHamlet, Macbeth, and Romeo and Juliet. In Henry V and Richard III. Shakespeare’s playseach tragedy, the characters’ flaws cause are still performed today and remain verytheir downfall. Among his most famous popular.comedies are A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Compare How did theTwelfth Night, and Much Ado About Nothing. northern Renaissance differ from the ItalianHis best-known historical plays include Renaissance? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. Explain the beliefs of human- ists during the Renaissance. 4. Evaluate What was the importance of the printingReview the 2. Explain the artistic technique press on Renaissance society?• During the Renaissance, scholars examined the ancient works of of perspective. 5. Science Link Describe the the Greeks and Romans, began to scientific efforts and contribu- Critical Thinking write in the vernacular, and tions of Leonardo da Vinci. 3. Summarizing Information explored many scientific fields. Draw a chart like the one 6. Explain How were the ideals• Italian Renaissance artists below. Use it to describe the of the Renaissance expressed in employed new techniques and artistic work and techniques of England? Provide examples in created masterpieces of painting each artist listed. your answer. and sculpture. 7. Expository Writing Choose Leonardo da Vinci a painting or sculpture shown• As the Renaissance spread to northern Europe and England, Michelangelo in this section. In a short essay, artists and writers, such as Dürer describe the work and explain Jan van Eyck how it demonstrates and Shakespeare, created great works. Shakespeare Renaissance techniques or characteristics.626 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationSnark/Art Resource, NY
  • 24. By William Shakespeare, Adapted by E. Nesbit Before You Read The Scene: This story takes place in Athens, Greece, in a legendary time when magical creatures lived among humans. The Characters: Hermia and Lysander are in love. Demetrius loves Hermia, and Helena loves Demetrius. Oberon and Titania are the King and Queen of the Fairies. The Plot: Hermia and Lysander run away to be married. Demetrius follows them because he loves Hermia. Helena follows Demetrius because she loves him. The fairies they encounter try to use magic to help the four humans. Vocabulary Preview betrayed: gave to an enemy suitor: one who wants mortal: human to marry another quarrel: argument bade: asked glade: grassy open space in a forest scheme: planHave you ever tried to help someonebut made the situation worse? Inthis story, fairies attempt to helpfour young people travelingthrough the woods, buttheir efforts do not goas planned.
  • 25. As You Read Keep in mind that William Shakespeare wrote this story as a play. E. Nesbit rewrote the story in paragraph form to make it shorter and easier to read. Hermia and Lysander were [in love]; but º Helena had been Demetrius’ Hermia’s father wished her to marry sweetheart long before his marriage with another man, named Demetrius. Hermia had been thought of, and being Now in Athens, where they lived, there very silly, like all jealous people, she could was a wicked law, by which any girl who not see that it was not poor Hermia’s fault refused to marry according to her father’s that Demetrius wished to marry her wishes, might be put to death. . . . instead of his own lady, Helena. She knew Lysander of course was nearly mad that if she told Demetrius that Hermia with grief, and the best thing to do was going, as she was, to the wood outside seemed to him for Hermia to run away Athens, he would follow her, “and I can to his aunt’s house at a place beyond the follow him, and at least I shall see him,” reach of that cruel law; and there he she said to herself. So she went to him, would come to her and marry her. But and betrayed her friend’s secret. before she started, she told her friend, Now this wood where Lysander was to Helena, what she was going to do. meet Hermia, and where the other two had 1 decided to follow them, was full of fairies, as most woods are, if one only had the eyes to see them, and in this wood on this night were the King and Queen of the fairies, Oberon and Titania. Now fairies are very wise people, but now and then they can be quite as foolish as mortal folk. Oberon and Titania, who might have been as happy as the days were long, had thrown away all their joy in a foolish quarrel. . . . So, instead of keeping one happy Court and dancing all night through in the moonlight, as is fairies’ use, the King with his attendants wandered through one part of the wood, while the Queen with hers kept state in another. And the cause of all 1 fairies: imaginary beings, usually having small human form and magic powers628
  • 26. this trouble was a little Indian boy And she and her train rode off down 3whom Titania had taken to be one of the moonbeams.her followers. Oberon wanted the child to “Well, go your ways,” said Oberon.follow him and be one of his fairy knights; “But I’ll be even with you before youbut the Queen would not give him up. leave this wood.” On this night, in a glossy moonlight Then Oberon called his favorite fairy,glade, the King and Queen of the Puck. Puck was the spirit of mischief. . . .fairies met. “Now,” said Oberon to this little 2 4 “Ill met by moonlight, proud Titania,” sprite, “fetch me the flower called Love-said the King. in-idleness. The juice of that little purple “What! jealous, Oberon?” answered flower laid on the eyes of those who sleepthe Queen. “You spoil everything with will make them when they wake to loveyour quarreling. Come, fairies, let us leave the first thing they see. I will put some ofhim. I am not friends with him now.” the juice of that flower on my Titania’s “It rests with you to make up the eyes, and when she wakes, she will lovequarrel,” said the King. “Give me that little the first thing she sees, were it lion, bear,Indian boy, and I will again be your or wolf, or bull, or meddling monkey, or ahumble servant and suitor.” busy ape.” “Set your mind at rest,” said the 2 ill: causing suffering or distressQueen. “Your whole fairy kingdom buys 3 moonbeams: rays of light from the moon 4not that boy from me. Come fairies.” sprite: fairy
  • 27. While Puck was gone, Demetrius Demetrius; and directly he saw her hepassed through the glade followed by loved her and left his own lady, under thepoor Helena, and still she told him how spell of the crimson flower.she loved him and reminded him of all When Hermia woke she foundhis promises, and still he told her that he Lysander gone, and wandered about thedid not and could not love her, and that wood trying to find him. Puck went backhis promises were nothing. Oberon was and told Oberon what he had done, andsorry for poor Helena, and when Puck Oberon soon found that he had made areturned with the flower, he bade him mistake, and set about looking forfollow Demetrius and put some of the Demetrius, and having found him, putjuice on his eyes, so that he might love some of the juice on his eyes. And the firstHelena when he woke and looked on her, thing Demetrius saw when he woke wasas much as she loved him. So Puck set also Helena. So now Demetrius andoff, and wandering through the wood Lysander were both following her throughfound, not Demetrius, but Lysander, on the wood, and it was Hermia’s turn towhose eyes he put the juice; but when follow her lover as Helena had done before.Lysander woke, he saw not his own The end of it was that Helena and HermiaHermia, but Helena, who was walking began to quarrel, and Demetrius andthrough the wood looking for the cruel Lysander went off to fight. Oberon was
  • 28. 5 enameled skin of a snake. Oberon stooped over her and laid the juice on her eyes. . . . Now, it happened that when Titania woke the first thing she saw was a stupid clown, one of a party of players who had come out into the wood to rehearse their play. This clown had met with Puck, 6 who had clapped [a donkey’s] head on his shoulders so that it looked as if it grew there. Directly Titania woke and saw this dreadful monster, she said, “What angel is this? Are you as wise as you are beautiful?” “If I am wise enough to find my way out of this wood, that’s enough for me,” said the foolish clown.very sorry to see his kind scheme to help “Do not desire to go out of the wood,”these lovers turn out so badly. So he said to said Titania. The spell of the love-juice wasPuck: on her, and to her the clown seemed the “These two young men are going to most beautiful and delightful creature on allfight. You must overhang the night with the earth. “I love you,” she went on. “Comedrooping fog, and lead them so astray, that with me, and I will give you fairies to attendone will never find the other. When they on you.”are tired out, they will fall asleep. Then So she called four fairies, whosedrop this other herb on Lysander’s eyes. names were Peaseblossom, Cobweb,That will give him his old sight and his old Moth, and Mustardseed.love. Then each man will have the lady “You must attend this gentleman,”who loves him, and they will all think that said the Queen. “Feed him with apricots,this has been only a Midsummer Night’s and dewberries, purple grapes, green figs,Dream. Then when this is done all will be and mulberries. Steal honey-bags for himwell with them.” from the humble-bees, and with the wings So Puck went and did as he was told, of painted butterflies fan the moonbeamsand when the two had fallen asleep from his sleeping eyes.” . . .without meeting each other, Puck poured “Would you like anything to eat?” saidthe juice on Lysander’s eyes. . . . the fairy Queen. Meanwhile Oberon found Titaniaasleep on a bank. . . .There Titania always 5 enameled: coated with a glassy substance 6slept a part of the night, wrapped in the clapped: forcefully put 631
  • 29. “I should like some good dry oats,” said the clown—for his donkey’s head made him desire donkey’s food—“and some hay to follow.” “Shall some of my fairies fetch you new nuts from the squirrel’s house?” asked the Queen. “I’d rather have a handful or two of good dried peas,” said the clown. “But please don’t let any of your people disturb me, I am going to sleep.” Then said the Queen, “And I will wind thee in my arms.” And so when Oberon came along he sleep with his own silly head lying on the found his beautiful Queen lavishing kisses thyme and violets. and endearments on a clown with a Thus all was made plain and straight donkey’s head. And before he released her again. Oberon and Titania loved each other from the enchantment, he persuaded her to more than ever. Demetrius thought of no give him the little Indian boy he so much one but Helena, and Helena had never had desired to have. Then he took pity on her, any thought of anyone but Demetrius. As and threw some juice of the disenchanting for Hermia and Lysander, they were as flower on her pretty eyes; and then in a loving a couple as you could meet in a moment she saw plainly the donkey- day’s march, even through a fairy-wood. So headed clown she had been loving, and the four [mortals] went back to Athens and knew how foolish she had been. were married; and the fairy King and Oberon took off the [donkey’s] head Queen live happily together in that very from the clown, and left him to finish his wood at this very day. º Responding to the Reading 1. How did Demetrius and Lysander fall in love with Helena? 2. How did the story get its title, A Midsummer Night’s Dream? 3. Cause and Effect Why were Lysander and Demetrius preparing to fight? 4. Predict What do you think might have happened if Oberon had not interfered with the conflict among the four young people? 5. Read to Write Reread the last paragraph in the story, then write another ending to the story that could replace that paragraph.632
  • 30. The Reformation Begins What’s the Connection? Meeting People During the Middle Ages, all of Martin Luther Western Europe’s Christians were Desiderius Erasmus (DEHS • ih • DIHR • Catholic. The movement called the ee • uhs ih • RAZ • muhs) Reformation, however, questioned John Calvin Catholic beliefs and power. Building Your Vocabulary Reformation Focusing on the (REH • fuhr • MAY • shuhn) • The reforms of Martin Luther led to indulgence (ihn • DUHL • juhns) the creation of new Christian churches. (page 634) denomination (dih • NAH • muh • NAY • shuhn) • Political leaders often supported theology (thee • AH • luh • jee) Protestantism because they wanted predestination more power. (page 639) s (pree • DEHS • tuh • NAY • shuhn) • John Calvin’s Protestant teachings spread across Europe and into North Reading Strategy America. (page 640) Cause and Effect Create a diagram to show some of the reasons for the Reformation. Locating Places Wittenberg (WIH • tuhn • BUHRG) Reasons for the Reformation Geneva (juh • NEE • vuh) 1500 1530 1560 1517 1519 1555London Martin Luther Charles V becomes Peace of Wittenberg Paris writes Ninety- Holy Roman Emperor Augsburg Geneva Five Theses signed Rome CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 633
  • 31. Christianity known as Protestantism. By theCalls for Church Reform end of the Reformation, many new Christian The reforms of Martin Luther led to the churches had appeared in Europe. The reli-creation of new Christian churches. gious unity the Catholic Church had createdReading Focus Can you think of any reformers in the in Western Europe, and which had lasted forUnited States? Read to learn how some Europeans set hundreds of years, had been broken.out to reform the Catholic Church and ended up start-ing a new church instead. What Ideas Led to the Reformation? In the last section, you read about humanism. When humanism spread to northern In 1517 a young monk named Martin Europe, it led to a new movement inLuther challenged the Roman Catholic Christianity called Christian humanism. ItsChurch. He publicly argued that the pope best-known leader was a scholar and cler-could not decide what a person had to do to gyman named Desiderius Erasmus (DEHS • ihget into heaven. Eventually, his challenge to • DIHR • ee • uhs ih • RAZ • muhs).the pope’s authority led to the creation of Erasmus wrote that human beingsnew churches in Western Europe. could use their reason to become better At first, Luther only wanted to reform Christians and thereby improve thethe Catholic Church. This is why we call Church. He studied ancient Christianthese events the Reformation (REH • fuhr • works for inspiration.MAY • shuhn). The Reformation, however, One of Erasmus’s goals was to translatebecame the beginning of a movement in the Bible into the vernacular. He wanted a farmer working in the fields to be able to stop and read the Bible. Erasmus also wrote that what mattered was that people be good in their everyday lives. It was not enough to participate in religious activities, like going to church on Sunday. The Church Upsets Reformers By the 1300s, many people believed that the Church had problems. It taxed people heavily, and some bishops behaved like they were kings. They built palaces, spent money on fine art, and made sure that their relatives had good jobs. In many villages, priests could barely read or give a good sermon. Many Catholics became angry at the Church’s focus on money. One Church practice that especially angered them was the selling of indulgences. An indulgence (ihn • DUHL • juhns) was a pardon from the Desiderius Erasmus, the most famous Christian humanist, criticized the wealth and power of Church for a person’s sins. The Church had Catholic leaders. What change did Erasmus given out indulgences before, but it did not want to make to the Bible? usually sell them. In the 1500s, however, the634 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationScala/Art Resource, NY
  • 32. pope needed money to repairthe church of St. Peter’s inRome. To get that money, hedecided to sell indulgences innorthern Germany. The sale of indulgences out-raged Martin Luther. Luther hadlooked in the Bible and foundnothing that said an indulgencecould pardon sin. The wholeidea of selling God’s forgivenessseemed unholy to him. Martin Luther was not thefirst person to question thepope’s power. As early as the1370s, an English priest namedJohn Wycliffe (WIH • KLIHF) hadopposed Church policies. Hepreached that Christians neededonly to recognize Jesus Christ as This painting shows indulgencesa power above them, not the being sold in a village marketplace. Why was the Church sellingpope. indulgences? Wycliffe and Luther bothchallenged the pope’s power, Indulgence boxbut they had something else incommon—their respect for the Bible. lightning knocked him to the ground.Wycliffe wanted everyone to read the Bible. According to legend, Luther made up hisAfter Wycliffe died, his followers translated mind to be a monk at that moment.the Bible into English for the first time. When Luther went to Rome on a pil- grimage, he was shocked at the behavior ofWho Was Martin Luther? Martin Luther the Roman clergy. Back home in Germany,became one of the most famous men in his- he taught at a university in the town oftory. His break with the Catholic Church led Wittenberg (WIH • tuhn • BUHRG). He worriedto a revolution in Christianity. Why would about the Church’s problems and alsoa religious man disagree with his faith? about his own soul. With the plague killingFirst of all, Luther was angered by the people all around him, it is not surprisingbehavior of Church leaders. Secondly, he that Luther worried about whether hewas worried about his own soul. would go to heaven when he died. Luther was born in 1483 in a small The Church said that Luther would beGerman village. A bright and sensitive boy, saved and would go to heaven if hehe grew up in a disciplined family. His performed good works and received thefather wanted him to study law, but Luther sacraments. Still Luther worried that thisoften thought about serving the Church. was not true. He prayed and fasted longOne day, he was out riding when a bolt of hours as he searched for answers to his CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 635 (t)Michael Hampshire/National Geographic Society Image Collection, (b)Sammlungen des Stiftes, Klosterneuburg, Austria/Erich Lessing/Art Resource, NY
  • 33. Cathedral for everyone to read. The list became known as the Ninety-Five Theses. Thousands of copies were printed and read all across the German kingdoms. Revolt Leads to New Churches At first the Church did not take Luther very seriously. Soon, though, Church leaders saw that Luther was dangerous. If people believed Luther, they would rely on the Bible, not priests. Who would need priests if the sacra- ments were not needed to get to heaven? The pope and Luther argued for several years, but Luther refused to change his position. Finally, the pope excommunicated Luther. This meant Luther was no longer a member of the Church and could no longer receive the sacraments. He was also no Martin Luther began the Reformation when longer considered a monk. he made public his Ninety-Five Theses. How did the Catholic Church react to Luther’s In the following years, Luther’s ideas actions? led to the creation of a new denomination (dih • NAH • muh • NAY • shuhn), or organizedquestions. He prayed so long that some- branch of Christianity. It was known astimes he fell unconscious on the cold Lutheranism and was the first Protestantchurch floor. denomination. Luther found his answers by studying Lutheranism has three main ideas. Thethe Bible. He concluded that only faith, not first is that faith in Jesus, not good works,good works, brought salvation. He believed brings salvation. The second is that thethat salvation was a gift from God, not Bible is the final source for truth aboutsomething earned by doing good works. God, not a church or its ministers. Finally, In 1517, when the Church began selling Lutheranism said that the church wasindulgences, Luther was astonished. How made up of all its believers, not just thecould the Church tell peasants that buying clergy.an indulgence would save them? Heangrily prepared a list of 95 arguments Peasant Revolts Luther’s debate with theagainst indulgences and sent them to his pope was so famous that even peasants inbishop. Some accounts say that Luther also the countryside had heard about it. Theynailed them to the door of Wittenberg liked what they heard about Luther. The life of a peasant had always been hard, but in the 1520s, it was terrible. The crops had been poor for several years. OnWeb Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com and click top of that, noble landowners increased theon Chapter 17—Student Web Activity to learn taxes that peasants had to pay.more about the Reformation. Because of their suffering, Luther’s ideas stirred the peasants to revolt. If636 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformationakg-images
  • 34. Luther had a right to rebel against an unjust nobles had better weapons and horses andpope, then the peasants must have a right to won easily, killing thousands of peasants.stand up to greedy nobles. At first Luther sympathized with the The peasants began by listing their peasants, but he soon changed his mind. Hedemands. Like Luther, they based their was afraid of what might happen without aideas on the Bible. One leader said the strong government. Luther used his power-peasants would no longer work for the ful sermons to tell peasants that God hadnobles, “unless it should be shown us from set the government above them and theythe Gospel that we are serfs.” must obey it. When the nobles did not give in, huge Cause and Effect Whatrevolts broke out. It was not long, however, was the result of the Church’s decision to sellbefore the peasants were defeated. The indulgences in 1517? The Anabaptists, Amish, and Mennonites The Amish today One Protestant group that formed during the Reformation was called the Brethren. Others called them Anabaptists, which means “to baptize again.” They believed that adults should be baptized. The Mennonites and the Amish, many of whom came to the United States, developed from the Anabaptists. Today most Amish and Mennonite groups are located in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and a few other states. They emphasize the value of community. Old Order Amish reject modern technology, such as electricity, cars, and television. What, if anything, might prompt A Mennonite couple in the 1600s you to give up a modern lifestyle? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 637 (l)Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz/Art Resource, NY, (r)Getty Images
  • 35. MA–1546IN LUTHER RT 1483 with the Catholic Long before Martin Luther struggled was born in Eisleben, Church, he faced difficult issues. Luther ers. Both his parents Germany, in 1483 to a family of min and his father had beat Luther as a child. Martin Luther father’s beatings terrible tempers. Luther later said his Martin Luther caused him to feel bitter and hat eful toward his family. To avoid his abusive home life, Luther focused on his “He who gives to a poor Latin School in education. He was a student at the went to two other man, or lends to a needy Mansfield in 1488. As a teenager he schools away from home. At his fath er’s urging, he man, does better than if earned a bachelor’s considered studying law but instead he bought pardons.” degree in philosophy in 1502. —Martin Luther, separate himself Later, Luther entered a monastery to “The Ninety-five Theses (1517)” from his abusive pas t. In 1505 he traveled to Erfurt and tenberg in 1508 and became a monk. He then went to Wit re he continued his study of theology. stayed wit h a group of Augustinian hermits. The n h he was a priest, he began to questio Luther was a determined young man. Althoug Church. In reforms resulted in a break with the the practices of the Catholic Church. His children and lived ed Katharine von Bora. They had six 1525 he married a former nun nam in a former monastery. hich Although known for his hot temper—w his wife cost him many friendships—Luther and se parents cared for as many as 20 orphans who rs, Luther died from the plague. In his later yea tinued his enjoyed gardening and music, and con 6, lifelong love of writing. He died in 154 probably of a heart attack. for his Martin Luther was willing to stand up people. beliefs, even if that meant offending s who has Can you think of anyone in the new shown that same willingness? Wittenberg today(t)SuperStock, (b)Dave G. Houser/CORBIS
  • 36. Politics and Lutheranism Holy Roman Empire 1520 Political leaders often supported KEY 0°Protestantism because they wanted more power. Holy Roman EmpireReading Focus Under the United States Constitution,the government cannot favor any one religion. Read to 0 300 mi.learn what happened in Europe during the Reformation NORWAY 20°W 0 300 km Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projectionwhen kings decided what faith people had to follow. N SCOTLAND TEUTONIC W North ORDER In the past, there had been thinkers who E IRELAND Sea DENMARK Schallenged Catholic beliefs, but the Church ENGLAND dshad always remained in control. What POLAND an rlhad changed in the 1500s that allowed t he ATLANTIC Ne BohemiaProtestantism to take hold? One reason OCEANProtestantism succeeded is that some of Swiss FRANCE Confed. Austria V HUNGARYEurope’s kings realized they could increase Milan E N OT Savoy IC TOtheir power by supporting Lutheranism Papal E E M P MA IRE N AL 40°N Genoaagainst the Catholic Church. TUG Florence States You read earlier about the Holy Roman SPAIN POR NAPLESEmpire, which covered much of central Mediterranean Sea 20°EEurope. The heart of the empire was madeup of about 300 small German kingdoms. In1519 Charles V became the Holy Roman In 1520 the Holy Roman Emperor ruledEmperor. His empire included the lands of over a large part of Europe.the Holy Roman Empire, as well as all of 1. What were some of the areas that made up the Holy Roman Empire?Spain, the Netherlands, parts of Italy, and 2. Why might it have been difficult for oneterritories in the Americas. ruler to control the Holy Roman Empire? The local rulers and nobles of the HolyRoman Empire were concerned aboutCharles V’s power. They did not want a Rulers could impose their own church taxesstrong central ruler. They wanted to keep and keep the money for themselves. Thisruling their own little kingdoms. made rulers who became Protestants Many German rulers decided to stronger and the Church weaker.become Lutherans for religious and politi- Charles V eventually went to war withcal reasons. By doing so, their kingdom the German rulers who converted toalso became Lutheran. After breaking with Lutheranism, but he was unable to defeatthe Catholic Church, these rulers seized them. In 1555 the fighting ended with thelands owned by Catholic monasteries in Peace of Augsburg. This agreement let eachtheir kingdoms. Now they, and not the German ruler decide whether his kingdomChurch, would earn income from those would be Lutheran or Catholic. As a resultlands. most of northern Germany became At the same time, when the Catholic Protestant, while the south stayed Catholic.Church left a kingdom, it meant that church Explain Why did manytaxes no longer flowed out of the kingdom. German princes support Martin Luther’s ideas? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 639
  • 37. Calvin and Calvinism went off to Paris to study theology (thee • AH • luh • jee). Theology is the study of ques- John Calvin’s Protestant teachings tions about God.spread across Europe and into North America. Calvin was very interested in religion.Reading Focus Are there some things you are sure He got up early to read books on theology.are true? Read to learn how some Protestants devel- During the day, he debated ideas with otheroped a faith where everyone agreed that some people students and then went home to read latewere going to heaven and others were not. into the night. Although Calvin lived in France, heWho Was John Calvin? John Calvin was began to hear about the ideas of Martinborn in France in the early 1500s. Everyone Luther. Secretly, Calvin began to read aboutin his hometown expected that such a duti- Luther at his college. He and the other stu-ful and intelligent boy would become a dents were careful to whisper when theypriest. When he reached the right age, he discussed Luther’s ideas. The more Calvin read, the more he was convinced by Luther’s new ideas. Eventually, Calvin had to leave Paris because it became too dangerous to talk Knowledge about Lutheranism. Sometimes he hid out of God at friends’ houses. Once he dared to return John Calvin’s writings helped Europeans to his hometown, but he was arrested and accept Protestantism. spent months in a damp jail. Calvin “What help is it . . . to know finally found safety in Geneva a God with whom we have (juh • NEE • vuh), Switzerland, a nothing to do? Rather, our Protestant city. There his powerful knowledge should serve first preaching convinced many people to teach us fear and rever- to follow him. ence [respect]; secondly, with it as our guide and What Is Calvinism? Calvin agreed teacher, we should learn to with Luther that faith was more seek every good from him, and having received it, to important than good works, but he credit it to his account. . . . added other ideas too. Calvinism Again, you cannot behold became the basis of many Protestant him clearly unless you churches, including the churches of acknowledge him to be the Puritans and Presbyterians in fountainhead [source of life] John Calvin England and Scotland. and source of every good.” Calvin’s main idea was that God’s will —John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion is absolute and decides everything in the world in advance. God has decided who will go to heaven and who will not. This According to Calvin, what is needed for belief is called predestination (pree • DEHS • believers to understand God clearly? tuh • NAY • shuhn), meaning that no matter what people do, the outcome of their life is already planned.640 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationErich Lessing/Art Resource, NY
  • 38. Some people could say that if theirlife’s outcome were already determined,then why would it matter if they weregood or bad? However, most peopledecided that they were probably amongthe saved. To prove it, they worked hard,behaved well, and obeyed the laws of theirtowns. In this way, Calvinism became apowerful tool in society. It encouragedpeople to work hard at their business andto behave themselves. Another important idea of Calvinism is In this picture, John Calvin is shown speakingthat neither kings nor bishops should con- before leaders in Geneva. Which Protestanttrol the Church. Calvinists believed that churches were based on Calvinism?congregations should choose their own eld-ers and ministers to run the church for leaders helped support the idea that thethem. people should also be allowed to elect their This idea had a strong impact on own political leaders.England and on many of the Englishsettlers in America. The idea that a congre- Compare How did Calvin’sgation should be allowed to choose its own ideas differ from those of Luther? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. What were indulgences, and why did they become 5. Cause and Effect Who was Erasmus, and how were hisReview the controversial? ideas about Christianity• Many Christians, including Martin 2. What were John Calvin’s basic affected by humanism? Luther, believed the Catholic beliefs about God’s will? 6. Analyze How did Germany’s Church was becoming corrupt. peasants react to Luther’s This led people to leave the Critical Thinking teachings, and what was Church and create new Christian 3. Organizing Information Luther’s response? churches. Draw a diagram to list the three 7. Creative Writing Write a• Many European rulers and nobles main ideas of Lutheranism. script for a play about an imag- supported Luther’s reforms inary meeting between Martin for political as well as religious Lutheranism Luther and John Calvin. Think reasons. about what the two men may• John Calvin’s Protestant teach- have discussed concerning ings inspired his followers to 4. Explain What were the their beliefs and how they work hard and live good lives. Ninety-Five Theses? differed. CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 641 Hulton/Getty Images
  • 39. Catholics and Protestants What’s the Connection? Meeting People In the last section, you learned Ignatius of Loyola (ihg • NAY • shuhs about the rise of Protestantism. In uhv loy • OH • luh) this section, you will read about the Henry of Navarre Catholic Church’s attempts at reform Henry VIII and the struggle between Europe’s Mary I Protestants and Catholics. Elizabeth I Focusing on the Building Your Vocabulary • Catholics and Protestants fought seminary (SEH • muh • NEHR • ee) religious wars across Europe. (page 643) heresy (HEHR • uh • see) • Henry VIII created the Anglican annul (uh • NUHL) Church in England. (page 648) • As part of the Counter-Reformation, Reading Strategy Catholic kingdoms began sending Cause and Effect Create a diagram missionaries overseas to convert to show the results of the Catholic people to Christianity. (page 650) Church’s attempts at reform. Locating Places Reform Trent Navarre (nuh •VAHR) Results Results Paris London 1550 1600 1650 1545 1593 1648London Pope Paul III Henry of Navarre The Thirty Paris opens the becomes Catholic to win Years’ War Trent Council of Trent French throne ends Rome642 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
  • 40. reform itself. Pope Paul III understood thisCounter-Reformation need. After becoming pope, Paul called a Catholics and Protestants fought reli- church council at Trent, near Rome. Thegious wars across Europe. council held meetings for 20 years, from theReading Focus Have you visited Protestant and Catholic 1540s to the 1560s.churches? Could you see any differences? Read to learn the The Council of Trent made Catholicreasons for those differences. beliefs clear. It also set up strict rules for how bishops and priests should behave. In the 1500s and 1600s, the Catholic The Catholic clergy were told to workChurch set out to defeat Protestantism and even harder at instructing people in theconvince people to return to the Church. faith. To train new priests, seminariesThis effort came to be called the Counter- were set up. A seminary (SEH • muh • NEHR •Reformation. As you learned earlier, the ee) is a special school for training and edu-Reformation also triggered a series of cating priests.bloody wars in Europe between Catholic In 1540 Pope Paul III took anotherand Protestant rulers. When the last wars important step. He recognized a new orderended in 1648, Europe was divided into of priests, the Society of Jesus, known as theCatholic and Protestant areas. Jesuits. Jesuits were the pope’s agents in Europe. They taught, preached, and foughtThe Church Tries to Reform Itself The heresy (HEHR • uh • see). A heresy is a reli-Catholic Church waged a war against gious belief that contradicts what theProtestantism, but it knew it needed to Church says is true. The Council of Trent is believed to be the basis for the Catholic Counter-Reformation. What did the Council of Trent accomplish? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 643 Giraudon/Art Resource, NY
  • 41. Only about seven percent of the French Ignatius and people became Protestants, but almost half of France’s nobles did, including the Christianity Bourbon family. The Bourbons were the Ignatius of Loyola became devoted second most powerful family in to the Christian religion while France. They ruled a kingdom in recovering from an injury. southern France called Navarre (nuh • “In everything else he was healthy except that he could not stand VAHR) and were also in line for the easily on his leg and had to stay throne of France. in bed. As he was much given to Many French nobles wanted to reading . . . when he felt better he weaken the king. The Huguenot asked to be given some of them nobles especially wanted the king [books] to pass the time. But in weak so they could practice their reli- that house none of those that he gion freely. At the same time, usually read could be found, so they gave him a Life of Christ and France’s king, Henry II, wanted to a book of the lives of the saints build a strong central government. in Spanish. As he read them over Henry II died in 1559, and his son many times, he became rather Francis II died the following year. fond of what he found written Ignatius This meant that Francis’s brother there.” of Loyola Charles, a 10-year-old boy, was now —The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola, king. Since Charles was too young to Joseph F. O’Callaghan, trans. rule, his mother ran the government for him. His mother was Catherine de’ Medici—the daughter of Lorenzo de’ Medici, the power- Why do you think Ignatius read the religious books even though they were ful Italian leader of Florence. not the type of book he usually read? Catherine was determined to keep the French kingdom strong for her son. She believed the Huguenots were a threat to the king’s power and refused to compromise The man who founded the Jesuits was a with them. In 1562 a civil war that wouldSpaniard, Ignatius of Loyola (ihg • NAY • last more than 30 years began in Franceshuhs uhv loy • OH • luh). He was a daring between Protestants and Catholics.soldier, but his life changed when he was In 1589 Henry of Navarre, the leader ofwounded in battle. While recuperating, he Huguenot forces and head of the Bourbonread about Christian saints who performed family, became King Henry IV of France.brave deeds to defend their faith. Ignatius For the next few years, the war continueddecided he would be a soldier for Jesus because Catholic nobles would not accept aChrist. Protestant as king. Henry won most of his battles but was unable to capture Paris.The Religious Wars in France John Calvin Henry IV then made a famous deal. Hewas originally from France, and many knew most French people were CatholicFrench people became interested in his ideas. and that they demanded a Catholic king.As Calvinism spread in France, French Henry agreed to become a Catholic so theProtestants became known as Huguenots. French people would accept him as king.644 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationMary Evans Picture Library
  • 42. In 1593 Henry went to Paris and put on What Was the Thirty Years’ War? The white satin for the Catholic ceremony. As worst religious war of the Reformation era he passed through the church doors, he was fought in the Holy Roman Empire in the smiled and, according to tradition, said 1600s. The war began in Bohemia—today that Paris was “worth a mass.” He meant known as the Czech Republic. Protestant it was worth becoming a Catholic to rule nobles in Bohemia rebelled against their all of France. Catholic king. Other Protestant kings in Henry IV did not forget his Huguenot fol- Germany decided to help the rebels, and the lowers, however. He issued an edict, or order, war expanded throughout the empire. while visiting the city of Nantes in 1598. The The war lasted 30 years, from 1618 to Edict of Nantes said Catholicism was 1648, and quickly became a war of kingdoms. France’s official religion, but it also gave France, Sweden, Denmark, England, and Huguenots the right to worship freely. the Netherlands sent troops to help the Religions in Europe c. 1600 60°N 0° 10°E 0 300 mi. S W E D E N 0 300 km NORWAY Lambert Azimuthal Equal-Area projection N SCOTLAND W a E North Se S RUSSIA IRELAND Sea ic DENMARK l t Ba KEY50° ENGLAND Dominant religion NETHERLANDS GERMAN N Anglican STATES Calvinist Canterbury Wittenberg SPANISH Eastern Orthodox POLAND Christian NETHERLANDS BOHEMIA Lutheran ATLANTIC Worms Paris Muslim OCEAN Augsburg BAVARIA Roman Catholic AUSTRIA Mixture of Calvinist, FRANCE Zurich Lutheran, and Roman Catholic Geneva SWITZERLAND HUNGARY Trent Minority religion Calvinist Black Sea Lutheran AL ITALY Muslim TUG40°N Roman Catholic SPAIN Rome O TT POR OMA10°W N EM PIRE Medit er ra ne a By the late 1500s, many northern Europeans n Se had become Protestants, while most southern a Europeans had remained Catholics. 30°E 20°E 1. Which areas of Europe became dominantly Calvinist? 2. Where in Europe do you think religious conflict might have taken place?
  • 43. When Ferdinand and Isabella began to rule, many Muslims still lived in Spain. As you read in earlier chapters, Muslims ruled Spain from about A.D. 700 to 1200. During those years, people of different religions lived together in relative harmony. The Muslims made non- Muslims pay special taxes and lim- ited their rights, but they did not This photo shows the seek to kill or expel nonbelievers. Alhambra, a Muslim palace and fortress in Granada, Jews, for example, found life in Spain. What happened to Muslim Spain better than other Spanish Muslims after places in Europe. As you read in Ferdinand and Isabella earlier chapters, Jews were perse- took power? cuted throughout Europe during Maimonides the Middle Ages. Muslim Spain during the Middle Ages was a golden age for Jewish thinkers and poets. The most famous Jewish scholar wasProtestants, while Spain and the Holy Maimonides (my • MAH • nuh • DEEZ). He wasRoman Empire backed the Catholics. born in Spain and his books on religion and Town fought against town, and roving medicine earned him great respect.troops murdered peasants on the roads. This golden age ended when CatholicsWhen it was over, only wolves were found took control of Spain. Jews and Muslimswandering where some towns used to be. were no longer welcome. In 1492 FerdinandThe war weakened Spain and helped make and Isabella ordered all Jews and MuslimsFrance one of Europe’s most powerful to convert to Catholicism or leave the coun-countries. try. To ensure religious unity, they also setThe Reformation in Spain The ideas of up the Spanish Inquisition to investigateLuther and Calvin never became very popu- people’s beliefs.lar in Spain. Still, when Protestants began The Spanish Inquisition was a Catholicfighting in Europe, it affected Spain. Spanish court, similar to the one the Catholic Churchrulers became suspicious of Protestant coun- had set up in Europe to investigate heresy.tries and of anyone in Spain who was not The Spanish Inquisition was much crueler,Catholic. however. Charges of heresy were made just When the Reformation began in the to eliminate enemies. Horrible tortures were1500s, Spain was a young nation. It had been invented to force confessions of guilt. Thefounded in 1469 when King Ferdinand and head of the Spanish Inquisition, Tomás deQueen Isabella married and joined their two Torquemada (TAWR • kuh • MAH • duh), executedkingdoms. These monarchs wanted a strong some 2,000 Spaniards. Even the pope innation. They felt that all their subjects should Rome could not stop him.be Catholic, because that would keep Spain’s Identify What deal earnedcitizens loyal and united. Henry of Navarre the French throne?646 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation(t)Nik Wheeler/CORBIS, (b)CORBIS
  • 44. CATHERINE DE’ MEDICI –1589 1519 woman who played an Catherine de’ Medici was an Italian was born in Florence toimportant role in French history. She la Tour d’ Auvergne. CatherineLorenzo de’ Medici and Madeleine de ed by relatives. At age 14,was orphaned as a baby and was rais nch prince. Catherine took Catherine was married to Henry, a Fre dancers with her to the French Italian artists, musicians, writers, and in France, however, because she Catherine de’ Medici court. She was never fully accepted family. was Italian and was not from a royal “God and the world King Henry II. After he died in In 1547 Catherine’s husband became e oldest sons—Francis II, Charles will have reason a jousting accident in 1559, their thre er as king. Although Catherine IX, and Henry III—succeeded each oth to be satisfied ch influence over her sons. was no longer queen, she still had mu Catherine is blamed for many of the conflicts between French with me.” ed Huguenots. In 1568 she Catholics and French Protestants, call —Catherine de’ Medici, outlawed freedom of worship. In 1572 Catherine arranged the Biography of a Family murder of a Huguenot adv iser. His death sparked the Saint lted in the deaths of about Bartholomew’s Massacre, which resu d d to Huguenots. In fact, she arrange 6,000 Huguen ots. Catherine was not always oppose ry of Navarre, a former Protestant the marria ge of her daughter Margaret to Hen IV of France. Huguenot who became King Henry y for the s are mixed. Some blame her entirel Views on Catherine’s accomplishment Still others ber her efforts to protect her sons. French religious wars. Others remem n because she remember her as a Renaissance woma al library, and sponsored supported the arts, added to the roy considered to be the a dance and theater pageant that is pneumonia. first ballet. Catherine died in 1589 of Catherine de’ Medici meets with foreign ambassadors for If Catherine de’ Medici were running would political office today, do you think she y not? be a popular candidate? Why or wh 647 (t)Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY, (b)The Art Archive/Chateau de Blois/Dagli Orti
  • 45. Henry and his father were members ofThe English Reformation the Tudor family. In the 1400s, before the Henry VIII created the Anglican Church Tudors came to the throne, England’sin England. nobles had been at war with each other.Reading Focus You have probably heard about the Henry was determined to keep the peacePilgrims. Do you know why the Pilgrims left England to and to keep the Tudors on the throne.come here? Read to learn how the Reformation came to To do this he needed a son to succeedEngland and why some Protestants decided to leave him, but Henry had no son. His wifeEngland and go to America. Catherine had given birth only to one sur- viving daughter. Henry asked the pope to Because England is an island, ideas from annul (uh • NUHL), or cancel, his marriage toEurope sometimes took longer to get there. Catherine.Surprisingly, though, England broke away An annulment is not the same as afrom the Catholic Church earlier than the divorce. If the pope annulled the marriage, itrest of Europe. That change was based on a would be as if the marriage had never hap-political decision by the English king. Later, pened. It would mean that Henry could findhowever, the English people strongly a new wife to give birth to sons. Those sonsdebated Reformation ideas. would be heirs to the throne, not the daugh- ter Catherine had given him.Henry VIII Starts His Own Church In the Popes had annulled marriages before,history of England, no king is more famous but this time the pope refused. Catherinethan Henry VIII. He ruled England from was the daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella1509 to 1547. He was stubborn, impatient, of Spain. Her nephew was the Holy Romanand cruel. Henry married six queens, Emperor. Spain was the strongest Catholicdivorced two, and beheaded two more. He kingdom at that time, and the pope did notimprisoned bishops and nobles in the want to make Catherine’s family angry.Tower of London (LUHN • duhn) for disagree- Henry had the archbishop ofing with him. They also were eventually Canterbury—the highest bishop inbeheaded. England—annul the marriage. In response, the pope excommunicated Henry from the In his attempt to divorce Church. Henry then declared that the king, his wife and marry another woman, Henry VIII broke not the pope, was the head of the Church in away from the Catholic England. Church and created the Henry ordered all the priests and bishops Church of England. in England to accept him as the new head of Why did the pope refuse their church. Some refused and were killed. to annul Henry VIII’s marriage? The most famous was Sir Thomas More, who was executed in 1535. Henry then seized the Catholic Church’s land in England and gave some of it to his nobles. This kept the nobles loyal to the king and to the Church of England. If they ever let the Catholic Church regain power in England, they would have to give up their land.648 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and ReformationScala/Art Resource, NY
  • 46. How Did Calvinism Affect England? Although the Catholics were defeated, the religious battles were not over. A new fight began to make the Anglican Church more Protestant in its beliefs and rituals. By the late 1500s, the ideas of John Calvin had reached England. Many edu- cated people read Calvin’s works and became convinced that he was right. They began to demand that the Anglican Church give up its Catholic ways of doing things. These reformers became known as Puritans Mary I (above) attempted to restore because they wanted to purify the Anglican the Catholic religion Church of Catholic ideas. in England, and she Puritans began to form their own con- married Philip II gregations. These congregations were inde- (right), the Catholic pendent. They made their own decisions king of Spain. Why was Mary I known as about what their congregations should and “Bloody Mary”? should not do. They did not report to a bishop of the Anglican Church, and they chose their own ministers. Queen Elizabeth I tolerated theWho Was Bloody Mary? The Church of Puritans, but when James I became kingEngland came to be known as the Anglican in 1603, the Puritans faced harder times.Church. It kept most of the rituals and sacra- James refused to allow anyone to disagreements of the Catholic Church. However, with the Anglican Church. The king headedmany English Catholics were not satisfied. the Anglican Church and appointed itsThey wanted to stay Catholic. They backed leaders. The leaders, in turn, chose theHenry and Catherine’s daughter Mary when priests for the congregations. Jamesshe became Queen Mary I in 1553. Mary had believed that by choosing their own minis-been raised Catholic and wanted to make ters, the Puritans were challenging theEngland a Catholic kingdom again. king’s power. Mary restored the Catholic Church in James I and the king who came afterEngland and arrested Protestants who him, Charles I, persecuted the Puritans.opposed her. In her struggle to make They shut down Puritan churches andEngland Catholic again, Mary burned jailed Puritan leaders. Many Puritans300 people at the stake. The English were decided to move to America to practicehorrified and called her “Bloody Mary.” their religion freely. There they founded Mary ruled about five years, then died. colonies that eventually became the statesHer half-sister Elizabeth took over the throne, of Massachusetts, Connecticut, Newbecoming Queen Elizabeth I. Elizabeth was a Hampshire, and Rhode Island.Protestant. She restored the Anglican Churchand went on to become one of the greatest Cause and Effect Why didrulers in English history. Henry VIII create the Anglican Church? CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 649 (t)Scala/Art Resource, NY, (b)Michael Holford
  • 47. The first Jesuit missionary to Japan,Missionaries Go Overseas Francis Xavier, arrived in 1549. The Japanese As part of the Counter-Reformation, at first welcomed the Jesuits. By 1600, theCatholic kingdoms began sending missionaries over- Jesuits had converted thousands of Japaneseseas to convert people to Christianity. to Christianity.Reading Focus Do you think spreading democracy is Eventually the Jesuits clashed with peo-important? Read to learn how Catholic missionaries tried ple who believed in Buddhism andto spread their religion to other people in the world. Shintoism. The Japanese Shogun, or military ruler, banned Christianity in Japan and When the Counter-Reformation began, expelled all missionaries.many Catholics became committed to Spanish missionaries had much greaterspreading their faith. As part of this new success in the Philippine Islands. Most ofenergy and determination, Catholic king- the people there eventually becamedoms began sending missionaries overseas Catholic. Today the Philippines are the onlyto America and Asia. Asian country with a Catholic majority. The Jesuits were active missionaries in French missionaries tried to convert thethe 1500s and 1600s. French and Spanish people of Vietnam but were expelled byJesuits headed to America and Asia. In Vietnam’s emperor.America, the Native Americans called them Identify In what parts ofthe “Black Robes.” the world did Catholic missionaries teach? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. What was the Council of Trent, and what did it accomplish? 4. Analyze Why did Henry VIII form the Anglican Church?Review the• Across Europe, religious wars 2. Why was the Edict of Nantes 5. Explain Who were the between Catholics and Protestants important? Puritans, and what were their were fought in the 1500s and beliefs and practices? Critical Thinking 1600s, while the Spanish mon- 3. Organizing Information 6. Predict How do you think archs tried to make Spain an Draw a chart like the one conflicts over religion affected exclusively Catholic country. below. Fill in details about the the world outside of Europe?• In England, Henry VIII broke with steps the Catholic Church took 7. Expository Writing Write a the Catholic Church and created to counter the Reformation. short essay summarizing the the Anglican Church. Puritans history of Catholicism in Spain later tried to reform the Anglican Church’s Efforts to Stop in the 1400s and 1500s. Protestantism Church and then fled to America.• Catholic missionaries tried to spread their religion to Asia and America.650 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
  • 48. Section The Renaissance BeginsVocabulary Focusing on theRenaissance • The wealthy urban society of the Italian city-states brought a rebirth ofsecular learning and art to Europe. (page 609)diplomacy • Italy’s location helped its city-states grow wealthy from trade and banking, but many of the cities fell under the control of strong rulers. (page 611) • Unlike medieval nobles, the nobles of the Italian city-states lived in cities and were active in trade, banking, and public life. (page 614)Section New Ideas and ArtVocabulary Focusing on thehumanism • Humanists studied the Greeks and Romans, and the developmentvernacular of the printing press helped spread their ideas. (page 619) • Renaissance artists used new techniques to produce paintings that showed people in an emotional and realistic way. (page 623) • Renaissance ideas and art spread from Italy to northern Europe. (page 625)Section The Reformation BeginsVocabulary Focusing on theReformation • The reforms of Martin Luther led to theindulgence creation of new Christian churches. (page 634)denomination • Political leaders often supported Protestantismtheology because they wanted more power. (page 639)predestination • John Calvin’s Protestant teachings spread across Gutenberg Bible Europe and into North America. (page 640)Section Catholics and ProtestantsVocabulary Focusing on theseminary • Catholics and Protestants fought religious wars across Europe. (page 643)heresy • Henry VIII created the Anglican Church in England. (page 648)annul • As part of the Counter-Reformation, Catholic kingdoms began sending missionaries overseas to convert people to Christianity. (page 650) CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 651 The Pierpont Morgan Library/Art Resource, NY
  • 49. Review Vocabulary Section 2 • New Ideas and ArtWrite True beside each true statement. Replace 9. What did the humanists believe?the word in italics to make false statements true. 10. How did Renaissance art differ from the___ 1. Diplomacy is the art of negotiating. art of the Middle Ages?___ 2. When the pope needed money in the Section 3 • The Reformation Begins 1500s, he sold indulgences. 11. What happened when Martin Luther tried___ 3. The Renaissance belief that the individual to reform the Catholic Church? and human society were important was 12. Describe John Calvin’s teachings. known as theology. Section 4 • Catholics and Protestants___ 4. A heresy is a special school for training 13. Where and why did the Thirty Years’ War and educating priests. begin?___ 5. Predestination encouraged Calvinists to 14. What changed England from a Catholic to prove they were among the saved. a Protestant country?___ 6. Writers began to write in the secular, the everyday language of a region. Critical Thinking 15. Analyze Do you think banking played a role in the wealth and art of the ItalianReview Main Ideas city-states? Explain.Section 1 • The Renaissance Begins 16. Conclude Some Puritans moved to North 7. What set the stage for the Renaissance in America to practice their religion without Italy? interference from European leaders. How 8. What made nobles of the Renaissance dif- was that desire for religious freedom ferent from nobles of previous times? reflected in the U.S. Constitution? Analyze and Clarify Go Beyond the Words 17. Read this passage about the importance quickly. With more books available, of the printing press. Then answer the more people learned to read. Scholars questions at the right to help you ana- lyze and clarify how the printing press could read one another’s work and affected Europe. debate their ideas in letters. Ideas grew and spread more quickly than ever In the early 1450s, Johannes before in Europe. Gutenberg developed a printing press Who? __________ Where? __________ that used movable metal type. This What? __________ Why? __________ type of printing press made it possible When? __________ to print many books much more To review this skill, see pages 606–607.652 CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation
  • 50. Self-Check Quiz To help you prepare forGeography Skills the Chapter Test, visit jat.glencoe.comStudy the map below and answer the follow-ing questions.18. Location What geographical advantage Using Technology does Venice have over Milan? 23. Researching The Renaissance revived the19. Human/Environment Interaction Why Greek idea that a well-rounded person might Mantua have been at a disadvantage took part in a variety of activities, includ- in terms of trade? ing sports. Use the Internet and your local20. Movement If you traveled from the city library to research one of the following of Florence to the city of Venice, in what sports of the Renaissance: javelin hurling, direction would you be going? tennis, archery, fencing, boxing, or hunting. Present your findings to your classmates. Discuss who participated and any resem- Italy c. 1500 blances to modern-day sports. S 0 200 mi. A L P 0 200 km Linking Past and Present Chamberlin Trimetric projection Milan 24. Inferring Renaissance artists, architects, Po R. Venice and writers were greatly influenced by N Genoa Mantua ancient Greek and Roman culture. Do you 45°N W E think people in those professions today are Florence S equally influenced by artists and writers of Pisa A the past? Why or why not? Ad Siena P ri E at ic NCorsica Se N Rome a IN E Analyze S Sardinia Naples These are two of Luther’s Ninety-Five 40°N Tyrrhenian Theses. Sea “37. Every true Christian, whether living or dead, has a share in all the benefits ofMediterranean Sea Christ and of the Church, . . . even without Sicily 10°E 15°E letters of pardon. . . . 45. Christians should be taught that he who sees any one in need, and, passing him by, gives money for pardons, is not pur-Read to Write chasing for himself the indulgences of the21. Expository Writing Research the life of Pope but the anger of God. . . .” Renaissance nobles, merchants, shopkeep- —Martin Luther, ”Ninety-five Theses” ers, or peasants. Then write an essay describing the lifestyle and position of the group you chose. 25. According to Luther, is the buying of22. Using Your Use information in indulgences necessary? your completed foldable to create a poster 26. What does Luther say is a use for about one of the changes that occurred money that will please God? during the Renaissance and Reformation. Draw pictures, write captions, create titles, and so on. Present your poster to the class. CHAPTER 17 The Renaissance and Reformation 653

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