A Changing World Each civilization that you will study in this unit made important contributions to history. • Native Americans built a network of trade routes. • Renaissance and Reformation Europeans affirmed the importance of the human individual. • People in early modern Europe and America developed ideas about freedom and democracy. A.D. 1400 A.D. 1450 A.D. 1500 A.D. 1550 The c. A.D. 1400 A.D. 1533 Americas Aztec Empire Spanish forces defeat Chap te r 16 reaches its the Inca in Peru height Incan gold mask Renaissance and c. A.D. 1440 A.D. 1508 A.D. 1555 Reformation Johannes Michelangelo Peace of Cha p ter 17 Gutenberg uses paints Sistine Augsburg divides movable type in Chapel in Rome Germany into printing press Catholic and Statue of Protestant states Page from David by Gutenberg Bible MichelangeloEnlightenment A.D. 1488 A.D. 1518 A.D. 1543and Revolution Bartholomeu Dias First enslaved Copernicus pres-Chapt er 1 8 of Portugal sails Africans ents a new view around southern brought to of the universe tip of Africa Americas Ferdinand Early compass Magellan 564 (t)akg-images/Ulrich Zillmann, (cl)The Pierpont Morgan Library/Art Resource, NY, (cr)Vatican Museums & Galleries, Rome/Fratelli Alinari/SuperStock, (bl)Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA, (br)North Wind Picture Archives
180° N 1,000 mi. 0 W E Chapter 0 1,000 km Chapter S 17 Mercator projection 16 60°N ASIA Caspian EUROPE Sea Black Sea Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Chapter 18 60°N AFRICA Hudson Bay NORTH AMERICA M Chapter iss 0 1,000 mi. issi p i R. N 18 p 60°N Hudson 0 1,000 km Bay Mercator projection W E Gulf of Mexico NORTH 0 1,000 mi. Caribbean Sea AMERICA M EUROPE Caspian Sea ASIA S ATLANTIC iss 0 1,000 km Black Sea gH issi p i R. OCEAN e Mercator projection n EQUATOR Hu a 0° Persian us R. p mazon R. Ind A Gulf Ji Gulf of an g ang PACIFIC Ch OCEAN SOUTH Mexico South N AMERICA Caribbean Sea AFRICA Arabian Sea Bay of Bengal China Sea PACIFIC W E OCEAN SOUTH EQUATOR INDIAN 0° 120°W AMERICA 60°W 0° 60°E OCEAN 120°E S A.D. 1600 A.D. 1650 A.D. 1700 A.D. 1750 A.D. 1800 c. A.D. 1570 A.D. 1769 A.D. 1839 Eastern Woodland Spaniards found Scientists peoples form mission at San Diego uncover Mayan Iroquois League city of Copan Native American warrior shirtA.D. 1598 A.D. 1608 A.D. 1648King Henry IV First checks Thirty Years’ War ends Queen Elizabeth Iintroduces reli- are used to of Englandgious toleration replace cash inin France the Netherlands A.D. 1690 A.D. 1702 A.D. 1776 John Locke First daily newspaper American develops published in London Revolution theory of begins government George Washington World map, 1630 (t)Christie’s Images/CORBIS, (c)National Portrait Gallery, London/SuperStock, (bl)Bluestone Production/SuperStock, (br)Independence National Historical Park
3 Sistine Chapel See Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 17 ASIA 4 EUROPE 45 Wittenberg 3 See Enlightenment and Revolution Chapter 18 5 Versailles AFRICA Indian Ocean See Enlightenment and Revolution Chapter 18 A.D. 1632–1704 A.D. 1642–1727 A.D. 1519–1589 Ruled A.D. 1558–1603 English political English French queen English queen thinker mathematicianChapter 17, page 647 Chapter 18, page 665 Chapter 18, page 683 Chapter 18, page 677 567(t to b)SuperStock, Dave G. Houser/CORBIS, Buddy Mays/CORBIS, (l to r)Victoria & Albert Museum, London/Art Resource, NY, National Portrait Gallery, London/SuperStock, National Portrait Gallery, London, NorthWind Picture Archives
568–569 Robert FriedThe Americas The ruins of Machu Picchu near Cuzco, Peru c. 1500 B.C. A.D. 500 A.D. 1000 A.D. 1500 c. 1200 B.C. A.D. 500 c. A.D. 1250 A.D. 1492 Olmec build Mayan cities Aztec arrive in Columbus an empire in flourish in central Mexico reaches the Mexico Mesoamerica Americas
Chapter Preview Chapter Overview Visit jat.glencoe.com for a preview During Europe’s medieval age, many different of Chapter 16.peoples were building civilizations in the Americas.Read about how these early Americans grew corn, beans,and other food products that are familiar to you today. View the Chapter 16 video in the World History: Journey Across Time Video Program. The First Americans The first people in the Americas arrived thousands of years ago. Farming led to the growth of civilizations in what is now Mexico, Central America, and Peru. Life in the Americas The Maya, Aztec, and many other Native American cultures developed in North and South America. The Fall of the Aztec and Inca Empires Spanish explorers and soldiers were drawn to the riches of Native American civilizations. Using horses and guns, they defeated the Aztec and Inca Empires in the early A.D. 1500s. Organizing Information Make this foldable to help you organize information about the history and culture of the Americas. Step 1 Collect two sheets of paper Step 2 Fold up the bottom edges Reading and Writing and place them about 1 inch apart. of the paper to form four tabs. As you read the chapter, write the main ideas This makes all presented in each of the Keep the edges the tabs the three sections under the straight. same size. tabs of your foldable. Note details that support the main ideas. Staple Step 3 When all the tabs are the same The Americas along the size, crease the paper to hold the tabs in The First Americans fold. place and staple the sheets together. Life in the Americas Label each tab as shown. The Aztec and Inca 569
Summarizing Summarizing Information Summarizing what you have read, either orally or in writing, is a good way to increase your understanding of the text. Read the information about Christopher Columbus on pages 594–595, Columbus Arrives in America and Columbus Returns. With a partner, summarize the main points. One person should summarize what he or she read while the other listens. Then the second person should resummarize, adding details that the partner may have left out. When you are finished, look at the fol- lowing list to see if you included all the important details. • Columbus first arrived in the Americas in 1492. • He believed he had reached Asia but actually landed on an island in the Caribbean Sea. • He took home many exotic treasures to impress the Spanish rulers. • He returned the next year with soldiers. ce ead, pla As you r the tops • He landed on Hispaniola, which is stick y notes at der present-day Haiti and the Dominican a remin of p ages as ctions th at Republic. to retu r n to se reread. • Conquistadors conquered the Native need to you may Americans. • Spain gained a foothold in the Americas. 570
Retelling Read to Write Choose one of the Read the description of how Spain Conquers Mexico historical figures fromon pages 595–596. Before you begin, read the first para- Chapter 16 and expandgraph about Cortés aloud: his or her story with details from your own imagination. Add quotes, descriptions, and The voyages of Christopher Columbus, who events that you think sailed to the Americas four times, inspired many might have happened to poor nobles to go to America to seek their fortunes. create a richer, although fictionalized, narrative. Many came from the part of Spain known as the Extremadura. Its poor soil, blistering hot summers, and icy winters held little chance for wealth. One of these nobles was 19-year-old Hernán Cortés. —from pages 595–596 With a partner, summarizethe story of Cortés and how hedestroyed the Aztec capital. Asyou are retelling, you may want to referback to the text, reading aloud words inquotation marks or italics to provide an authentic voiceto your story. Listen carefully so that you can add detailsthat your partner may have left out. As you read this chapter, practice summarizing. Stop after each section and write a brief summary of the major points in that section. 571 HIP/Scala/Art Resource, NY
The First Americans What’s the Connection? Meeting People While Western Europe rebuilt Olmec (OHL • mehk) itself after the fall of Rome, diverse Maya (MY • uh) cultures thrived in the Americas. Toltec (TOHL • TEHK) Moche (MOH • cheh) Focusing on the Inca (IHNG • kuh) • It is believed that the first people in the Americas came from Asia during Hohokam (HOH • hoh • KAHM) the Ice Age. (page 573) Anasazi (AH • nuh • SAH • zee) • The invention of farming led to the rise of civilizations in the Americas. Building Your Vocabulary (page 574) glacier (GLAY • shuhr) • Early people in the northern part monopoly (muh • NAH • puh • lee) of the Americas built complex cultures based on farming and trade. (page 578) Reading Strategy Summarizing Information Create a Locating Places chart to show the characteristics of Mesoamerica the Olmec and Moche. (MEH • zoh • uh • MEHR • ih • kuh) Location Dates Lifestyle Teotihuacán (TAY • oh • TEE • wuh • KAHN) Olmec Cuzco (KOOS • koh) Moche Cahokia (kuh • HOH • kee • uh) 2000 B.C. 500 B.C. A.D. 1000 c. 1200 B.C. c. A.D. 500 A.D. 1100 Olmec build an Mayan cities Inca found city Cahokia empire in Mexico flourish in of CuzcoTeotihuac´an Mesoamerica Cuzco572 CHAPTER 16 The Americas
into the seas. The land bridge to AmericaPathway to the Americas disappeared beneath the waves. It is believed that the first people in theAmericas came from Asia during the Ice Age. Hunting and Gathering Hunters in the Americas were constantly on the move inReading Focus When and how did the first people search of food. They fished and gatheredtravel to the Americas? Nobody knows for sure. The nuts, fruits, or roots. They also hunted mas-story of their arrival remains one of history’s mysteries. sive prey, such as the woolly mammoth, antelope, caribou, and bison. We know people came to America a It took several hunters to kill a woollylong time ago, but how did they get here? mammoth, which could weigh as much asToday, America is not connected by land to 9 tons. These big animals provided meat,the rest of the world, but in the past it was. hides for clothing, and bones for tools.Scientists have studied the earth’s geogra- As the Ice Age ended, some animalsphy during the Ice Age—a period when became extinct, or disappeared from thetemperatures dropped sharply. At that earth. The warm weather, however, openedtime, much of the earth’s water froze into new opportunities to early Americans.huge sheets of ice, or glaciers (GLAY • shuhrz). Explain Why is there no As the ice froze and the seas fell, an area longer a land bridge between Asia and America?of dry land was exposedbetween Asia and Alas-ka. Scientists call this Migration to Americaland bridge Beringia(buh • RIHN • jee • uh), after ARCTIC OCEAN GreenlandVitus Bering, a famous 0 2,000 mi.European explorer. They L and bridge theory NORTH 0 2,000 kmthink that people in Asia ASIA AMERICA Mercator projectionfollowed the animals they Bering Seawere hunting across this EUROPEland bridge into the l r o ut e CoastaAmericas. By testing theage of bones and tools at PACIFIC ATLANTICancient campsites, scien- OCEAN OCEAN AFRICAtists estimate that the first Npeople arrived between SOUTH W E15,000 to 40,000 years ago. Over thousands of years, AUSTRALIA AMERICA S When the Ice Age prehistoric people migratedended about 10,000 years southward through the Americas. 1. How did prehistoric people get toago, the glaciers melted America from Asia?and released water back 2. Why do you think prehistoric KEY people spread throughout the Extent of ice sheet Americas? Land now under water Find NGS online map resources @ Possible migration www.nationalgeographic.com/maps routes Stone arrowhead CHAPTER 16 The Americas 573 file photo
for “middle.” This region includes landsFirst American Civilizations stretching from the Valley of Mexico to The invention of farming led to the rise Costa Rica in Central America.of civilizations in the Americas. The region’s geography was ideal forReading Focus What would our lives be like if people farming. Much of the area had a rich,had never learned to farm? Read to learn how farming volcanic soil and a mild climate. Rains fellmade civilization possible in Mexico, Central America, in the spring, helping seeds to sprout. Theyand South America. decreased in the summer, allowing crops to ripen for harvest. Then, in the autumn, the The first Americans were hunter- rains returned, soaking the soil for the nextgatherers, but as the Ice Age ended and the year’s crop.climate warmed, people in America made The first crops grown in the Americasan amazing discovery. They learned that included pumpkins, peppers, squash,seeds could be planted and they would gourds, and beans. It took longer togrow into crops that people could eat. develop corn, which grew as a wild grass. Farming began in Mesoamerica Early plants produced a single, one-inch(MEH • zoh • uh • MEHR • ih • kuh) 9,000 to 10,000 cob. After hundreds of years, the earlyyears ago. Meso comes from the Greek word Americans finally learned how to cross cornHunting the Woolly MammothWorking in groups, hunters could bring down large prey, such as a woollymammoth. Why do you think early hunters preferred to hunt largeanimals such as mammoths instead of smaller animals?
Civilizations of Mesoamerica 100°W 90°W 0 300 mi. MEXICO 0 300 km Bipolar Oblique projection Lake Texcoco Chich´en Tula Gulf of Mexico Itz´a Tenochtitl´an Teotihuac´an 20°N An Olmec stone head Yucat´ a n Tlaxcala Peninsula La Venta N Valley of Mexico TikalW E Palenque S PACIFIC OCEAN Copan KEYMesoamerican civilizations developed in Mexico Olmec c. 500 B.C.and Central America. Maya c. A.D. 7501. Which civilization occupied the Yucatán Toltec c. A.D. 1200 Peninsula? Aztec c. A.D. 15002. Which cities developed near Lake Texcoco? What do these cities suggest about the area?with other grasses to get bigger cobs and make polished mirrors and basalt for carv-more cobs per plant. With this discovery, ing gigantic stone heads.corn, also known as maize, became the The Olmec used the region’s manymost important food in the Americas. rivers as highways for trade, but eventu- ally, the inland peoples seized control ofMesoamerican Civilizations Growing corn the trade. One of these groups built the firstand other crops allowed the Mesoamericans planned city in the Americas. It becameto stop wandering in search of food. As a known as Teotihuacán (TAY • oh • TEE • wuh •result, they formed more complex societies. KAHN), or “Place of the Gods.” The cityStarting around 1500 B.C., the first of several reached its height around A.D. 400. It had aancient civilizations appeared. population of between 120,000 to 200,000 Near present-day Vera Cruz, Mexico, a people.people called the Olmec (OHL • mehk) built a As Teotihuacán’s power spread, a peoplefar-reaching trading empire. It started called the Maya (MY • uh) built another civi-around 1200 B.C. and lasted about 800 years. lization in the steamy rain forests of the The Olmec enjoyed rich farming Yucatán Peninsula (YOO • kuh • TAN). They, too,resources, but they lacked other raw mate- traded throughout Mesoamerica. The Mayarials. They traded salt and beans with used their central location to reach into whatinland peoples to get jade for jewelry and is now southern Mexico and Centralobsidian, or volcanic glass, to make sharp- America. Mayan traders in sea-going canoesedged knives. They used other trade goods, paddled along the coast, perhaps reaching assuch as hematite, a shiny volcanic stone, to far as the present-day United States. CHAPTER 16 The Americas 575 Werner Forman/Art Resource, NY
The Mayan civilization lasted about 200 (l)Bowers Museum of Cultural Art/CORBIS, (r)David Hiser/Getty ImagesWhat Happened to the Maya? Teo-tihuacán and Mayan cities hit their peaks in years longer. But it also came to a mysteri-the A.D. 400s and A.D. 500s. Then, around ous end. The Maya abandoned their cities,A.D. 600, Teotihuacán started to decline. No and by the A.D. 900s, the cities lay deserted,one is sure why this happened. Some hidden in a thick tangle of vines.experts say overpopulation drained the city As the Maya left their cities, a peopleof food and resources. Others blame a long called the Toltec (TOHL • TEHK) seized what isdrought, or period without rain. Still others now northern Mexico. These warriorsay that the poor people rebelled against nomads built the city of Tula northwest oftheir rich rulers. Whatever the reason, by present-day Mexico City. From Tula, theyA.D. 750, the city had been destroyed. conquered lands all the way to the Yucatán Peninsula. Toltec rulers tightly controlled trade. They held a monopoly (muh • NAH • puh • lee), or sole right, to the trade in obsidian. As a Figure of Mayan leader result, the Toltec kept other people from making weapons to challenge them. This pyramid was in the Mayan city of Tikal, which was located in present-day Guatemala. What caused the downfall of the Mayan civilization?
Civilizations of South America ATLANTIC OCEAN EQUATOR 0° Moche pottery . azon R decorated with Am Río the image of Moche R. Urubamba R. a face Moche Lima Machu Picchu SOUTH A Cuzco N Lake AMERICA Titicaca D E S 20°S PACIFIC OCEAN 0 1,000 mi. N 0 1,000 km E Bipolar Oblique projection Moche pottery W 40°S S in the shape of a llama 100°W 80°W 60°W 40°W 20°W Around A.D. 1200, invaders from the The Moche and Incan peoples developed advanced civilizations innorth captured Tula. One group of invaders, South America.who called themselves the Aztec, admired 1. Describe the location of thethe Toltec and copied their ways. Aztec war- Moche civilization.riors then took control of the region’s trade 2. Estimate in miles the length of the Inca Empire.and built a huge empire. When Europeansarrived in the A.D. 1500s, the Aztec ruledabout five million people. This wealth of food freed the Moche toThe Moche and Inca South of Mesoamerica, do other things. Moche engineers designedother civilizations developed along the west huge pyramids, such as the Pyramid of thecoast of South America. The Moche (MOH • Sun. Moche traders exchanged goods withcheh) people were located in the dry coastal people as far away as the rain forests of thedesert of what is now Peru. Amazon River valley. These goods included The Moche ruled from about A.D. 100 to pottery, cloth, and jewelry.A.D. 700. They dug canals that carried water The Moche did not have a written lan-from rivers in the Andes mountain ranges guage. Instead, their culture’s story is toldto their desert homeland. Because of thisirrigation, the desert bloomed with crops. The Moche suffered no shortage offood. They ate corn, squash, beans, and Web Activity Visit jat.glencoe.com andpeanuts. They also hunted llamas and click on Chapter 16—Student Web Activity toguinea pigs and fished in the nearby learn more about civilizations in the Americas.Pacific Ocean. CHAPTER 16 The Americas 577 Nathan Benn/CORBIS
through artwork. Pottery often showedanimals important to the Moche, such as Civilizations in North Americathe llama. The llama served as a pack ani- Early people in the northern part ofmal, carrying goods for long distances. It the Americas built complex cultures based on farm-also provided meat for food and wool for ing and trade.weaving. Reading Focus Would you be surprised to learn that For all their achievements, however, the early North Americans built large cities? Read to learnMoche never expanded much beyond their about the complex civilizations that developed in thehomeland. The work of empire building American Southwest, then in the Mississippi River valley.belonged to another people called the Inca North of Mesoamerica, Native Americans(IHNG • kuh). developed their own ways of living. Still, The Incan homeland lay in the Andes they had learned something important frommountain ranges of present-day Peru. They their Mesoamerican neighbors. They learnedchose to live in high river valleys, often how to farm.above 10,000 feet (3,048 m). Over time, the Farming in what would someday be theInca built the biggest empire in the ancient United States began in the AmericanAmericas. It centered around the capital of Southwest. It also spread from MesoamericaCuzco (KOOS • koh), founded in A.D. 1100. along the coast and up the Mississippi, Explain How did the Toltec Missouri, and Ohio Rivers. As farming devel-keep other people from challenging them? oped, so did new civilizations. Anasazi Cliff Dwellings From far away they look Utah like sand castles tightly stacked into the side of a Colorado canyon wall. Up close they are life-sized, ancient Mesa Verde cliff homes. The two cowboys who discovered N Canyon Chaco Canyon them in A.D. 1888 called them the “magnificent W de Chelly city.” They found them while crossing a snowy E S flat-topped mountain in southwestern Arizona New Mexico Colorado. The men had stumbled upon the homes of the Anasazi—an ancient people KEY who once lived in the Southwest. Anasazi culture Important settlements 0 200 mi. The Anasazi built nearly 600 cliff Present-day boundaries 30°N 0 200 km dwellings in the area now protected Azimuthal Equidistant projection within Mesa Verde National Park. They MEXICO 110°W began building villages under overhanging
(t)Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS, (c)Dewitt Jones/CORBIS, (b)Richard A. Cooke/CORBIS The Hohokam and Anasazi News of Around A.D. 600, as the Hohokam farming traveled north along with planted fields near rivers, the Anasazi Mesoamerican traders. But it took a long (AH • nuh • SAH • zee) moved into the region’s time for nomads in the scorching deserts of canyons and cliffs. They also took up farm- the Southwest to try farming. ing. However, they did not rely only on Finally, around A.D. 300, a people called rivers for irrigation. They collected water the Hohokam (HOH • hoh • KAHM) planted that ran off cliffs during heavy rains and gardens on lands between the Salt and Gila channeled it to their fields. Rivers. They dug more than 500 miles Anasazi culture reached its height at (805 km) of canals to carry river waters to Chaco Canyon, an area in present-day New their fields. They grew corn, cotton, beans, Mexico. The people there controlled the and squash. They also made pottery, trade in turquoise. They used it like money, turquoise pendants, and the world’s first to buy goods from many different regions etchings by using cactus juice to eat including Mesoamerica. through the surface of shells. The Anasazi lived in huge apartment- The Hohokam thrived for about 1,000 like houses carved into cliffs. The cliff years. In the mid-A.D. 1300s, they mysteri- houses had hundreds of rooms and held ously fled. Perhaps a long drought drove thousands of people. Spanish explorers them away, or floods from heavy rains later called these buildings pueblos—the destroyed their canals. No one is sure. Spanish word for “village.” The Anasazi The Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde National Park cliffs around A.D. 1200. Many scholars believe they settled in the cliffs for protection from the weather and from other groups. Villages were not constructed according to any plan. Each home was built to fill the space available. Some homes are several stories tall. Sandstone and mud mortar still hold them together. The Anasazi probably did much of their daily work in Anasazi pottery open courtyards. Artifacts have revealed their skill at making baskets, sandals, and pottery. By A.D.1300, the Anasazi had left Mesa Verde. A severe drought during that time may have forced them to leave the area. Connecting to the Past Anasazi 1. Why do you think villages were not jewelry constructed according to a plan? 2. The Anasazi lived at Mesa Verde for only about 100 years. What—besides the drought—might have made them leave? 579
prospered until a 50-year drought occurred that women planted the first seeds. Womenin the early A.D. 1000s. Like the Hohokam, probably knew the most about plantsthey also drifted away. because they gathered wild foods while the men hunted.Who Were the Mound Builders? Far to Corn was first brought to the regionthe east, across the Mississippi River, around A.D. 100, probably carried there byanother civilization was taking shape. It traders. These traders traveled near and farstarted around 1000 B.C. and lasted until to find raw materials for weapons, jewelry,about A.D. 400. Its founders built huge and fine carvings. Many of these objectsmounds made of earth, some in the shape were placed in huge burial mounds toof animals. Such earthworks gave these honor the dead.people their name—“Mound Builders.” Two groups formed the mound-building The Mississippians The mound-buildingculture—first the Adena, then the Hopewell. culture changed when the HopewellTogether they settled on lands stretching mysteriously declined and a new peoplefrom the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. known as the Mississippians emerged. Although the Mound Builders lived The Mississippians were named for theirmostly as hunters and gatherers, they location in the Mississippi River valley.experimented with farming. Scientists think Their lands reached from present-daythey tamed many wild plants, including Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois, south to thesunflowers, gourds, and barley. It is likely Gulf of Mexico. The Great Serpent Mound in southern Ohio is an example of the earthen mounds built by the Adena culture. Besides the Adena, what other group made up the mound- building culture? These two-foot-high marble statues of a man and a woman are from a mound in Georgia.580 CHAPTER 16 The Americas(l)Richard A. Cooke/CORBIS, (r)Mark Burnett
A Cahokia mound in Illinois The Mississippians found that plantsgrew well in the rich floodplains along theriver. They harvested enough crops tobecome full-time farmers. The most commoncrops included corn, squash, and beans. As in Mesoamerica, large-scale farmingled to the rise of cities. Some contained 10,000or more people. The largest city, Cahokia (kuh •HOH • kee • uh), may have had 30,000 people.The remains of this city can still be seen insouthwestern Illinois. The Mississippians built a different kind mounds. The flat tops of the mounds heldof mound. Their mounds were pyramid temples, homes for the rich, and burial places.shaped but with flat tops. The base of the In the early A.D. 1300s, the Mississippianbiggest one covered 16 acres (6.5 ha), more civilization collapsed, and the citiesthan the base of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. were abandoned. Perhaps other Native The finished mound, known today as Americans attacked them, or the city mayMonks Mound, rose more than 100 feet have become too big to feed itself.(30 m) high. From the mound’s summit, Identify How was tur-rulers gazed down at dozens of smaller quoise used by the Anasazi of Chaco Canyon? Study CentralTM Need help with the material in this section? Visit jat.glencoe.com What Did You Learn?Reading Summary 1. Why was Mesoamerica’s geog- raphy ideal for farming? 4. Summarize How and when did the first people come toReview the 2. How did the first Americans the Americas, and how did they• The first Americans were most live once they were here? likely hunter-gatherers who came develop corn? from Asia across a land bridge. 5. Geography How did geogra- Critical Thinking phy shape the development of 3. Summarizing Information• A number of civilizations devel- the Anasazi civilization? Draw a chart like the one oped in the Americas, including 6. Expository Writing Write a below. Add details about the the Olmec, Maya, and Toltec in short essay comparing the civi- early peoples of North America. Central America and Mexico, and lizations that developed in the Moche and Inca in South Native Americans Mesoamerica to those that America. All were dependent on Southwest developed in South America. farming. 7. Summarizing• In North America, farming civi- Information Write a para- lizations arose in the Southwest East/Mississippi River Valley graph that summarizes how and then in the Ohio and farming led to the develop- Mississippi River valleys. ment of civilizations. CHAPTER 16 The Americas 581 Jim Wark/Index Stock
Life in the Americas What’s the Connection? Locating Places In Section 1, you read about the Petén (peh • TEHN) rise of the first civilizations in the Tenochtitlán Americas. The first Americans had to (tay • NAWCH • teet • LAHN) use whatever natural resources the land had to offer. As a result, they Meeting People developed many different cultures Pachacuti (PAH • chah • KOO • tee) suited to where they lived. Iroquois (IHR • uh • KWOY) Focusing on the Building Your Vocabulary • The Maya adjusted to life in the trop- quipu (KEE • poo) ical rain forest and built a culture based on their religious beliefs. (page 583) igloo adobe (uh • DOH • bee) • The Aztec moved into the Valley of confederation Mexico, where they created an empire (kuhn • FEH • duh • RAY • shuhn) based on conquest and war. (page 585) • To unite their huge empire, Incan Reading Strategy rulers set up a highly organized Organizing Information Use a government and society. (page 588) pyramid to show the Inca’s social classes. • The geography in lands north of present-day Mexico shaped the developement of many different Native American cultures. (page 590) A.D. 1300 A.D. 1400 A.D. 1500 c. A.D. 1250 A.D. 1325 c. A.D. 1438 Aztec arrive Aztec build Pachacuti in central Tenochtitlán starts to build Mexico Inca Empire Tenochtitl´an Cuzco582 CHAPTER 16 The Americas
The Mayan People Mayan City-States At first glance, it looked like the Maya had settled in one of The Maya adjusted to life in the tropical the worst spots on Earth. They picked therain forest and built a culture based on their reli- Petén (peh • TEHN), the Mayan word for “flatgious beliefs. region.” Located in present-day Guatemala,Reading Focus What would it be like to live in a jun- the Petén’s dense forests nearly blocked outgle? What resources would be easy to find? Read to the sun. Stinging insects filled the air.learn how the Maya adapted to life in the jungles of Poisonous snakes slithered on the ground,Mesoamerica. and monkeys and parrots screeched in the treetops. Even so, the ancient Maya thrived. In A.D. 1839 an American lawyer named The Maya saw what others missed.John Lloyd Stevens and an English artist Swamps and sinkholes gave them a year-named Frederick Catherwood slashed round source of water. The sinkholes—areastheir way into the tangled Yucatán rain where the earth has collapsed—connectedforest. There they made an amazing dis- the Maya with a huge system of under-covery. They found the vine-covered ruins ground rivers and streams. They served asof an ancient city. Mayan wells. Stevens and Catherwood soon learned Even with a ready water supply, only anthat the people who had built the city were organized culture could have succeeded incalled the Maya, and that they were the building cities and fields in the Petén. Theancestors of the millions of Maya who still effort required cooperation among manylive in present-day Mexico, Guatemala, people, which could only be accomplishedHonduras, El Salvador, and Belize. by having an organized government. This Mayan wall painting shows musicians celebrating a royal birth. Where did the Maya first settle? CHAPTER 16 The Americas 583 Doug Stern & Enrico Ferorelli/National Geographic Society Image Collection
The Maya set up city-states. Within each Gianni Dagli Orti/CORBIS city-state, rulers supplied the leadership— and military force—for great building proj- ects. Leadership passed from one king to the next, and the city-states often fought withMayan Ball Game Mayan cities had each other.many ball courts. In a Mayan ball game,teams of two or three players tried Life in the Mayan Cities The rulers ofto drive a hard rubber ball through a Mayan city-states said they were descendeddecorated stone ring. Players wore from the sun. They claimed the right to rule as god-kings and expected every person tohelmets, gloves, and knee and hip serve them. Service included building hugeguards made of animal hide to protect monuments to honor them.themselves against the hard rubber balls. As god-kings, Mayan rulers taught theirThey were not allowed to use their subjects how to please the gods. One wayhands or feet to throw or bat the ball. was human sacrifice. The Maya believedThey had to use their hips to drive the that the gods gave their life-giving fluid,ball through the stone rings. rain, to keep humans strong. So humans Because the stone rings were placed kept the gods strong by giving their own27 feet (8 m) above the ground on a life-giving fluid, blood.large rectangular field, players had to When the Maya marched intohave incredible skill to score a goal. battle, they wanted captives moreMaking a goal was so rare that when a than they wanted land. During timesplayer scored, crowds rewarded the of drought, Mayan priests offered thehero with clothing and jewelry. captives to Chac, the god of rain and Scholars think sunlight. The Maya believed Chac lived in the waters below the sink-that a Mayan ball holes. Captives were often throwngame was more into these watery pits to earn thethan a sport or god’s favor.contest. It had a religious The Maya believed that the godsand symbolic meaning— controlled everything that happenedas well as deadly results. on Earth. As a result, religion was atThe losing team was the core of Mayan life. A huge pyra-sacrificed to the gods mid with a temple at the top toweredin a ceremony after over every city. Priests, who claimedthe game. to know what the gods wanted, set Mayan ballplayer up a strict class system in which everyone had a place. Royal Mayan women often married intoConnecting to the Past royal families in distant Mayan city-states.1. How did a player score in a Mayan ball game? This practice strengthened trade. It also2. Why was losing especially painful for a team? helped form alliances—political agree- ments between people or states to work together.
Women played a large role in the The Aztec Mayan city-states. In The Aztec moved into the Valley of one Mayan carving, Mexico, where they created an empire based on a woman wears a war conquest and war. headdress and rides Reading Focus Why do you think some countries try to atop a platform carried conquer other countries? Read to learn why the Aztec by soldiers. In the people conquered their neighbors and built an empire. city-state of Calakmul, at least two women The warlike Aztec nomads who arrived in served as all-powerful the Valley of Mexico about A.D. 1250 were queens. One of them anything but welcome. One king was sure he may have helped to knew a way to get rid of them. He granted the Statue of a Mayan god found the city. Aztec a patch of snake-filled land. He expected the deadly serpents to destroy them. Instead, the Aztec feasted on roasted snakesMayan Science and Writing Both queens and eventually built their own kingdom.and kings turned to Mayan priests foradvice. The priests thought gods revealed The Aztec Government The Aztec clearlytheir plans through movements of the sun, knew how to survive. They had wandered formoon, and stars, so they studied the heavens hundreds of years in search of a home thatclosely. The Maya also needed to know when toplant their crops. By watching the sky, the An Aztec Warriorpriests learned about astronomy. Theydeveloped a 365-day calendar to keep track Aztec warriors oftenof heavenly movements. They used it to wore colorful costumes decoratedpredict eclipses and to schedule religious with feathers orfestivals, plantings, and harvests. To chart animal skins. Theythe passage of time, the Maya developed a fought with obsidian-system of mathematics. They invented a tipped weapons.method of counting based on 20. Where did the Aztec build their empire? The Maya also invented a written lan-guage to record numbers and dates. Likethe Egyptians, the Maya used a system ofhieroglyphics. Symbols represented sounds,words, or ideas. Only nobles could readthem, however. After the collapse of theMayan civilization, nobody could readthem at all. Only in recent times havescholars begun to unlock the stories toldby the hieroglyphics. Aztec shield Identify What was the decoratedmain advantage of living in a tropical rain forest? with feathers 585 (tl)Boltin Picture Library, (c)Michel Zabe/Museo Templo Mayor, (br)Museum of Ethnology, Vienna
they believed their sun god—the feathered Priests, speaking for the gods, told the Gianni Dagli Orti/CORBISserpent Quetzalcoatl (KWEHT • suhl • kuh • WAH • Aztec what to do next: build a great city.tuhl)—had promised them. According to Workers toiled day and night. They dug soillegend, the Aztec would know they had from the lake bottom to build bridges to thefound this place when an eagle “screams mainland. They built floating gardens, pilingand spreads its wings, and eats . . . the soil on rafts anchored to the lake bottom.serpent.” The Aztec called their new city According to Aztec legend, they found Tenochtitlán (tay • NAWCH • teet • LAHN), whichtheir homeland after they sacrificed a means “place of the prickly pear cactus.” Aslocal princess to one of their gods. The the city rose from the marshes, the Aztecprincess’s father vowed to wipe out the dreamed of conquest and wealth. TheyAztec, who only numbered several wanted to collect tribute, or payment forhundred. The Aztec went on the run. In protection, from conquered peoples.A . D . 1325, they took shelter on a soggy, To fulfill their goal, the Aztec turned toswampy island in Lake Texcoco (tehs • KOH • strong kings who claimed descent from thekoh). There an eagle greeted them from its gods. A council of warriors, priests, andperch on a prickly pear cactus. It tore apart nobles picked each king from the royal fam-a snake dangling from its beak. Then it ily. Council members usually chose the lastspread its wings and screamed in triumph. king’s son, but not always. They looked forFilled with wonder at this sight, the Aztec a king who would bring glory to the Aztec.believed that they had reached the end of They expected a king to prove himself bytheir journey. leading troops into battle.Tenochtitlán The founding ofAt the center of Tenochtitlán was a walled Tenochtitlánceremonial area. It contained temples,schools and the priests’ houses. Whatceremonial act took place at the top ofthe Great Temple? The Great Temple Atop the Great Temple were two shrines dedicated to the rain god Tlaloc and the sun and war god Huitzilopochtli. Round Temple The round temple was dedicated to the Aztec god Quetzalcoatl. Ball Court Aztecs played a ritual ball game on courts that were often richly decorated.
Aztec Daily LifeAztec homes were simple andbuilt for usefulness rather thanbeauty. How do you think theAztec used each of the householditems shown here? Aztec bowl and loom Aztec grinding stone Painting of Aztec homeLife in the Aztec Empire The king, or that your home is not here where you haveemperor, was at the top of Aztec society. The been born, for you are a warrior!”rest of the population fell into four classes: A baby girl heard different words. Asnobles, commoners, unskilled laborers, and she drew her first breath, the midwifeenslaved people. Commoners formed the declared: “As the heart stays in the body, solargest group, working as farmers, artisans, you must stay in the house.” Althoughor traders. They could join the noble class by women stayed at home, those who gave birthperforming one act of bravery in war. They, or were honored as heroes by Aztec society.their children if the soldier died, received Nearly everything the Aztec did grewland and the rank of noble. out of a promise. Speaking through priests, In serving their gods, the Aztec saw the god Huitzilopochtli (wee • tsee • loh •death as honorable. Those worthy of an POHKT • lee) vowed: “We shall conquer allafterlife included soldiers who died in bat- the people in the universe.”tle, captives who gave their lives in sacri- This promise inspired the Aztec tofice, and women who died in childbirth. honor the god with a huge pyramid in theOthers went to the “Land of the Dead,” the center of Tenochtitlán. Known as the Greatlowest level in the underworld. Temple, it rose 135 feet (41 m) high and had From an early age, children learned more than 100 steps. Thousands of victimsabout the glories of war and their duties as were taken to the top, where they were sac-an Aztec. When a baby boy came into the rificed to the gods.world, the midwife, or woman who helped Describe How could com-with the birth, cried: “You must understand moners move into the noble class? CHAPTER 16 The Americas 587 (r)E.T. Archive, (others)Michel Zabe/Museo Templo Mayor
rulers and their wives, known as Coyas,Life in the Inca Empire were at the top of society. To unite their huge empire, Incan rulers The head priest and commander of theset up a highly organized government and society. armies were just below the royal couple. NextReading Focus Have you ever tried to organize a large came regional army leaders. Below themnumber of people? It is not easy to get everyone to work were temple priests, army commanders, andtogether. Read how the Inca organized their society and skilled workers—musicians, artisans, anddeveloped ways to hold their empire together. accountants. The bottom level consisted of farmers, herders, and ordinary soldiers. The ancient Inca blamed earthquakes on The Inca further divided society intothe god Pachacamac, “Lord of the earth.” 12 job categories. Within these, every man,Whenever Pachacamac lost his temper, the woman, and child over age five had workearth shook. Pachacamac was the highest to do. Young girls, for example, were baby-Incan god. It is not surprising that the greatest sitters, while young boys chased birds fromIncan leader took the name Pachacuti (PAH • gardens.chah • KOO • tee), which means “Earthshaker.” Pachacuti lived up to his name. Starting What Was Incan Culture Like? The Inca rarely honored their gods with human sac-around A.D. 1438, Pachacuti and his son, Topa rifice. They turned to sacrifice only in timesInca, built the largest ancient empire in the of trouble, such as during earthquakes, orAmericas. It stretched north to south about on special occasions. Priests most often sac-2,500 miles (4,023 km)—about the distance rificed children, whom they thought were between present- more pure than adults. The Inca worshiped day Los Angeles the sacrificed children as gods. and New York. To please their gods, the Inca built large Pachacuti cre- works of stone. They had no system of writ- ated a plan to hold ing, no wheels, and no iron tools. Yet they his empire together. built places like Machu Picchu (MAH • choo He set up a strong PEE • choo), a retreat for Incan kings. central government Building large structures required the Incan gold mask but let local rulers Inca to develop a way to do mathematical stay in power. To calculations. The Inca used a quipu (KEE •ensure their loyalty, he took their sons to poo), a rope with knotted cords of differentCuzco for training. lengths and colors. Each knot represented a Pachacuti united the empire in other number or item, which was also a way ofways too. He required people to learn keeping records.Quechua (KEH • chuh • wuh), the language The Inca were skilled engineers. Workersspoken by the Inca. He also designed a fit stones so tightly together that a knifesystem of roads, which covered about could not slip between them. Because the25,000 miles (40,234 km) when finished. Inca used no mortar, the stone blocks couldAn Organized Society The Inca believed slide up and down without collapsing when-the sun god Inti protected Cuzco, the Incan ever an earthquake rocked the earth.capital. The rulers who lived there called Explain How did Pachacutithemselves “sons of the sun.” As such, make sure local leaders would be loyal to him?588 CHAPTER 16 The Americasakg-images/Ulrich Zillmann