Nitrogen Cycle

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Nitrogen Cycle

  1. 1. -suthar Harshil -F.Y.B.sc biotechnology -government sci. college
  2. 2.  the continuous sequence of natural processes by which nitrogen in the atmosphere and nitrogenous compounds in the soil are converted, as by nitrification and nitrogen fixation.
  3. 3.     1891 Winogradsky discovers the organisms responsible for nitrification is soil, which is of great importance in agriculture because nitrogen is a limiting nutrient in the soil. 1897 M.W.Bejerinck discover symbiosis nitrogen fixer Rhizobium
  4. 4.     Nitrogen is part of amino acid, proteins and nucleic acid and is often a limiting plant nutrient and many other use of nitrogen. All organisms require nitrogen to live and grow. The main avability of nitrogen is the atmosphere, which is 80%free nitrogen gas. Nitrogen are including two forms inorganic and organic form
  5. 5. a. Nitrogen fixation i. Nitrification ii. Denitrification iii. Ammonification
  6. 6.   1. 2.  The process of converting N2 into biologically available nitrogen is called nitrogen fixatation nitrogen-fixing organisms are two type. Free-living Symbiosis The whole process requires eight electrons and at least sixteen ATP.
  7. 7. Free living Aerobic Anaerobic Nostoc Aztobactor Chromatium anabaena pseudomonas chlorobium
  8. 8.   Rhizobium is most importance bacteria in nitrogen cycle. Rhizobium can infect the roots of a leguminous plant (such as peas, clover, soybeans etc.)
  9. 9.       Nitrification is the process that converts ammonia to nitrite and then to nitrate. There are two distinct steps of nitrification. The first step is the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. ammonia oxidation was carried out by only a few types of bacteria in the genera Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira, and Nitrococcus. The second step in nitrification is the oxidation of nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-). the second step was carried out by bacteria such as a Nitrobacter.
  10. 10.   Denitrification is the process that converts nitrate to nitrogen gas. Some denitrifying bacteria include species in the genera Bacillus, Paracoccus, and Pseudomonas.  Denitrification is important in that it removes fixed nitrogen from the ecosystem.
  11. 11.  Anammox bacterium was Brocadia  it is anaerobic bacteria.   anammoxidans Anammox bacteria oxidize ammonia by using nitrite as the electron acceptor to produce Nitrogen. It is found in aquatic systems and low oxization zones of ocean
  12. 12.  When an organism excretes waste or dies, the nitrogen in its tissues is in the form of organic nitrogen (e.g. amino acids, DNA). Various fungi and prokaryotes then decompose the tissue and release inorganic nitrogen back into the ecosystem as ammonia in the process known as ammonification. The ammonia then becomes available for uptake by plants and other microorganisms for growth.
  13. 13. Nitrogen in air Nitrogen ammonifi cation Denitrification by Bacillus Nitrification By Nitrosomonas NO2- and NO3- Nitrogen fixatation By Rhizobium and Aztobactor
  14. 14.      Elden D enger ,F.c ross and DB Bailey(2005)concept in biology http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/125/1/69.f ull http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9 3310/ http://labexkorea.wordpress.com/2010/01/09/f uture-challenge-perfecting-biological-nitrogenfixation/ http://www.cambridge.org/us/academic/subject s/life-sciences/ecology-andconservation/nitrogen-fixation-3rd-edition

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