Prepared By: Sutanu Maulik
In simple words, planning is deciding in advance what
action to take, how and when to take a particular action
and who are the people to be involved in it. It involves
anticipating the feature and consciously choosing the
feature course of action.
Nature of Planning
It is goal oriented.
Planning is an intellectual or rational process.
Planning is a primary function.
Planning is all-pervasive.
Planning is forward looking.
It is perpetual process.
Planning is an integrated process.
It involves choice.
Significance of Planning
Focuses attention on objectives.
Offsets uncertainty and risk.
Provides sense of direction.
Provides guidelines for decision making.
Increases organizational effectiveness.
Provides efficiency on operations.
Ensures better co-ordination.
Encourages innovation and creativity.
Types of Plans… … Contd.
By Frequency of use.
Single use plans: It is made for
achieving some specific goals and
design to deal with a unique situation
Standing Plans: It refers to specific
actions which have been developed
for dealing with recurring situations.
StepS In the plannIng proceSS
• Analyzing opportunities.
• Establishing objectives.
• Determining planning premises.
• Identifying alternatives.
• Evaluating available alternatives.
• Selecting the most appropriate alternatives.
• Implementing the plan.
• Reviewing the plan.
Pre re quis ite s fo r Effe c tive
Establishing the right climate for planning.
Clear and specific objectives.
Initiative at top level.
Participation in planning process.
Communication of planning elements.
Integration of long term and short term plans.
An open system approach.
Management of information system.
Limitations of Planning
Lack of accurate information.
Time consuming process.
Resistance to change.
Lack of ability and commitment.
False sense of security.
Reluctance to establish goals.