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Webinar - Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and Offsite Renewables
 

Webinar - Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and Offsite Renewables

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The energy performance of buildings is key for reaching the European Union’s very ambitious climate targets. “Nearly zero energy building (nZEB)” is the term for a building standard that ...

The energy performance of buildings is key for reaching the European Union’s very ambitious climate targets. “Nearly zero energy building (nZEB)” is the term for a building standard that complies with this ambition.

Living in 2013 we have 8 years to go until every single Member State will have to build every new building as nearly zero energy building, and even only 6 years to go for nearly zero energy public buildings.

This webinar goes through some definitions of nZEB, including the concepts “on-site” and “nearby” electricity, introducing a debate around the role of “off-site” electricity in nZEB. An analysis will be done on how to determine the renewable share, balancing periods, suitable metering schemes, tariff design, ownership schemes of electricity generation, standardisation, monitoring and verification.

Still a lot of research needs to be done for developing a consistent European approach for nZEB. This webinar (and related background paper) aims to make a contribution to getting the answers in time.

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  • 2030/2050: non-bindingtargets
  • 2030/2050: non-bindingtargets
  • Reflectspriority in EPBD: energyefficiencyfirst, thenrenewableenergy
  • In the sunniest Sunbelt countries the rate for PV could be as low as 0.04 €/kWh by 2030.Some overlap can be seen as the industrial PV applications and onshore wind can be utilised both as on-site and off-site options. Twolimitations:gridparity was defined relative toretailprices; selfconsumers do not paynetworktariffs, taxes, etc. usuallyincluded in theprice / kWh => oterratepayershaveto carry thesecosts. This means in thelongrun on a large scalegridparityshouldmemesuredagainstwholesaleprice, whichcurrentlyisabout 5 ct/kWh.Second: only ca. 20% ofpurchasedelectricity in householdsisusuallyreplacedbyself-generation, withoutstorageorre-organisingenergyusage.
  • Small systematwholesalepricemightbe still attractiveaslongasmostelectricityisself-consumed; otherwiseinvestmentto high, does not pay back.Financial viabilitystronglydepending on meteringscheme!
  • Small systematwholesalepricemightbe still attractiveaslongasmostelectricityisself-consumed; otherwiseinvestmentto high, does not pay back.Financial viabilitystronglydepending on meteringscheme!
  • Ownership share: communityowned RE models, sharedfacilities, cooperatives
  • Shortlyexplaindeliverycontrcat
  • CEN:European Committee for Standardization
  • It will be highly dependent on the situation what factors are most influential in the decision of the building owner (or project developer) and what option is to be preferred in each case. . It will therefore be of vital importance to the building owner to have all options available and these options being accessible within a system of MVE.

Webinar - Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and Offsite Renewables Webinar - Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings and Offsite Renewables Presentation Transcript

  • Dr. Andreas Hermelink29/05/2013NEARLY ZERO ENERGYBUILDINGS AND OFF-SITERENEWABLESWebinar
  • © ECOFYS | |© ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink2Content> Introduction> Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB)> Definitions of Renewable Energy Supply for nZEB> Key Issues around off-site Renewables in nZEB> Conclusions and Recommendations
  • © ECOFYS | |© ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink3Content> Introduction> Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB)> Definitions of Renewable Energy Supply for nZEB> Key Issues around off-site Renewables in nZEB> Conclusions and Recommendations
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink4Introduction – What„s the issue?> Emissions gap report Cancún:Scenarios that give the world a chanceto stay below 2 C have:> World GHG Emissions peak before2020> World GHG Emissions in 2050 50-60% below 1990 level> Due to the high share ofindustrialized countries in GHGemissions, Europe has a target of80%-95% GHG reductions.
  • © ECOFYS | |A roadmap for moving to a low carbon economyin 2050, EC 2011, Minimum Reduction vs. 199029/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink5-20%-54%-37%-80%-93%-88%-100%-90%-80%-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%Cross sectoral Power Buildings202020302050
  • © ECOFYS | |A roadmap for moving to a low carbon economyin 2050, EC 2011, Maximum Reduction vs. 199029/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink6-30%-68%-53%-95%-99%-91%-100%-90%-80%-70%-60%-50%-40%-30%-20%-10%0%Cross sectoral Power Buildings202020302050
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink7Content> Introduction> Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB)> Definitions of Renewable Energy Supply for nZEB> Key Issues around off-site Renewables in nZEB> Conclusions and Recommendations
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink8Definition of Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings> Energy Performance of Buildings Directive‟s (EPBD), Article 9:– [A nearly Zero-Energy Building is a] “building that has a very highenergy performance… [ ]. The nearly zero or very low amount ofenergy required should to a very significant extent be covered byenergy from renewable sources, including renewable energyproduced on-site or nearby.”2019/2021 today building stock
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink9Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings: Key Questions2019/2021 today building stock> Burning questions– Options to achieve nearly zero-energy buildings?– What about off-site renewables?– Off-site electricity as an option?
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink10Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings: Close Up> Residential & non-residential buildings> All NEW buildings> Included services: heating, domestic hotwater, cooling, ventilation, lighting(commercial buildings) and auxiliaryenergy => NOT: plug-loads, appliances> First, reduce energy needs for theseservices to cost-optimal levels> Second, cover the nearly zero rest (verysignificantly) from renewable sources> Annual GHG emissions 2050:appr. 3 kg CO2 / m2a in building stock> => nZEB also means nearly zeroemission building!> Today there is no more specific definitionin Europe which is common sense!
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink11Reasons to Focus on Electricity in Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings> In nZEB very high share of plug loads ofappliances and other „non-EPBD“services relative to– Cost– environmental impact> Integration of power and heat markets– Heat pumps get more attractive– Decreasing thermal loads &increasing electricity loads– Buildings„ Load managementpotential– Small scale CHP– Power to gas / district heat– Decreasing CO2 emissions frompower generation
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink12Content> Introduction> Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB)> Definitions of Renewable Energy Supply for nZEB> Key Issues around off-site Renewables in nZEB> Conclusions and Recommendations
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink13Renewable Energy according to the EPBD> EPBD Article 2.5: “energy from renewable sources”– Wind– Solar– Geothermal– hydrothermal and ocean energy– Hydropower– Biomass– landfill gas– sewage treatment plant gas– biogases
  • © ECOFYS | |off-sitenearby29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink14Different Physical Boundaries for SupplyingEnergy from Renewable Sources, 1> “the nearly zero or very low amount of energy required should be covered to avery significant extent by energy from renewable sources, including [butnot saying: “being” or “limited to”] energy from renewable sourcesproduced on-site or nearby”.> Main arguments to include off-site: provide sufficient number of choices forbuilding owner, ensure equal chances, reflect reality of renewable supplyon-site
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink15Different Physical/Legal Boundaries for SupplyingEnergy from Renewable Sources, 2
  • © ECOFYS | |off-sitenearby29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink16Single Building and Off-Site Supply> Two different physical boundaries for demand and supply> Balancing import and export> Balance gets easier when focus switches to building owner as „legal system“=> high share of RE possible without any on-site renewableson-siteimportexport
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink17Typical size of solar and wind, on-site/nearby and off-siteRE generation options On-site and nearby Off-siteWindSmall scale (<2.5kW) x -Community scale (<20MW) x xUtility scale(>20MW) - xSolar PVResidential systems (<10kW) x -Commercial buildings (10-100kW) x -Industrial plants (100 kW-1 MW) x xUtility scale plants (>1MW) - x
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink18Metric and Period of the Balance> EPBD requires national nZEB definition toinclude a numerical indicator for the energyperformance. Which metric to use?– Delivered energy => primary energy factors(PEF) => Primary energy– PEF sometimes intransparent, for electricitysteep decrease forecasted– Switch to CO2 might happen in the future> Period of the balance– EPBD: Net balance over one year (includeheating & cooling)– Question of length of sub-intervals– The shorter the sub-interval, the moreambitious it is to achieve (nearly)zero-energy balances => aim: less stressfor (electricity) grids
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink19Period of the Balance – „Load Match Index“> Result: The net ZEB can only “live” without importing energy for 25% of ayear‟s hours; e.g. all nocturnal hours need energy imports.> Annual sub-interval over-estimates renewable share> Currently monthly balances seem to be a viable solution.source: Koch et al. 2011> Different sub-intervalsfor a 1 year period:– 1 year– 1 month– 1 day– 1 hour> Balancing „PV on theroof“-export withimport from grid;> PV system sized forannual „net 0“
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink20Variations in nZEB definitions> 71 nZEB definitions from 17 EU and 2 countries beyond have been analysed> graph shows which boundary is explicitly allowed/forbidden/not mentionedfor renewable energy (heat & electricity)01020304050607080option1:footprint option2:on-site option3:off-sitegenerationoption4:off-sitegreen electricityNumberofavailabledefinitions/labelsnot definednoyes
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink21Content> Introduction> Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings (nZEB)> Definitions of Renewable Energy Supply for nZEB> Key Issues around off-site Renewables in nZEB– Energy cost and grid parity– Metering schemes– Generation schemes for off-site renewables– Ongoing nZEB related CEN standardisation– Monitoring, verification and enforcement (MVE)> Conclusions and Recommendations
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink22Energy Cost and Influence of GridParity, retail, on-site2010 2015 202000.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.4Euro/kWhResidential PV Commercial PV Industrial PV Onshore Wind> Levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) [€/kWh]> LCOE: lifetime costs (all investments, replacements and operational costs incl.fuel) => metric to compare renewable and conventional power generationLCOE for on-site supply
  • © ECOFYS | |2010 2015 202000.050.10.150.20.250.30.350.4Euro/kWhIndustrial PV Utility PV Offshore Wind Onshore Wind29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink23Energy Cost and Influence of GridParity, retail, off-site> Grid parity (LCOE from renewable sources = LCOE from conventional sources)> Grid parity for wind and solar predicted to occur 2015-2010 (retail price)> The more wind and solar reach grid parity, the more options to reach nZEB> Grid parity makes buying (off-site) renewable energy shares more attractiveLCOE for off-site supplyindustrial commercial residential
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink24Metering Schemes> First grid connected PV system in the 1980s> regulation and feed in tariffs to stimulate and/orcontrol distributed generation> Introduction of net metering schemes– Meter goes „backwards“ in times ofexcess generation> Potential limitations– Uneven reward of electricity from PV, (urban) wind turbines, CHP …– Capacity or energy limits for what the grid has to accept– Smart meters easily allow different tariffs for imported and exportedenergy; presumably charges will be imposed on exported energy– Bonuses for self-consumption (e.g. Germany) higher than feed-inbonus> Variations of previous parameters – especially capacity limits and feed-intariff - affect attractiveness of on-site generation
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink25Financial Viability of Net Metering Schemes;2020 situation – retail price grid parity assumed> Renewable electricity generator installed „behind the meter“> nZEB: very significant extent should be covered by renewables, butsmall nZEB consumption allows for financial viabilityReimbursement priceFed inBought from gridSelfconsumed
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink26Generation Schemes for Off-Site Renewables> Renewable electricity generator installed „before the meter“, i.e. beyondon-site boundary. Focus on wind instead of PV.> Two possibilities for building owner: ownership share & delivery contractREcooperativeutilityESCOREcooperativebankbrokerRE obligationbuildingownerdeliverycontractownership sharebuildingEITHER OR„Option 3“ „Option 4“
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink27Different Physical/Legal Boundaries for SupplyingEnergy from Renewable Sources, 2
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink28Generation Schemes for Off-Site Renewables> Renewable electricity generator installed „before the meter“, i.e. beyondon-site boundary. Focus on wind instead of PV.> Two possibilities for building owner: ownership share & delivery contractREcooperativeutilityESCOREcooperativebankbrokerRE obligationbuildingownerdeliverycontractownership sharebuildingEITHER OR„Option 3“ „Option 4“
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink29Cooperative Renewable Generation> Group of people becomes member of acooperative, owning RE facility> power generated results in reductions or credits onthe electricity bill> Share also may be offered by bank or broker> Experience (wind) e.g. in Denmark, TheNetherlands, Germany> Physical proximity not necessary, e.g. Denmark gradually expanded from3 km around wind turbine to the entire European Union.> Projects existing with and without government support> Standard taxation model: generation that does not exceed ownconsumption gets tax discount; excess generation considered as business> 10-15% of wind capacity in the Netherlands is owned by cooperatives
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink30Generation Schemes for Off-Site Renewables> Renewable electricity generator installed „before the meter“, i.e. beyondon-site boundary. Focus on wind instead of PV.> Two possibilities for building owner: ownership share & delivery contractREcooperativeutilityESCOREcooperativebankbrokerRE obligationbuildingownerdeliverycontractownership sharebuildingEITHER OR„Option 3“ „Option 4“No investmentparallel toinvestment in nZEB!How to ensurepersistence of REshare?
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink31Ongoing nZEB related CEN Standardisation> 31 European standards („CEN standards“) are the EPBD„s backbone> Currently being updated due to 2010 EPBD recast => to be ready 2014> Not mandatory but cf. EPBD „Annex I“: „“The methodology for calculatingthe energy performance of buildings should take into account Europeanstandards …”> “Umbrella document” EN 15603:– framework for energy performance calculation– Definition of system boundaries => share of RE, number of options!> Current “assessment” boundaries, defined as “geographicalperimeters”, none of them seems to be generally excluded:– Conditioned space within building– The building-site (on-site)– Outside the building site – nearby– Outside the building site – distant> Under discussion: different primary energy factors for import & export> Unclear: link of „distant“ generation to nZEB
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink32Monitoring, verification and enforcement (MVE)> Clearly defined indicators needed as a basis for MVE> Energy Performance Certificates show nZEB status; currently share ofrenewable energy not explicitly shown> Clear accounting of energy from renewable sources should exist => no rulesyet => need for development of methodology– 1st stage should include EPBD services (heating, cooling, ventilation …)– 2nd stage might also include applainces, construction, disposal etc.> On-site generation offers highest probability of persisting RE share> Off-site community scheme– Shareholder contract should establish relation between building ownerand a certain amount of renewable electricity + guarantee continuity– Legal connection between nZEB (rather than nZEB owner) and RE needed=> transferable share in case of owner change; RE sticks with building> Off-site electricity purchase– Evidence that RE belongs to the building & is renewable (certificate)– Currently no coupling between renewable energy certificates and nZEB
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink33Ecological Additionality> nZEB must cause additional renewable electricity> Is this achieved by share of renewables in nZEB?> New investments in RE that otherwise would nothave been taken due to policy framework.> Just claiming existing RE capacity for nZEB reducesRE availability for other sectors, increasing their PEF.> Possible solution e.g. funds which are additional tonational RE funds, financed by nZEB owners> Possible solution: no subsidies for nZEB REinvestment => gets more probable with grid parity> Other solution: nZEB RE share is explicit brick inpolicy beyond 2020.
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink34Conclusions> nZEB as a cornerstone for EU 2050 climate targets> Only demand reduction and RE will succeed> On-site RE in the focus> Off-site RE must get a viable nZEB option as well– Equality, even chances, avoid discrimination– Community and large scale production
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink35Conclusions 2, pros and cons on-site and off-site schemesonsite REoffsite -shareownershipoffsite - deliverycontract (greenelectricity)Investment upfront needed?YES YES NOSensitive to electricity price or productprice increase?Self consumptionpart: NONO YESSensitive to changes in meteringschemes?YES NO NOSensitive to local grid capacity andphysical limitationsYES NO NOPossibility to exploit most cost-effective RE optionsNO YES YESSensitivity to the match betweensupply and demandYES NO NOSensitive to period of balance?YES NO NOEase of monitoring verification andenforcement incl. persistence+ -/+ -/+Financial viability for building owner-/+ -/+ -/+> Building owner should (possibly) have all options available
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink36Recommendations> Work on standardised off-site nZEB products needed> Key terms of EPBD nZEB definition need sharpening> Regulation for calculation of RE share needed– boundaries– PE- and GHG-factors of import and export> Increasing focus on non-EPBD, mostly electricitydriven services needed.– high share of electricity cost in energy cost– Strive for overall optimum relative to life-cyclecost and life-cycle environmental impact> Develop metering schemes for off-site solutions> Ecological additionality: nZEB„s RE share should havean explicit role in beyond 2020 targets> nZEB by 2019/2021: sufficient but scarce time to act
  • © ECOFYS | |29/05/2013 Dr. Andreas Hermelink37Please contact us for more informationDr. Andreas HermelinkEcofys Germany GmbHAm Karlsbad 1110785 BerlinGermanyT: +49 30 297 735 79-50E: a.hermelink@ecofys.comI: www.ecofys.com