Electromagnetic Processing of Materials                                           in European Industry                    ...
Outline         Introduction, content and aim         Primary energy factors & CO2-emission factors         Energy cons...
Electromagnetic Processing                                        of Materials (EPM)                                      ...
Introduction and background               Electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM) provides                significa...
Content and aim               Aim of this work is the demonstration of the scope for energy &                carbon savin...
Primary energy factors (PEF)      PEF for fossil energy                                                PEF for electrical ...
CO2-emission factorsEnergy carrier                CO2 –emission factor                                       [g/kWh]Hard c...
Final energy consumption of the            European industry (EU27) in 2009        in        GWh                       Ref...
Share of the considered final energy                 demand of the five industrial branches                               ...
Three different scenarios                                                                                            100 %...
Final energy carrier in the European           iron and steel industry in 2009                     Reference: Eurostat    ...
Steel production in Europe (EU-27)                    There are two principle routes of steel production                  ...
1st steel production route (classical route) (1)  The first step is the production of   raw iron with the blast furnace  ...
1st steel production route (classical route) (2)        The liquid iron is transformed         into steel in an oxygen bl...
2nd steel production route (1)   The electric arc furnace can be    charged with scrap or direct    reduced ore   The vo...
2nd steel production route (2)     Today nearly all electric arc furnaces are      operating with steel scrap     The am...
Iron & steel industry / steel industry              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching      scenario ...
Iron & steel industry / steel industry              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switching      scenari...
Iron & steel industry / steel industry              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching      scenario ...
Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry              Cast iron industry   Production in 2007:      13 million tons   ...
Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching      scena...
Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switching      sce...
Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching      scena...
Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum              Aluminum industry  Production of casted aluminum in 2009:     1.96 mil...
Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching      scenario u...
Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switching      scenario...
Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching      scenario u...
Chemical industry / plastic industry              Plastic industry  Production of plastics in 2007:     65 million tons  ...
Chemical industry / plastic industry              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching      scenario up...
Chemical industry / plastic industry              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switching      scenario ...
Chemical industry / plastic industry              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching      scenario up...
Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry              Glass industry  Production of glass in 2007:     37 mil...
Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching ...
Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switchin...
Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching ...
Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind.              Cement industry  Production in 2008:     255.4 million ton...
Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind.              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching    ...
Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind.              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switching  ...
Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind.              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching    ...
Paper & printing industry / paper industry              Paper industry  Production in 2009:     87.1 million tons  Speci...
Paper & printing industry / paper industry              Save of final energy      By using the linear switching      scena...
Paper & printing industry / paper industry              Save of primary energy      By using the linear switching      sce...
Paper & printing industry / paper industry              Save of CO2-emission      By using the linear switching      scena...
Summary I   A switching from fuel operated processes to a production applying   mainly electrical operated processes offer...
Summary II               The primary energy factor and CO2-emission factor for                electricity are analyzed an...
Thank you for your               attention!                                                                               ...
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Webinar - Technologies for the Electromagnetic Processing of Materials - Energy and Carbon savings

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The webinar demonstrates how electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM) provides significant opportunities for saving primary energy and reducing carbon emissions in industrial thermal processes. Potentially electricity can replace up to 100% of other energy carriers currently used for process heat. For the time horizon from now to the year 2050 transition scenarios are developed and described where the industrial processes are gradually switched from the actual situation to a situation with 100% electrically operated processes. As the average primary energy factor (PEF) gradually decreases from 2.5 currently, to 1 for a 100% renewable electricity system, the benefits of EPM will gradually increase. For each step in the development of the PEF the annual primary energy savings and annual reductions in greenhouse gas emissions will be described.

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Webinar - Technologies for the Electromagnetic Processing of Materials - Energy and Carbon savings

  1. 1. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials in European Industry Webinar 23 January, 2013 Technologies for the Electromagnetic Processing of Materials - Energy and Carbon savings E. Baake, B. Ubbenjans, Institute of Electrotechnology, Leibniz University of Hanover, Hanover, Germany 1EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  2. 2. Outline  Introduction, content and aim  Primary energy factors & CO2-emission factors  Energy consumption of the European industry (EU27)  Three different transition scenarios  Iron & steel industry  Non-ferrous metal industry  Chemical industry  Glass, pottery & building materials industry  Paper & printing industry  Summary 2EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  3. 3. Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (EPM) - examples - 3EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  4. 4. Introduction and background  Electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM) provides significant opportunities for saving primary energy and reducing carbon emissions in industrial processes.  The use of electricity for industrial thermal processes has a final energy share in average of around 10% in Europe (EU-27).  Electricity has the potential to replace up to 100% of other energy carriers used for process heat.  The average primary energy factor gradually decreases from 2.5 currently, to a value between 0 and 1 for a 100% renewable electricity system. 4EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  5. 5. Content and aim  Aim of this work is the demonstration of the scope for energy & carbon saving in the EU through the use of electromagnetic processing of materials (EPM).  The primary energy factor and CO2-emission factor for electricity has to be estimated year by year till 2050.  From now to the year 2050 transition scenarios should be investigated and compared.  The most energy intensive production processes are switched from the actual situation to a situation with up to 100% electrically operated industrial processes. 5EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  6. 6. Primary energy factors (PEF) PEF for fossil energy PEF for electrical energyEnergy Carrier Primary energy factorHard coal 1,071811361Coke 1,114827202Lignite 1,038421599Petroleum products 1,095290252Natural gas 1,072961373  PEF for fossil energy can be estimated as constant in the future  PEF for electrical energy depends on energy mix  PEF is based on a forecast of the European gross electricity generation 6EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  7. 7. CO2-emission factorsEnergy carrier CO2 –emission factor [g/kWh]Hard coal 406Coke 473Lignite 413Petroleum products 301Natural gas 227  CO2-emission factor for fossil energy can be estimated as constant in the future  CO2-emission factor for electrical energy depends on energy mix  CO2-emission factor is based on a forecast of the European gross electricity generation 7EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  8. 8. Final energy consumption of the European industry (EU27) in 2009 in GWh Reference: Eurostat 2011 (Sum: 3,133,762 GWh) 8EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  9. 9. Share of the considered final energy demand of the five industrial branches Calculated final Final energy Industry Branch energy demand in demand of the Share sector 2009 in GWh branch in GWh Iron & steel Steel 434,923 Grey iron 10,972 Sum 445,904 514,848 87 % NF metals Aluminum 2,774 Sum 2,774 103,681 3% Chemical Plastic 110,500 Sum 110,500 585,896 19 % Glass, pottery & Glass 55,500 building materials Roof tile 10,493 Brick 28,976 Cement 289,907 Lime 36,400 Sum 421,275 424,832 99 % Paper & printing Paper 200,299 Sum 200,299 384,116 52 % 9EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  10. 10. Three different scenarios 100 % electrical processes The reference scenario implies no switching from fossil fuel heated processes Shock scenario Share of electrical processes to electrical processes The linear scenario assumes a linear increase of the share of electrical Linear scenario processes up to 100% in the year 2050 The so-called shock scenario implies an increase Reference scenario from the current situation to 100% electrical processes between 2020 and 2025 10EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  11. 11. Final energy carrier in the European iron and steel industry in 2009 Reference: Eurostat (Sum: 514,848 GWh) 11EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  12. 12. Steel production in Europe (EU-27) There are two principle routes of steel production 1 2 Iron ore Scrap Iron ore Blast furnace: Midrex Process: Raw iron Direct reduced iron Oxygen blown Electric arc converter furnace 78 Mio tons 61 Mio tons 56 % Steel production in 2009: 44 % 130 Mio tons 12EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  13. 13. 1st steel production route (classical route) (1) The first step is the production of raw iron with the blast furnace  For the fabrication of 1 ton of crude iron a typical blast furnace needs: • 650 kg of iron ore • 907 kg of sinter • 475 kg of coke • 800 MJ of electrical energy • 2.5 kg of scrap 18 % of the blast furnace gas is recovered for the production of coke 13EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  14. 14. 1st steel production route (classical route) (2)  The liquid iron is transformed into steel in an oxygen blown converter  Oxygen is pumped through the melt to reduce the carbon  The oxygen converter needs for 1 ton of steel: • 856 kg of raw iron • 65 m3 of oxygen • 287 kg of scrap • 29 kg carbon • 3 kg coke • 82 kg lime 14EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  15. 15. 2nd steel production route (1)  The electric arc furnace can be charged with scrap or direct reduced ore  The volume is melted down through a powerful electric arc  For the production of 1 ton of steel the arc furnace needs: • 1080 kg of raw material • 1500 MJ of electrical energy • 30 m3 oxygen • 14 kg coke • 38 kg lime 15EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  16. 16. 2nd steel production route (2)  Today nearly all electric arc furnaces are operating with steel scrap  The amount of available steel scrap will increase slidely  The production of direct reduced ore has to be enlarged  The production of 1 ton of direct reduced iron needs approx.: • 1500 kg ore, • 376 m3 of natural gas • 486 MJ of electrical power 16EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  17. 17. Iron & steel industry / steel industry Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 1.3 million GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 1.8 million GWh of final 1.8 Mio GWh energy can be saved. 1.3 Mio GWh 17EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  18. 18. Iron & steel industry / steel industry Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 5,680 PJ of primary energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 7,850 PJ of primary energy can be saved. 7,850 PJ 5,680 PJ 18EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  19. 19. Iron & steel industry / steel industry Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 1,470 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 2,040 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. 2,040 Mio tons 1,470 Mio tons 19EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  20. 20. Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry Cast iron industry Production in 2007: 13 million tons Melting processes: Medium frequency induction crucible furnace (50 %) 520 kWh/to electrical energy 48 kWh/to oxidation losses 74 kWh/to carburization Hot blast cupola furnace (50 %) 900 kWh/to coke 20 kWh/to gas 30 kWh/to electrical energy 143 kWh/to oxidation losses 20EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  21. 21. Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 53,833 GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 74,841 GWh of final energy can be saved. 74,841 GWh 53,833 GWh 21EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  22. 22. Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 135.6 PJ of primary energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 184.5 PJ of primary energy 184.5 PJ can be saved. 135.6 PJ 22EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  23. 23. Iron & steel industry / cast iron industry Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 48.1 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 66.6 million tons of CO2- 66.6 Mio tons emission can be saved. 48.1 Mio tons 23EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  24. 24. Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum Aluminum industry Production of casted aluminum in 2009: 1.96 million tons Melting processes: Induction channel furnace (8 %) 415 kWh/to electrical energy 200 kWh/to combustion losses Gas fired furnaces (92 %) 712 kWh/to natural gas 775 kWh/to combustion losses 24EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  25. 25. Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 32,137GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 44,678 GWh of final energy can be saved. 44,678 GWh 32,137 GWh 25EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  26. 26. Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 105 PJ of primary energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 155 PJ of primary energy can 145 PJ be saved. 105 PJ 26EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  27. 27. Non-ferrous metal industry / aluminum Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 13 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 18 million tons of CO2- 18 Mio tons emission can be saved. 13 Mio tons 27EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  28. 28. Chemical industry / plastic industry Plastic industry Production of plastics in 2007: 65 million tons Specific use of energy: 1.7 MWh/to Energy carrier: 61 % electrical energy 30 % gas 9 % oil 28EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  29. 29. Chemical industry / plastic industry Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. 29EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  30. 30. Chemical industry / plastic industry Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 1,250 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. By using the shock scenario 1,790 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. -1,250 PJ -1,790 PJ 30EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  31. 31. Chemical industry / plastic industry Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 103 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 139 million tons of CO2- emission can be saved. 139 Mio tons 103 Mio tons 31EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  32. 32. Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry Glass industry Production of glass in 2007: 37 million tons Specific use of energy: 1.5 MWh/to Energy carrier: 20 % electrical energy 34 % gas 46 % oil 32EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  33. 33. Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. 33EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  34. 34. Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 1,258 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. By using the shock scenario 1,806 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. -1,258 PJ -1,806 PJ 34EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  35. 35. Glass, pottery & building materials / glass industry Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 129 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 175 million tons of CO2- emission can be saved. 175 Mio tons 129 Mio tons 35EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  36. 36. Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind. Cement industry Production in 2008: 255.4 million tons Specific use of energy: 867 kWh/to Energy carrier: 11.4 % electrical energy 0.9 % gas 2.7 % oil 41.2 % petcoke 23.6 % coal 4.3 % lignite 15.9 % waste 36EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  37. 37. Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind. Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. 37EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  38. 38. Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind. Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 7,182 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. By using the shock scenario 10,312 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. - 7,182 PJ - 10,312 PJ 38EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  39. 39. Glass, pottery & building materials / cement ind. Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 1,604 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 2,205 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. 1,604 Mio tons 2,205 Mio tons 39EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  40. 40. Paper & printing industry / paper industry Paper industry Production in 2009: 87.1 million tons Specific use of energy: 2.7 MWh/to Energy carrier: 30 % electrical energy 42 % gas 2 % oil 12 % hard coal 14 % others 40EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  41. 41. Paper & printing industry / paper industry Save of final energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. By using the shock scenario 0 GWh of final energy can be saved. 41EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  42. 42. Paper & printing industry / paper industry Save of primary energy By using the linear switching scenario up to 3,815 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. By using the shock scenario 5,470 PJ of primary energy have to be spend additionally. - 3,815 PJ - 5,470 PJ 42EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  43. 43. Paper & printing industry / paper industry Save of CO2-emission By using the linear switching scenario up to 374 million tons of CO2-emission can be saved. By using the shock scenario up to 508 million tons of CO2- emission can be saved. 374 Mio tons 508 Mio tons 43EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  44. 44. Summary I A switching from fuel operated processes to a production applying mainly electrical operated processes offers big potentials for saving CO2-emission. But for saving of energy it is necessary to improve or change the process not only the energy carrier. By using the linear switching scenario in all the presented case studies • 1.38 million GWh of final energy, • - 9690 PJ of primary energy and • 3.97 billion tons of CO2-emission can be saved in sum. By using the shock scenario it is possible to save • 1.92 million GWh of final energy, • -14210 PJ of primary energy and • 5.46 billion tons of CO2-emission. 44EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  45. 45. Summary II  The primary energy factor and CO2-emission factor for electricity are analyzed and estimated year by year till 2050.  From now to the year 2050 transition scenarios are developed, where three transition scenarios are compared in detail.  Part of the most energy intensive production processes are switched from the actual situation to a situation with 100% electrically operated industrial processes.  A switching from fuel operated industrial thermal processes to a production applying mainly EPM technologies offers big potentials for saving of energy and CO2-emission.  For saving of energy it is necessary to increase the efficiency of the production process not only to change the energy carrier. 45EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
  46. 46. Thank you for your attention! 46EPM Technologies: Energy and Carbon savings, 23 Jan. 2013, Webinar, E. Baake
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