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  • The German Copper Institute, DKI, welcomes you to its presentation “ New Loads on Old Systems ”.

Standards Standards Presentation Transcript

  • International Standardisation and Power Quality
    • Stefan Fassbinder
    • DKI German Copper Institute
    • Am Bonneshof 5
    • D-40474 Düsseldorf
    • Tel.: +49 211 4796-323
    • Fax: +49 211 4796-310
    • [email_address]
    • www.kupferinstitut.de
  • The German Copper Institute, DKI, is the central information and advisory service dealing with all uses of copper and its alloys
    • We offer our services to:
    • Commercial companies
    • The skilled trades
    • Industry
    • Research institutes
    • Universities
    • Artists and craftsmen
    • Students
    • General Public
    • We can be contacted by:
    • post
    • phone
    • fax
    • e-mail
    • internet
    • online database, or
    • personally
  • Which materials can be used as electrical conductors?
    • Silver 62.5 MS/m
    • Copper (99.95%) 57.0 MS/m
    • Gold 45.5 MS/m
    • Aluminium 37.0 MS/m
    • Iron 10.0 MS/m
    • Bronze (CuSn8) 7.5 MS/m
    • Stainless steel 1.0 MS/m
    • Coal (carbon) 0.025 MS/m
  • The only economically viable alternative: Aluminium
    • Copper
    Aluminium Motors Transform ers Building wire Communikation and data cables Low and medium voltage underground cables High and medium voltage overhead lines Busba rs High and extra high voltage underground cablesl Cas t squirrel cage rotors for as ynchronous induction motors
  • Standards and Power Quality – a major problem in public and commercial buildings
    • The substantial growth in the number of electronic devices being used in recent years has resulted in a significant change in the types of load being driven by today’s power distribution systems.
    Because these devices are equipped with rectifiers and smoothing capacitors, the current drawn from the power system is significantly distorted from the sinusoidal waveform provided by the utility companies. This has serious consequences for power quality...
  • Power quality problems are usually of terrestrial origin. Turn off the mixer love, the monitor’s flickering again!
  • The good old days:
    • Ideal three-phase system voltage
     Three balanced ohmic-inductive single-phase loads on the three phase mains
  • The situation today:
    • Computed current and voltage profiles when some 3 compact fluorescent lamps are driven on the phase wire of a typical power distribution system...
    System voltage: 230 V System frequency: 50 Hz Source resistance: 500 m  Longitudinal induction: 904 µH System impedance: 575 m  Mean d.c. current: 180 mA Smoothing capacitance: 220 µF
    • WRONG! 
    Working currents have no place in earthing systems and protective conductors RIGHT ! 
  • Now what do the standards say about this?
    • 1. Depends on which one you consult
    • 2. Depends on which edition you use
    • 3. Depends on whether it is safety or functionality you are after
    Let’s start with No. 1 – a comparison of statements made in different standards, for example, on the use of TN-C and TN-C-S systems and PEN conductors, respectively 1. Depends on which one you consult
  • Have a look at CENELEC Guide R064-004 :1999-10, where it says:
    • “ For buildings which have, or are likely to have, sigificant information technology equip-ment installed, consideration shall be given to the use of separate protective conductors (PE) and neutral conductors (N) beyond the incoming supply point in order to minimize the possibility of electromagnetic problems due to the diversion of neutral current through signal cables causing damage or interference ”
  • Then take a look at EN 50174 from Feb. 2000, subclause 6.4.3:
    • “… it shall be considered that a PEN conductor through which the unbalanced currents and the accumulating of harmonic currents and other disturbances are transmitted cannot provide an appropriate earthing. It shall also be considered that the TT and IT mains systems need more corrective measures in particular against over voltage; therefore:
    • there should be no PEN within the building, i.e. the respective option in 546.2.1 of HD 384.5.54 S1:1988 should not be used.
    • wherever possible, the TN-S system should be used.”
  • Next, see IEC 60364-4-44 from Oct. 2004, subclause 444.4.3.1:
    • “ TN-C systems should be avoided in existing buildings containing, or likely to contain, significant amounts of information technology equipment.”
    “ TN-C-systems shall not be used in newly constructed buildings.”
  • Already since Aug. 2000, EN 50310 has always been requiring in section 6.3:
    • “ The AC distribution system inside a building shall conform to the requirements of the TN-S system. This requires that there shall be no PEN conductor inside the building, i.e. the option in 546.2.1 of HD 384.5.54 S1:1980 shall not be used . ”
  • Soon, prEN 50174-2 :2006-04, subclause 7.1.3, will say:
    • Regarding EMC considerations, a PEN conductor through which unbalanced currents as well as the accumulation of harmonic currents and other disturbances are transmitted shall not be considered as part of an appropriate earthing system. In addition TT and IT distribution systems shall have more corrective measures, particularly against overvoltage.
    • Therefore:
    • the TN-S system shall be used (see EN 50310). Exceptions exist due to existing high-voltage electricity distribution systems, which are TT or IT, or where a high continuity of supply is required by the application (e.g. hospitals) or by national regulations;
    • where a PEN conductor enters the building, it shall be split at the first termination point into a separate neutral conductor (N) and protective earthing conductor (PE).
  • Now what do the standards say about this?
    • 1. Depends on which one you consult
    • 2. Depends on which edition you use
    • 3. Depends on whether it is safety or functionality you are after
    Just compare this latter statement from prEN 50174-2:2006-04 to the one from 1999 of the same standard, presented a moment before, if you recall...
  • prEN 50174-2: 2006-04
    • “ Regarding EMC con-siderations, a PEN conductor through which unbalanced currents as well as the accumulation of harmonic currents and other distur-bances are transmitted shall not be considered as part of an appropriate earthing system. In addition TT and IT distribution systems shall have more corrective measures, particularly against overvoltage.
    • Therefore:
    “… it shall be considered that a PEN conductor through which the unbalanced currents and the ac-cumulating of harmonic currents and other dis-turbances are transmitted cannot provide an ap-propriate earthing. It shall also be considered that the TT and IT mains systems need more corrective measures in particular against over voltage; therefore: EN 50174-2: 2000-02
  • prEN 50174-2: 2006-04
    • there should be no PEN within the building, i.e. the respective option in 546.2.1 of HD 384.5.54 S1:1988 should not be used.
    EN 50174-2: 2000-02
    • the TN-S system shall be used (see EN 50310). Exceptions exist due to existing high-voltage electricity distribution systems, which are TT or IT, or where a high continuity of supply is required by the application (e.g. hospitals) or by national regulations;
  • prEN 50174-2: 2006-04
    • wherever possible, the TN-S system should be used.”
    EN 50174-2: 2000-02
    • where a PEN conductor enters the building, it shall be split at the first termination point into a separate neutral conductor (N) and protective earthing conductor (PE).
    • 1. Depends on which one you consult
    • 2. Depends on which edition you use
    • 3. Depends on whether it is safety or functionality you are after
    Now what do the standards say about this? Let us have a look at the electrical safety standard IEC 60364-5-54, the functionality standard IEC 60364-4-44 and the lightning protection standard IEC 62305-3
  • They all deal with the same object...
  • What remains to be noted:
    • Standards give minimum requirements, not maximum
    • Standards give general requirements for average use, not for special cases
    • Standards are no laws and cannot replace the electrical expert‘s know-ledge, expertise and responsibility
    • Standards are subject to steady changes
    • the European Union has been providing a total of three million euros over a three year period to enable experts from across Europe to co-operate in the development of the definitive internet site covering all aspects of power quality!
    • To follow the latest developments visit
    • www.lpqi.org
    • and take a look at the growing body of information that has been made available by the Leonardo Power Quality Initiative.
    • Our aim is to develop and disseminate teaching materials in 13 languages dealing with the detection, mitigation and management of EMC problems.
    • Target groups include electrical technicians, engineers, those in the skilled trades, building system engineers, architects, planners as well as apprentice technicians and students and their teachers.
    • At present the Power Quality Initiative has 105 members from commercial companies, institutions, universities and trade associations.
    • We openly encourage other industrial and academic partners to participate in this project and welcome contributions at any time.
    • Just log on!
    As part of its LEONARDO programme www.lpqi.org 3 Projects out of ≈ 4000 awarded – one of them being: Administrator: Each of the 3 presentations will need either a same kind of slide as 95 summarising the conclusions, or if you are treating nos. 1 and 2 as the first two parts of a series of 3, then a) the second needs to briefly refer to the first (like TV Programmes do!) and both need to end with the suggestion the viewer now goes to the next one that addresses the next topic on the series etc.