Concentrated Solar Thermal Power
Technnology Training

Session 3 – Point Focus Technologies




      By Manuel A. Silva P...
Session 3. 
        Point Focus Technologies: 
       Parabolic Dish 
            and 
  Central Receiver Systems


Manuel...
Central Receiver Systems  ‐ CRS




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-...
Solar Thermal Power Plant. 
Basic configuration



         Beam irradiance



                            Concentrator

 ...
Central Receiver System




               http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/power_towers.html
The heliostat

• “an instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an axis moved 
  by clockwork by which a sunbeam is stea...
Heliostat



                                              Incident ray




                                              ...
Glass – metal heliostat




    http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
       focus-technologi...
Glass – metal heliostat




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technolo...
Glass – metal heliostats




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technol...
Stretched membrane heliostats




    http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
       focus-tech...
Stretched membrane heliostats




         http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
            ...
Heliostat field layout


• Surrounding field
• North (south) field

• Secondary concentration
• Secondary concentrator opt...
North field
                          1000




                           800




                           600




     ...
Surrounding field




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technologies-d...
Geometrical performance of heliostats




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        ...
Cosine factor



                           Yearly average cosine factor for a 
                           north heliostat...
Reflectivity

• Reflectivity of a new, clean mirror ≈ 0.90 ÷ 0.94
Shading and blocking




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technologie...
Atmospheric attenuation




    http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
       focus-technologi...
Spillage




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technologies-dish-stirl...
CRS – Receiver

• Function: to receive concentrated solar radiation and 
  transform it to thermal power (enthalpy increas...
Types of receivers for CRS plants


                       External                          Cavity




                  ...
Cavity




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technologies-dish-stirlin...
Molten salt cavity receiver




4.5 MWt molten salt receiver tested under a cost shared program with US utilities and indu...
External, cylindrical 




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technolog...
External, cylindrical receiver




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-t...
Receiver – working fluids


•   Water / Steam
•   Air
•   Molten salts
•   Sodium




       http://www.leonardo-energy.or...
CRS (PS10, sat. steam)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technolog...
PS10 and PS20 (Abengoa Solar, Spain)
CRS (Gema Solar, Molten salts)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-t...
Gema Solar (Torresol Energy, Spain)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        fo...
Gema Solar
Design Data
Total Reflective Area                                        285.200  m2
Number of heliostats      ...
CRS: Pros and cons.

• Pros:
   –   Ability to achieve high temperatures
   –   Wide industrial base for most components
 ...
Sierra Solar (e‐Solar, USA)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-tech...
Unit #1 (100 kW hybrid GT) (Aora Solar, Israel)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point...
Parabolic dishes
Parabolic dish systems

• Combine a paraboloidal concentrator (parabolic dish) with a 
  Power Conversion Unit (PCU) direc...
Solar Village (Arabia Saudí)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-tec...
Parabolic dish ‐ Direct Steam Generation




                Dish collector field at Shenandoah, GA
                • Indu...
Parabolic dish – Stirling engine experiences 
(source: Mancini et al. JSEE 2003)
Parabolic dish – Stirling engine

•High performance
   –   High concentration ratio
   –   High temperature
   –   Modular...
Dish – Stirling systems. Main elements


•   Structure
•   Concentrator
•   Tracking system
•   PCU
•   Control




      ...
Structural optical surface




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-techn...
Space frame structures
Stretched membrane
Glass mirror‐faceted


                                            • Spherically curved mirrors
                          ...
Full surface paraboloid
                                          • The entire surface forms a 
                          ...
Stretched membrane. Single facet

                         • Membrane
                            – Preshaped (vacuum not ...
Stretched membrane ‐ multifaceted


                            • Avoid the need for 
                              presha...
Polar tracking




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technologies-dish...
Elevation ‐ azimuth tracking
Receiver


• Absorbs concentrated solar energy and converts it 
  to thermal energy that heats the working fluid 
  (gas) ...
Directly illuminated tubes receiver




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        fo...
Reflux receiver
• Intermediate heat transfer fluid
• Decouple receiver and engine
   – Pool boiler. The absorbed surface i...
Reflux receiver

• Heat pipe.  A wick draws the liquid metal from a 
  small sump




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/...
Striling Engine


• The Stirling cycle




      http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
      ...
Stirling engines


• Kinematic
• Free piston




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
 ...
State of the art

• Most efficient solar to electric technology.
• Pre‐commercial experiences
   – Increase reliability
  ...
Tessera Suncatcher
http://www.tesserasolar.com/




       http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-poi...
Infinia
http://www.infiniacorp.com/

• 3 kW Free piston engine




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course...
Infinia




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
        focus-technologies-dish-stirli...
Eurodish
  sbp.de

• 10 kW kinematic Stirling engine (SOLO V161)
• 8.5 m diameter concentrator




           http://www.l...
Tessera – SES Maricopa Solar Plant (AZ, USA)




     http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point-
 ...
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Concentrated Solar Power Course - Session 3 : Central Receiver and Parabolic Dish

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Parabolic dishes

* general description
* main elements: parabolic concentrator, structure and tracking system, receiver, stirling engine and generator
* state of the art: types of dish-stirling systems; operational aspects; performance and economy
* future developments

Central receiver systems

* general description
* main elements: heliostat, tower, receiver, power conversion system
* state of the art: technology options; operational aspects; performance and economy
* future developments

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Concentrated Solar Power Course - Session 3 : Central Receiver and Parabolic Dish

  1. 1. Concentrated Solar Thermal Power Technnology Training Session 3 – Point Focus Technologies By Manuel A. Silva Pérez silva@esi.us.es April 14, 2010 http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-5-lessons
  2. 2. Session 3.  Point Focus Technologies:  Parabolic Dish  and  Central Receiver Systems Manuel A. Silva Pérez silva@esi.us.es http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  3. 3. Central Receiver Systems  ‐ CRS http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  4. 4. Solar Thermal Power Plant.  Basic configuration Beam irradiance Concentrator Concentrated irradiance Electricity Receiver Thermal energy Thermal  Storage Power conversion  system Fossil fuel  Biomass Boiler http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  5. 5. Central Receiver System http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/power_towers.html
  6. 6. The heliostat • “an instrument consisting of a mirror mounted on an axis moved  by clockwork by which a sunbeam is steadily reflected in one  direction” • Basic components – Reflecting surface – Structure and tracking mechanism – Control system • Typology: – Glass ‐ metal – Stretched membrane • Size: 1 m2 to 150 m2 http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  7. 7. Heliostat Incident ray Reflected ray Back support  structure Elevation drive Reflecting surface Azimuth drive http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  8. 8. Glass – metal heliostat http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  9. 9. Glass – metal heliostat http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  10. 10. Glass – metal heliostats http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  11. 11. Stretched membrane heliostats http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  12. 12. Stretched membrane heliostats http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  13. 13. Heliostat field layout • Surrounding field • North (south) field • Secondary concentration • Secondary concentrator optics tower (SCOT) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  14. 14. North field 1000 800 600 400 200 0 -600 -400 -200 0 200 400 600 http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  15. 15. Surrounding field http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  16. 16. Geometrical performance of heliostats http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  17. 17. Cosine factor Yearly average cosine factor for a  north heliostat field http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  18. 18. Reflectivity • Reflectivity of a new, clean mirror ≈ 0.90 ÷ 0.94
  19. 19. Shading and blocking http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  20. 20. Atmospheric attenuation http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  21. 21. Spillage http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  22. 22. CRS – Receiver • Function: to receive concentrated solar radiation and  transform it to thermal power (enthalpy increase of  the working fluid) • Components – (Tower) – (Cavity) – Absorber – Supporting Structure – (Other auxiliary elements: Steam drum, recirculation  pumps...)  http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  23. 23. Types of receivers for CRS plants External Cavity Working fluid Working fluid Volumetric (Fluidized bed) Absorber Solid particles Air intake http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  24. 24. Cavity http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  25. 25. Molten salt cavity receiver 4.5 MWt molten salt receiver tested under a cost shared program with US utilities and industry.
  26. 26. External, cylindrical  http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  27. 27. External, cylindrical receiver http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  28. 28. Receiver – working fluids • Water / Steam • Air • Molten salts • Sodium http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  29. 29. CRS (PS10, sat. steam) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  30. 30. PS10 and PS20 (Abengoa Solar, Spain)
  31. 31. CRS (Gema Solar, Molten salts) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  32. 32. Gema Solar (Torresol Energy, Spain) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  33. 33. Gema Solar Design Data Total Reflective Area 285.200  m2 Number of heliostats 2480 Total Area covered by Heliostat Field 142.31 Ha Thermal output of the Receiver 120 MWt Tower height 120 m Heat Storage Capacity (equivalent to turbine operation) 15 hours Steam Turbine power 17 MWe Natural Gas Thermal Power 16 MWt Projected Operative Figures Direct solar radiation over Heliostats 2062 kWh/m2 Annual Energy sales 96.400 MWhe Contribution of Natural Gas 15% Capacity utilization 65 % CO2 savings 23.000 – 85.000 t/y
  34. 34. CRS: Pros and cons. • Pros: – Ability to achieve high temperatures – Wide industrial base for most components – Many technological options – Technologically proven – Multiple thermal storage opptions – Great potential for improved efficiency and/or cost reduction  • Cons.: – Complexity – Short commercial record – Still inmature? http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  35. 35. Sierra Solar (e‐Solar, USA) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  36. 36. Unit #1 (100 kW hybrid GT) (Aora Solar, Israel) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  37. 37. Parabolic dishes
  38. 38. Parabolic dish systems • Combine a paraboloidal concentrator (parabolic dish) with a  Power Conversion Unit (PCU) directly attached to the  concentrator MDAC ('83-'88) Boeing/SES • Types of PCU (‘98-’99) – Gas Turbines Advanco ('82-'85) – Direct Steam Generation – Stirling Engine SBP/Almeria ('88-'99) SBP/Solo Cummins ('89-'96) SAIC/STM
  39. 39. Solar Village (Arabia Saudí) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  40. 40. Parabolic dish ‐ Direct Steam Generation Dish collector field at Shenandoah, GA • Industrial process heat project.  • 7 meters in diameter,  • aluminized film reflector  Heat from the field was used in a textile plant for air  conditioning and process heat. 
  41. 41. Parabolic dish – Stirling engine experiences  (source: Mancini et al. JSEE 2003)
  42. 42. Parabolic dish – Stirling engine •High performance – High concentration ratio – High temperature – Modularity – No water consumption • Costes todavía por encima de la fotovoltaica • Reto en la reducción de O+M • Durabilidad del grupo receptor/motor 10-kW EuroDish SBP/Solo-PSA
  43. 43. Dish – Stirling systems. Main elements • Structure • Concentrator • Tracking system • PCU • Control http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  44. 44. Structural optical surface http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  45. 45. Space frame structures
  46. 46. Stretched membrane
  47. 47. Glass mirror‐faceted • Spherically curved mirrors • Individually alignable • Parabolic shaped structure http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  48. 48. Full surface paraboloid • The entire surface forms a  paraboloid • Usually made of a number  of ‘petals’ http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  49. 49. Stretched membrane. Single facet • Membrane – Preshaped (vacuum not  enough) – Thin reflective plastic – Thin metal sheet + reflective  surface
  50. 50. Stretched membrane ‐ multifaceted • Avoid the need for  preshaping • Difficult alignment
  51. 51. Polar tracking http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  52. 52. Elevation ‐ azimuth tracking
  53. 53. Receiver • Absorbs concentrated solar energy and converts it  to thermal energy that heats the working fluid  (gas) inside the engine. – External (low temp.) – Cavity (high temp.) – Directly illuminated  tubes  – Reflux http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  54. 54. Directly illuminated tubes receiver http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  55. 55. Reflux receiver • Intermediate heat transfer fluid • Decouple receiver and engine – Pool boiler. The absorbed surface is always immersed in  a liquid http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  56. 56. Reflux receiver • Heat pipe.  A wick draws the liquid metal from a  small sump http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  57. 57. Striling Engine • The Stirling cycle http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  58. 58. Stirling engines • Kinematic • Free piston http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  59. 59. State of the art • Most efficient solar to electric technology. • Pre‐commercial experiences – Increase reliability – Reduce costs • Three main manufacturres / systems today – Tessera Suncatcher (SES) 25 kW – Cleanergy / SBP Eurodish 10 kW – Infinia Corp 3 kW http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  60. 60. Tessera Suncatcher http://www.tesserasolar.com/ http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  61. 61. Infinia http://www.infiniacorp.com/ • 3 kW Free piston engine http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  62. 62. Infinia http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  63. 63. Eurodish sbp.de • 10 kW kinematic Stirling engine (SOLO V161) • 8.5 m diameter concentrator http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
  64. 64. Tessera – SES Maricopa Solar Plant (AZ, USA) http://www.leonardo-energy.org/csp-training-course-lesson-3-point- focus-technologies-dish-stirling-and-central-receiver-systems
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