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This webinar discusses some of the power quality contracts and classification systems used by distribution companies. It will show the different contracts used around the world by some groups of …

This webinar discusses some of the power quality contracts and classification systems used by distribution companies. It will show the different contracts used around the world by some groups of customers and utilities. It also discusses the roles of the regulator when allowing the market to agree on premium power quality contracts.

This webinar also describes the possiblity of classification of power quality at the point of supply for the most important power quality aspects (interruptions, voltage dips, harmonics, voltage fluctuations).

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  • 1. Experience you can trust.Premium Power Quality contractsand labelingWebinar ECI 17 September 2007Work package 2 of the Quality of Supply and Regulation ProjectJasper van Casteren
  • 2. Contents• Introduction• Power Quality contracts• Power Quality classification• Conclusions
  • 3. IntroductionImportant Power Quality dimensions:• Continuous:- Slow voltage variation- Flicker severity- Harmonic distortion• Events:- Voltage dips- Short interruptions
  • 4. Introductionequipmentmanufacturerstransmission /distributioncompaniesCustomersPQdemandscomplainsPQ performanceemmission limitsproducecompatibleequipmentspecifylimitsstandards &regulation
  • 5. IntroductionPower Quality problems• Great difference in Power Quality needed for differentkind of customers• Knowledge, common ground / understanding needed• Shared responsibility, due to interaction
  • 6. Power Quality contractsBenefits for the grid operator:• Customer-satisfaction.• Only investments into premium power quality forcustomers who really need it.Benefits for the customer:• Insured of a sufficient level of power quality.• A power quality solution in the grid could be cheaperas a solution on site.
  • 7. Power Quality contracts• Financial mitigation instrument• Minimum standards needed, to protect customerswithout a power quality contract for poor power quality.• Good solution for customers which need high levels ofpower quality.
  • 8. Examples of Power Quality contracts• EdF, France• Autorità, Italy• Eskom, South-Africa• DEC, USA• UIC, USA• PSE&G, USA• Argentina
  • 9. Power Quality contracts: France• Both TNO (RTE) as well the biggest DNO (EdF).• Contract called “Emeraude” (Emerald) and contains a“base-contract”, “contract with customer adjustedlevels” and a “plus contract” for the most sensitivecustomers.• Both demands on “delivered” voltage quality, as wellon emission limits for customers.
  • 10. Power Quality contracts: FranceRequirements for voltage quality regarding.:• Number of planned interruptions• Number of short and long planned interruptions• Number of voltage dips• Slow voltage variations• Rapid voltage fluctuations (flicker)• Unbalance• Frequency• Harmonic voltages
  • 11. Power Quality contracts: Italy• Voltage quality measurement campaign since 2006;Grid operators have to do power quality measurementsat strategic locations in the grid and report to theregulator.• The grid operator has to measure the voltage quality,on the customers requests. The customer paids thecosts for it.• Customers have the opportunity to participate in apower quality contract with the grid operator. Currently,no contracts have been established.
  • 12. Power Quality contracts: ItalyAt the moment 400 PQ meters at the MV rail of HV/MVstations and 200 PQ meters at customers.The following voltage quality aspects need to bemonitored and reported:• Supply voltage variations• Supply voltage dips and peaks• Voltage interruptions• Voltage harmonics• Flicker• Supply voltage unbalance• Rapid voltage changes
  • 13. Power Quality contracts: USA• Detroit Edison Company (DEC) offers the “Specialmanufacturing Contract”.• Developed for, and with, the automotive industry.• In the beginning only for supply interruptions, in a laterstage also for voltage dips, also depth is considered.• “Sag Score” = 1-(Va+Vb+Vc)/3
  • 14. Power Quality Argentina• From 1992 a system with penalty payments in order toreduce the number of interruptions.• From 1996 to 1998 a measuring program for voltageharmonics and flicker.• After these 2 years also a system of penalty paymentswith minimum levels for voltage harmonics and flicker.
  • 15. Summary of power quality contracts• Most of the contracts are between utility and customerswith sensitive processes and high costs.• Most of the contracts concern reliability and voltagedips, however, other PQ aspects are measured.• In most cases, the quality of supply has increasedIt isn’t the utilities aim to pay penalties.• Relations between utility and customer become better.
  • 16. Power Quality classification• For customers without technical knowledge of powerquality.• Known from classification regarding energy efficiency.voltagelevel0.660.330.00-0.33-0.66-1.001.00ABDCEFdips flickervery high qualityhigh qualitypoor qualitynormal qualityvery poor qualityextremely poor quality
  • 17. Power Quality classification)(),,(),,( 1qpqvpqvlmr −=),,( pqvr),,( pqvm)(ql• normalized PQ characteristic q, on site v, forphase p• measured level of characteristic q, on site v,for phase p• compatibility level of characteristic q
  • 18. Power Quality classification: Flicker( ) 52.0148.01,, =−=pqvrABDCEFvery high qualityhigh qualitypoor qualitynormal qualityvery poor qualityextremely poor quality95 % percentile flicker level0.660.330.00-0.33-0.66-1.001.00ABDCEFvery high qualityhigh qualitypoor qualitynormal qualityvery poor qualityextremely poor quality95 % percentile flicker level0.660.330.00-0.33-0.66-1.001.00
  • 19. Power Quality classification: Flicker• Good way to check compliance with standard• Actual flicker levels are not visible, only extreme values• Different average flicker levels may lead to sameclassification• To improve this, an other “performance indicator” mustbe used.
  • 20. Power Quality classificaton:Harmonics• Each individual harmonic voltage and the THD can beclassified on the same way as flicker.• The worst classification letter, of the individualharmonics and THD, is ascribed to voltage harmonics.
  • 21. Power Quality classification:Slow voltage variations• Slow voltage variations can be classified with the STAV(Standard Deviation, Average Value)V3.2251== =nvUniim21( )2.431ni miv UVnσ =−= =−
  • 22. Power Quality classification:Slow voltage variations
  • 23. Power Quality classification:Slow voltage variations
  • 24. 1009080706050304020100500 ms. 10 s. 5 min.S0S1S2M0M1M2L0L1L2dip durationremainingvoltage[%]20 ms.Power Quality classification:Voltage dips• Regions 0, 1 and 2• Dip types S, M and L
  • 25. -84-42-21DIP classification• Dip compatibility table– per dip type : max. average annual number of dips
  • 26. “ABC” Classification of DIPS• DIP compatibility table is used as limiting standard– specifies maximum allowed annual number of dips• For each “ABC” classification, the DIP compatibilitytable is multiplied by 0/3, 1/3, 2/3, 3/3, 4/3, 5/3, 6/3
  • 27. 5/3 1/3-115-53-31-84-42-21-31-11-10-53-31-11ABD CEF-137-73-322/34/3“ABC” Classification of DIPS
  • 28. -84-42-21-1.75.2-3.410.3-6.917.2= 1.0⊗* 0.01DIP SeverityNormalized dip severity table– per dip type : average damage per dip– normalized : compatibility * costs = 1.0
  • 29. Corresponding DIP performanceindicator “CARCI”• compatibility table* normalized costs = 1.0• measured dip table * normalized costs = CARCI• CARCI : Customer Average Rms voltage deviationCost Index-63-21-10= 0.50⊗* 0.01-1.75.2-3.410.3-6.917.2
  • 30. ABDCEFvery high qualityhigh qualitypoor qualitynormal qualityvery poor qualityextremely poor qualityCARCI0.660.330.00-0.33-0.66-1.001.00CARCI classificationCARCI = 0.50“B”-63-21-10“C”
  • 31. Advantages of DIP classificationmethod• DIP cost table can be constructed for various types ofcustomer classes (industry, households, commercial,etc.)• Specific CARCI can be calculated for individualcustomers• Easy to be used for “what-if” dip mitigation questions• Max. number of dips per dip type remain in place
  • 32. Summary of classification• Methods exist to calculate normalized levels of powerquality performance• These methods can be extended to other PQ-phenomena• The color-coded “ABC” classification system isexcellent for communicating the difficult subject ofpower quality to all customers in a meaningful andtransparent way.• DIP classification system clearly specifiesresponsibilities, useful for SLA’s.
  • 33. Conclusions• PQ contracts are attractive for customers with sensitiveprocess and / or high costs due to poor power quality.• Most contracts so far deal with the number ofinterruptions and voltage dips, however, other PQaspects are measured.• In most cases, the quality of supply has increasedIt isn’t the utilities aim to pay penalties.• Relations between utility and customer become better.• Power quality classification gives information aboutpower quality for people without technical knowledge.
  • 34. Experience you can trust.The endThanks for your attention.Jasper van Casteren+31 26 356 38 68Jasper.vanCasteren@kema.com

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