Copper Rotors for Induction Motors: New Technologies Make Copper Die-Casting Economically Feasible 
Copper Alliance 
April...
Copper Rotors for Induction Motors: A New Era is Beginning 
Copper’s significant advantages over aluminium – such as its h...
What is a copper rotor? 
The rotor is the non-stationary part of a rotary electric motor, electric generator or alternator...
The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors 
• 
The motor can be made lighter and smaller (compensating ...
The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors 
Avenue 1: Design for higher efficiency 
Copper has the seco...
The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors 
Avenue 2: Design for same efficiency Although counterintuit...
The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors 
Copper has higher conductivity and higher thermal capacity ...
The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors 
The higher melting point of copper compared to aluminium me...
The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors 
The increased reliability of a copper rotor motor is due to...
New copper die-casting technologies 
Melting points: Copper = 1083°C / Aluminum = 660°C. 
This made die-casting of (pure) ...
New copper die-casting technologies 
Companies in Europe, US and Asia are now up and running with copper die- casting, inc...
A growth market 
The market for copper die-cast rotors is expected to grow significantly: 
• 
Medium-scale, regular produc...
Applications 
Initial interesting applications include industrial low voltage induction motors (100 W – 100 kW) and tracti...
Recycling of copper rotors 
A number of sorting techniques are being tested and proved, such as X-ray fluorescence. 
The l...
Recycling of copper rotors 
• 
Environmental – Recycling of copper leads to the emission of few, if any, harmful gases. 
•...
Conclusion 
Copper is the natural choice for a rotor due to its high conductivity. 
Thanks to new die-casting techniques, ...
Copper Rotors for Induction Motors: New Technologies Make Copper Die-Casting Economically Feasible 
Interested in joining ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Introduction to copper rotor induction motors

330

Published on

Copper rotors are now being used in different branches of industry, especially for applications where high efficiency is required. Industrial applications include motors for high-speed machining centers, pumps, drills, compressors and fans. Transport applications include asynchronous motors for electric traction, starter-alternators, generators, and electric power-steering.

Published in: Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
330
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
7
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
13
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Introduction to copper rotor induction motors

  1. 1. Copper Rotors for Induction Motors: New Technologies Make Copper Die-Casting Economically Feasible Copper Alliance April 2013
  2. 2. Copper Rotors for Induction Motors: A New Era is Beginning Copper’s significant advantages over aluminium – such as its high conductivity (57 MS/m vs. 37 MS/m) – make it the material of choice for a number of induction motor applications worldwide. The high melting point of copper has historically led to die-casting problems. However, new yet fully proven copper die-casting technologies are now leading to possibilities for industrial copper rotor production. Market potential is high, meeting end user requirements for regulation, cost and environmental compliance. Manufacturing is low risk with minimal barriers and significant economic and environmental advantages. 2 Copper Rotor Technology Copper: The material of choice for rotors
  3. 3. What is a copper rotor? The rotor is the non-stationary part of a rotary electric motor, electric generator or alternator. A copper rotor is a rotor made of electrical steel (laminations) where the slots and end rings are filled with copper instead of the traditional material (aluminium). Introducing the (copper) rotor The use of copper in place of aluminium can lead to improvements in motor energy efficiency due to a significant reduction in I2R losses (the power lost in an electrical device due to the current flowing through the motor’s windings). 3 Copper Rotor Technology
  4. 4. The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors • The motor can be made lighter and smaller (compensating for the higher cost of copper) • A lower purchase cost in some sizes is possible 4 Copper Rotor Technology A) Copper leads to cost savings over aluminium Two avenues to adopt copper rotor technology: 1) Same dimensions Higher efficiency 2) Same efficiency Smaller and Lighter • Energy savings which will pay back the higher cost of copper within a reasonable time • A lower Total Cost of Ownership
  5. 5. The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors Avenue 1: Design for higher efficiency Copper has the second highest electrical conductivity of all metals. It is 70% more conductive than aluminium. So replacing aluminium with copper lets the rotor conduct heat and electrical current more efficiently. The increased efficiency pays back the extra investment, lowering the costs over the life cycle. Payback times will depend on the kind of application (load and operating hours) 5 Copper Rotor Technology The resulting lower temperatures let the motor run cooler and extend its life – motor life is generally halved for every 10°C rise in operating temperature. Some copper rotor induction motors generate so little heat that they don’t need the cooling fans.
  6. 6. The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors Avenue 2: Design for same efficiency Although counterintuitive, the overall weight of a copper rotor can be reduced by replacing an aluminium rotor with one cast using copper. This is because the higher efficiency of the copper rotor allows the overall length of the rotor (and motor) to be decreased, while still matching the performance of a motor utilizing an aluminium rotor. Shortening the motor: • Eliminates some of the rotor and stator laminations. • Decreases the number of stator windings. • Reduces the length of the shaft. 6 Copper Rotor Technology
  7. 7. The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors Copper has higher conductivity and higher thermal capacity than aluminum, which translates into the following benefits: • A lower temperature rise during operation. • Fewer cooling facilities are required. • A more compact and lighter machine is possible. • An easier fit into a monoblock motor system. 7 Copper Rotor Technology B) Copper offers superior thermal capacity to aluminium
  8. 8. The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors The higher melting point of copper compared to aluminium means that the surrounding steel parts become hotter, which in turn changes the structure and characterisics of the steel. Surprisingly, the influence is positive. The steel is more energy-efficient and has a higher electromagnetic permeability. 8 Copper Rotor Technology C) The use of copper enhances the surrounding steel
  9. 9. The end user advantages of copper rotors vs. aluminium rotors The increased reliability of a copper rotor motor is due to: • The higher strength of copper. • Lower temperature differences during operation. • The positive influence of high temperature die-casting on the surrounding steel parts. 9 Copper Rotor Technology D) Copper increases a motor’s reliability
  10. 10. New copper die-casting technologies Melting points: Copper = 1083°C / Aluminum = 660°C. This made die-casting of (pure) copper technically difficult or virtually impossible for a long time. Recently, several breakthroughs in copper die-casting have removed the previous die-casting problems. The technology has been fine-tuned to make it economically viable. 10 Copper Rotor Technology Overcoming the high melting point of copper
  11. 11. New copper die-casting technologies Companies in Europe, US and Asia are now up and running with copper die- casting, including: • Europe: Breuckmann (Germany) / Favi (France) / Kienle+Spiess (Germany). • US: Ramco / Remy / THT / Vforge. • Asia: Akashi (Japan) / Fukuta (Taiwan) / Yunnan Copper Die-casting (China). 11 Copper Rotor Technology Global interest in copper die-casting is growing
  12. 12. A growth market The market for copper die-cast rotors is expected to grow significantly: • Medium-scale, regular production is now taking place. • New die-casting technology is becoming more accepted. • Around 1 million copper die-cast units are in use worldwide. • Mass production is now possible and economically viable. 12 Copper Rotor Technology Be prepared for significant global growth
  13. 13. Applications Initial interesting applications include industrial low voltage induction motors (100 W – 100 kW) and traction applications. More applications will follow in niche sectors, such as corrosive atmospheres, special cooling needs, cranes, and maintenance with rotor replacement (increasing efficiency of existing motors in heavy-duty applications). 13 Copper Rotor Technology Current and future applications are under development
  14. 14. Recycling of copper rotors A number of sorting techniques are being tested and proved, such as X-ray fluorescence. The large-scale recycling of copper is considered to be technologically feasible. The high scrap value of copper makes recycling economically feasible: • For 1 ton of rotor scrap with 25% copper, the value of copper is about 10 times higher than steel. • At 8000 USD/ton, copper value is 1500 USD. At 200 USD/ton, steel value is 150 USD (discount for copper in copper rotor scrap = 25%). 14 Copper Rotor Technology Technologically and economically feasible
  15. 15. Recycling of copper rotors • Environmental – Recycling of copper leads to the emission of few, if any, harmful gases. • Landfill costs – Recycling of copper avoids its expensive disposal in landfills. • Energy saving – To extract copper from copper ore, the energy required is approximately 100 GJ/tonne. Recycling copper uses much less energy, about 10 GJ/tonne. This energy saving leads to the conservation of valuable reserves of fossil fuels and consequent reduction of CO2 emissions. • Conservation of copper ore – To date only about 12% of known copper resources have been mined. However copper ore is a finite resource and it makes sense to conserve ore by recycling. 15 Copper Rotor Technology The benefits of recycling copper
  16. 16. Conclusion Copper is the natural choice for a rotor due to its high conductivity. Thanks to new die-casting techniques, copper rotors can now be manufactured on an industrial scale. Main advantages: cost savings, higher efficiency, weight and space savings, improved thermal capacity, improved steel properties, increased reliability. Recycling of copper rotors is technologically and economically feasible. 16 Copper Rotor Technology The future for the copper rotor is highly promising
  17. 17. Copper Rotors for Induction Motors: New Technologies Make Copper Die-Casting Economically Feasible Interested in joining us and working together? Visit www.copper-rotor.eu for more information
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×