Heat Pump
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Heat Pump

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This minute lecture introduces heat pumps as a best practices for heating and cooling buildings. According to UIE, more widescale use of heat pumps could save 1,200 million tonne of greenhouse gas......

This minute lecture introduces heat pumps as a best practices for heating and cooling buildings. According to UIE, more widescale use of heat pumps could save 1,200 million tonne of greenhouse gas emissions per year on a global scale, and represents one of the largest potential savings that any single technology can offer.

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Transcript

  • 1. Heat Pumps
  • 2. What is a heat pump?
    • A heat pump enables energy-efficient heating
    • It does not produce energy
    • It ‘pumps’ heat at a relatively lower temperature from air, water, or soil and gives it off at a higher temperature into a building
  • 3. Pros and Cons
    • Advantages
      • Lower life cycle cost due to high efficiency
      • Reduction of final energy demand by a factor 3
      • Reduction of CO2 emissions by 25 – 65% (depending on baseline)
      • Business opportunity for contractors
    • Disadvantages
      • To be combined with low-temperature heating in a well-insulated building
      • High initial investment cost
      • Requires large soil surface or water volume (in case of a high efficiency water or soil heat pump)
  • 4. Basic principle (1/2)
    • Refrigerator:
    • Heat is withdrawn from inside a refrigerator (low temperature)
    • Temperature inside refrigerator drops
    • Extracted heat is given off to environment (higher temperature)
    • Negligible temperature rise of the environment
    • Heat pump:
    • Heat is withdrawn from environment: air, soil, or water (low temperature)
    • Negligible temperature drop of the environment
    • Extracted heat is given off into building (higher temperature)
    • Temperature of building’s interior rises
    Principle is similar to refrigerator:
  • 5. Basic principle (2/2)
  • 6. Four main components
    • Evaporator:
      • contains work fluid at lower temperature than environment. Heat is extracted from ground, air, or water. Pressure is low, so the work fluid evaporates
    • Compressor:
      • brings gas to higher pressure, the temperature rises
    • Condenser:
      • gas temperature is higher than fluid temperature of heating system. Excess heat is transferred to fluid. The gas cools and condenses
    • Pressure relief valve:
      • causes pressure reduction, the temperature drops, and the cycle begins again
  • 7.  
  • 8. Also used for cooling
    • Has to be equipped with reverse valve to change circulation of the work fluid
    • This application is becoming popular
  • 9. High efficiency
    • To obtain 100% useful energy:
    • Traditional system on fossil fuel:
      • 120% combustion heat (paid for)
      • Coefficient of performance = 0.8
    • Heat pump:
      • 30% electrical energy to drive compressor (paid for); 70% taken from nature
      • Coefficient of performance = 3
  • 10. Competitive life cycle cost
  • 11. Should be combined with low-temperature heating
    • Lower temperature of heating fluid
    • Compensated by larger heating surface
    • Large radiators
    • Floor heating
    • Wall heating
    • Ceiling heating (ideal in combination with reversible heat pump for cooling)
  • 12. Round-up
    • Transfers available heat from air, water, or soil at lower temperature into higher temperature for a building
    • Also used for cooling
    • High efficiency
      • Competitive life cycle cost
      • Lower environmental impact
    • Only effective in combination with low-temperature heating and adequate insulation
    • Investment cost is still high
  • 13. Further information
    • Heat Pump Centre: www.heatpumpcentre.org
    • Green Building: www.greenbuilding.com