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Heat Pump

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This minute lecture introduces heat pumps as a best practices for heating and cooling buildings. According to UIE, more widescale use of heat pumps could save 1,200 million tonne of greenhouse gas …

This minute lecture introduces heat pumps as a best practices for heating and cooling buildings. According to UIE, more widescale use of heat pumps could save 1,200 million tonne of greenhouse gas emissions per year on a global scale, and represents one of the largest potential savings that any single technology can offer.

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Transcript

  • 1. Heat Pumps
  • 2. What is a heat pump?
    • A heat pump enables energy-efficient heating
    • It does not produce energy
    • It ‘pumps’ heat at a relatively lower temperature from air, water, or soil and gives it off at a higher temperature into a building
  • 3. Pros and Cons
    • Advantages
      • Lower life cycle cost due to high efficiency
      • Reduction of final energy demand by a factor 3
      • Reduction of CO2 emissions by 25 – 65% (depending on baseline)
      • Business opportunity for contractors
    • Disadvantages
      • To be combined with low-temperature heating in a well-insulated building
      • High initial investment cost
      • Requires large soil surface or water volume (in case of a high efficiency water or soil heat pump)
  • 4. Basic principle (1/2)
    • Refrigerator:
    • Heat is withdrawn from inside a refrigerator (low temperature)
    • Temperature inside refrigerator drops
    • Extracted heat is given off to environment (higher temperature)
    • Negligible temperature rise of the environment
    • Heat pump:
    • Heat is withdrawn from environment: air, soil, or water (low temperature)
    • Negligible temperature drop of the environment
    • Extracted heat is given off into building (higher temperature)
    • Temperature of building’s interior rises
    Principle is similar to refrigerator:
  • 5. Basic principle (2/2)
  • 6. Four main components
    • Evaporator:
      • contains work fluid at lower temperature than environment. Heat is extracted from ground, air, or water. Pressure is low, so the work fluid evaporates
    • Compressor:
      • brings gas to higher pressure, the temperature rises
    • Condenser:
      • gas temperature is higher than fluid temperature of heating system. Excess heat is transferred to fluid. The gas cools and condenses
    • Pressure relief valve:
      • causes pressure reduction, the temperature drops, and the cycle begins again
  • 7.  
  • 8. Also used for cooling
    • Has to be equipped with reverse valve to change circulation of the work fluid
    • This application is becoming popular
  • 9. High efficiency
    • To obtain 100% useful energy:
    • Traditional system on fossil fuel:
      • 120% combustion heat (paid for)
      • Coefficient of performance = 0.8
    • Heat pump:
      • 30% electrical energy to drive compressor (paid for); 70% taken from nature
      • Coefficient of performance = 3
  • 10. Competitive life cycle cost
  • 11. Should be combined with low-temperature heating
    • Lower temperature of heating fluid
    • Compensated by larger heating surface
    • Large radiators
    • Floor heating
    • Wall heating
    • Ceiling heating (ideal in combination with reversible heat pump for cooling)
  • 12. Round-up
    • Transfers available heat from air, water, or soil at lower temperature into higher temperature for a building
    • Also used for cooling
    • High efficiency
      • Competitive life cycle cost
      • Lower environmental impact
    • Only effective in combination with low-temperature heating and adequate insulation
    • Investment cost is still high
  • 13. Further information
    • Heat Pump Centre: www.heatpumpcentre.org
    • Green Building: www.greenbuilding.com