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Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers - Part 1
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Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers - Part 1

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Primary energy factors (PEF), often referred to as conversion factors, are required to calculate the total energy consumption including the total chain of energy generation based on the final energy …

Primary energy factors (PEF), often referred to as conversion factors, are required to calculate the total energy consumption including the total chain of energy generation based on the final energy consumption data.

In this webinar, different primary energy definitions, accounting methods, and their applications with a focus on electricity and heat generation from renewable energy will be presented. In addition to renewable energy sources, primary energy factors for electricity from waste, nuclear, and imported electricity are also discussed as these can be calculated in different ways. Depending on the methodology used, it will be shown that the resulting PEFs for different energy sources vary significantly.

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  • 1. Primary Energy Demand of Renewable Energy Carriers – Part 1: Methodology and Examples Alexander Stoffregen Dr. Oliver Schuller
  • 2. 28.05.2014 Agenda 2 Methodology and Examples – Part 1 • Introduction • Primary energy – Definitions • Primary energy – Accounting methods for electricity / steam • Application of accounting methods in practice • Conclusions Policy Implications – Part 2 June 12, 2014, 15:00 by Andreas Hermelink, Ecofys
  • 3. 28.05.2014 Introduction 3 • Are renewable energy sources included in the primary energy consumption? • What is the impact of an increasing renewable share in electricity generation? Primary energy consumption of the EU and 2020 target (Mtoe) Primary energy accounting – does it matter? Source: EC 2011 0 500 1.000 1.500 2.000 2.500 3.000 3.500 4.000 4.500 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 Solar Wind Hydro Biomass Oil Natural gas Coal Nuclear EU net electricity generation by fuel (TWh)
  • 4. 28.05.2014 4 Introduction Efficiency of photovoltaic panels ~10-20% • If 5-10 MJ of primary energy are accounted to produce 1 MJ of electricity from solar power, the primary energy consumption would go up with an increasing share of solar power. • If renewable energy sources are excluded in the primary energy consumption statistics, primary energy consumption might go down without any efficiency measure.
  • 5. 28.05.2014 5 Primary energy – Definitions Definition of primary energy “The energy that is embodied in resources as they exist in nature: the chemical energy embodied in fossil fuels or biomass, the potential energy of a water reservoir, the electromagnetic energy of solar radiation and the energy released in nuclear reactions” (Nakicenovic 1996)
  • 6. 28.05.2014 6 Primary energy – Definitions Calculation of Primary Energy Factors (PEF) for electricity supply from combustible energy sources: , reciprocal of thermal power plant efficiency ! , CF f = calorific value of a fuel Input f, t = input of fuel per operation time Output t = output of electricity or heat per operation time
  • 7. 28.05.2014 7 Primary energy – Definitions Calculation of Primary Energy Factors (PEF) for electricity supply from non-combustible energy sources: electricity output measured?
  • 8. 28.05.2014 8 Primary energy – Definitions No. Option Type of primary energy 1 PEF for electricity from non-combustible renewables (e.g. hydro, solar, wind) = 0 n.a. 2 Different accounting methods are used to determine the primary energy input/primary energy equivalents Accounting for total primary energy 3 Only non-renewable primary energy is considered, i.e. infrastructure for renewables (e.g. hydropower station, solar panels etc.) and nuclear fuel supply/use Consideration of non-renewable primary energy only. 4 Combination of 2 & 3 but split up of primary energy into renewable and non-renewable Split into renewable and non-renewable primary energy Options to account primary energy for electricity/heat from non-combustible energy sources
  • 9. 28.05.2014 9 Primary energy – Definitions Overview of options & methods to account for primary energy Option 2 • Direct equivalence method • Physical energy content method • Substitution method Option 1 • No accounting method required primary energy always zero Option 3 • No accounting method required renewable primary energy excluded, i.e. non- renewable primary energy only Option 4 • Technical conversion efficiencies method • Physical energy content method (or similar concepts)
  • 10. 28.05.2014 10 Primary energy - Accounting methods for electricity / steam Direct equivalent method Definition: Primary energy equivalence (or conversion efficiency) of 100% between primary energy from non-combustible sources (renewables & nuclear) and electricity/heat Example: Appliance: e.g. energy statistics of the UN 1 MJ primary energy 1MJ electricity
  • 11. 28.05.2014 11 Primary energy - Accounting methods for electricity / steam Physical energy content method Definition: „Primary energy should be the first energy from downstream in the production process for which multiple energy uses are practical“ (IEA 2004) Examples (1): Solar thermal (electricity or steam/thermal energy production) generation of heat 1 MJ electricity 1 MJ steam/thermal energy 2 MJ 3 MJ
  • 12. 28.05.2014 12 Primary energy - Accounting methods for electricity / steam Physical energy content method Examples (2): For wind, hydro, and photovoltaic power, electricity is the first energy with “multiple energy uses” 1 MJ primary energy = 1 MJ electricity Appliance: Energy statistics of IEA, Eurostat, OECD
  • 13. 28.05.2014 13 Primary energy - Accounting methods for electricity / steam Substitution method Definition: Use of technical conversion efficiencies of the fossil fuels that were substituted by the electricity from renewable, non-combustible energies or that would be required to replace the electricity (Grubler 2012) Examples: Average efficiency of fossil power plants (coal, natural gas, fuel oil) = 40% 2.5 MJ primary energy e.g. from wind / hydro = 1 MJ electricity Appliance: e.g. Energy statistics of U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)
  • 14. 28.05.2014 14 Primary energy - Accounting methods for electricity / steam Technical conversion efficiencies Definition: Technical conversion efficiency between energy source and generated electricity or heat is used to calculate the primary energy input Examples: Conversion efficiency of hydro power ≈ 85% (electricity output/potential energy of water) 1.2 MJ primary energy 1 MJ electricity Appliance: e.g. Often used in environmental assessments, such as life cycle assessment (LCA) (usually not in energy statistics)
  • 15. 28.05.2014 15 Application of accounting methods in practice Primary energy equivalents & conversion efficiencies Energy source Direct equivalent method Physical energy content method Substitution method1 Technical conversion efficiency2 Hydro 100% 100% 39.7% 85% Wind 100% 100% 39.7% 40% Solar - photovoltaic 100% 100% 39.7% 13.4% Solar - thermal electric 100% 33% 39.7% 12.4% Geothermal 100% 10% 39.7% 22.4% Biomass (solid) 28.6%3 1 Substitution via average European fossil power plant, based on IEA data (reference year 2010) 2 Conversion efficiencies taken from PE INTERNATIONAL’s “GaBi LCA databases 2012” 3 Average European gross efficiency for biomass powered electricity plants, based on IEA data (reference year 2010)
  • 16. 28.05.2014 16 Application of accounting methods in practice Primary energy factors using different methodologies 1 Primary energy factors for infrastructure/fuel supply (PE INTERNATIONAL’s “GaBi LCA databases 2012”), 2 Heath 2012 MJprimary energy / MJelectricity Hydro Solar (thermal electric) Geo- thermal Type of primary energy Option 1 Zero equivalent n.a. Option 2 2a - Direct equivalent 1.0 1.0 1.0 total 2b - Physical energy content 1.0 3.0 10 total 2c - Substitution 2.5 2.5 2.5 total Option 3 Non-renewable primary energy only 0.00351 0.112 0.00481 non-renewable Option 4 4a – Technical conversion efficiency 0.00351 0.112 0.00481 non-renewable 1.2 8.1 4.5 renewable 4b – Physical energy content 0.00351 0.112 0.00481 non-renewable 1.0 3.0 10 renewable
  • 17. 28.05.2014 17 Application of accounting methods in practice Primary energy factors for country specific grid mixes Natural gas 4% Biomass 0,4% Hydro 95% Wind 1% Norway Coal 88% Natural gas 3% Fuel oil 2% Biomass 4% Hydro 2% Wind 1% Nuclear 20% Coal 9% Natural gas 32% Fuel oil 5% Biomass 2% Hydro 15% Wind 15% Solar - photovoltaic 2% SpainPoland Used energy sources for electricity generation in selected countries (IEA data, reference year 2010)
  • 18. 28.05.2014 18 Application of accounting methods in practice Primary energy factors for country specific grid mixes MJprimary energy / MJelectricity Grid mix Norway Grid mix Spain Grid mix Poland Type of primary energy Option 1 Zero equivalent n.a. Option 2 2a - Direct equivalent 1.2 1.7 2.9 total 2b - Physical energy content 1.2 2.1 2.9 total 2c - Substitution 1.9 2.5 3.0 total Option 3 Non-renewable primary energy only1 0.086 2.0 3.0 non-renewable Option 4 4a – Technical conversion efficiency1 0.086 2.0 3.0 non-renewable 1.3 0.83 0.21 renewable 4b – Physical energy content 0.0861 2.01 3.01 non-renewable 1.1 0.35 0.19 renewable 1 Primary energy factors for infrastructure / fuel supply (PE INTERNATIONAL’s “GaBi LCA databases 2012”) Primary energy factors for imported electricity in energy statistics (Option 2) = 1.0 !
  • 19. 28.05.2014 19 Conclusions (1/2) • Different options & methods to account for primary energy consumption of renewable energy carriers: • Consideration of the following options: • Total primary energy • Non-renewable primary energy • Split up into non-renewable and renewable primary energy • Methods to calculate primary energy consumption: • Direct equivalent method • Physical energy content method • Substitution method • Technical conversion efficiency method
  • 20. 28.05.2014 20 Conclusions (2/2) • Depending on methodology, primary energy factors may distinctly vary for the same renewable energy source. • Split up into renewable and non-renewable primary energy could help to interpret energy consumption over time: • Finite energy sources are not added with infinite ones • Both indicators can be determined and improved independently • Primary energy factors, energy statistics or targets have to be analysed and compared with care: • Same methodology? • Impact of increasing renewables and electricity imports? • Is primary energy a helpful indicator for a target or analysis?
  • 21. 28.05.2014 21 Outlook Policy Implications – Part 2 June 12, 2014, 15:00 by Andreas Hermelink The webinar will present to what extent different definitions of primary energy factors for renewables have implications on the three energy policy fields: 1. EU Directives– Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), Energy Efficiency Directive (EED), Renewable Energy Directive (RED); 2. the influence on the target setting in overarching EU communications; 3. the influence on energy accounting (statistics).
  • 22. Thank you! 22 Contact: Alexander Stoffregen a.stoffregen@pe-international.com

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