Carbon Capture and Storage: what is it, why is it relevant, and does it work?

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To avoid the risk of severe climate change, greenhouse gas emissions need to be reduced drastically. Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to contribute significantly to this ambition. CCS is a family of technologies and techniques that enable the capture of CO₂ from fuel combustion or industrial processes, the transport of CO₂ via ships or pipelines, and its storage underground, in depleted oil and gas fields and deep saline formations.

In this webinar an overview of CCS will be presented, including typical CCS concepts, main drivers and barriers, costs and safety, and public concerns. The webinar will also touch upon the complexity of this technology, the current state of implementation and whether CCS is progressing fast enough. This webinar is intended for persons for whom knowledge on CCS is relevant in their business and wants to acquire a broad understanding of the technology, where it stands today and its role in the abatement of greenhouse gases.

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Carbon Capture and Storage: what is it, why is it relevant, and does it work?

  1. 1. Introduction to Carbon capture and storage What is it, why is it relevant, and does it work? Chris Hendriks Managing Consultant c.hendriks@ecofys.com 03/07/2014
  2. 2. © ECOFYS | | CCS is a bridging technology 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks2
  3. 3. © ECOFYS | | CCS uses existing fossil-fuel based system 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks3
  4. 4. © ECOFYS | | CCS is cheap 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks4
  5. 5. © ECOFYS | | CCS costs energy 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks5
  6. 6. © ECOFYS | | CCS argument map 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks6 Available at: http://www.co2-cato.org/
  7. 7. © ECOFYS | | Content of presentation > Position of CCS in GHG abatement strategies > Introduction to capture, transport and storage of CO2 > Costs of CCS and other abatement options > Current state of CCS development > Main challenges for CCS 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks7
  8. 8. © ECOFYS | | Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks8 Carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) is a process consisting of the separation of CO2 from industrial and energy-related sources, transport to a storage location and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. IPCC Special Report on Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage, 2005
  9. 9. © ECOFYS | | CCS as an intermediate solution Source: Ecofys CCS is a necessary step towards a sustainable energy system Scenarios 450-550 ppm CO2-capture and storage Renewable energy Energy efficiency 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2000 2025 2050 2075 …. Year WorldwideCO2emissions(GtC/y) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks10
  10. 10. © ECOFYS | | IEA ETP (2014) scenarios 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks11 Source: IEA
  11. 11. © ECOFYS | | IEA ETP 2DS scenario 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks12 Source: IEA
  12. 12. © ECOFYS | | Captured and stored CO2 in 2DS scenario (Global) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks13 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 2011 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 CO2 emissions (GtCO2/a) Other transformation Power Transport Buildings, agriculture, fishing, non- specified other Industry Other transformation - captured Power - captured Industry - captured Source: based on ETP- IEA
  13. 13. © ECOFYS | | Global Energy Assessment - scenarios 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks14 Source: GEA
  14. 14. © ECOFYS | | Global Energy Assessment 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks15 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 MESSAGEEnergyefficiency MESSAGESupply MESSAGEMix IMAGEEnergyefficiency IMAGESupply IMAGEMix MESSAGEEnergyefficiency MESSAGESupply MESSAGEMix IMAGEEnergyefficiency IMAGESupply IMAGEMix 2010 2030 2050 GtCO2/a Total energy related CO2 emissions Total stored CO2 with CCS 6 GtCO2 18 GtCO2 Source: GEA
  15. 15. © ECOFYS | | Main CCS elements CO2 capture CO2 transport CO2 storage 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks16
  16. 16. © ECOFYS | | CO2 capture 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks17
  17. 17. © ECOFYS | | Scale of emission sources (global) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks18
  18. 18. © ECOFYS | | Type of fuels > Fossil fuels > Biomass – Technical potential (2050) : 2 – 10 GtCO2 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks19 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 transport and storage Biomethane, Liquids and Electricity CO2 CH4 bio Source: Ecofys
  19. 19. © ECOFYS | | Post-combustion capture 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks20 Source: GCCSI
  20. 20. © ECOFYS | | Pre-combustion capture 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks21 Source: GCCSI
  21. 21. © ECOFYS | | Oxy-fuel capture 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks22 Source: GCCSI
  22. 22. © ECOFYS | | Example: post-combustion with MEA solvent heat power power 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks23
  23. 23. © ECOFYS | | 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 - - productionofCO2(g/kWh) CO2 emission of reference plant Captured versus avoided 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks24
  24. 24. © ECOFYS | | Captured versus avoided 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 - - productionofCO2(g/kWh) CO2 emission of reference plant additional CO2 by CCS 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks25
  25. 25. © ECOFYS | | 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 - - productionofCO2(g/kWh) CO2 emission of reference plant additional CO2 by CCS CO2 captured net CO2 emission Captured versus avoided 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks26
  26. 26. © ECOFYS | | Captured versus avoided 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 - - productionofCO2(g/kWh) CO2 captured CO2 emission of reference plant net CO2 emission additional CO2 by CCS 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks27
  27. 27. © ECOFYS | | Captured versus avoided 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 - - productionofCO2(g/kWh) CO2 captured CO2 avoidedCO2 emission of reference plant net CO2 emission additional CO2 by CCS 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks28
  28. 28. © ECOFYS | | How to reduce energy use > Heat integration in the plant – Low-temperature heat required: do not use fuel but heat from low- pressure section of steam turbine > Waste heat from other industrial processes > Improving capture process – Better solvents (higher capacity, lower temperatures) > Current “state-of-the-art” post-combustion capture reduces energy use to 20-30% (efficiency penalty of about 8-10%) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks29
  29. 29. © ECOFYS | | CO2 transport 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks30
  30. 30. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks31 Pipelines > High upfront investments > Not flexible (in route and capacity) > Long lead-time > Low specific transport costs > Low investments > Flexible (in route and capacity) > Short lead-time > High specific transport costs Ships Source: Ecofys Photo: Yara
  31. 31. © ECOFYS | | Transport costs for 2.5 Mt per year (€/tCO2) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks32 Source: ZEP
  32. 32. © ECOFYS | | Transport costs for 20 Mt per year (€/tCO2) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks33 Source: ZEP
  33. 33. © ECOFYS | | CO2 storage 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks34
  34. 34. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks36 Source: GCCSI
  35. 35. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks37 4 2 3 Residual trapping: CO2 is trapped in tiny rock pores and cannot move CO2 is trapped in tiny roc Dissolution trapping: CO2 dissolves into surrounding salt water Mineral trapping: CO2-rich water sinks to the bottom of the reservoir and reacts to form minerals Stratigraphic and structural barriers: CO2 movement is blocked by impermeable caprocks 1 Source: ZEP
  36. 36. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks38 Source: IPCC SR
  37. 37. © ECOFYS | | Costs of CCS 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks39
  38. 38. © ECOFYS | | Costs power generation (Europe, €/MWh): current 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Coal - PC Gas - Combined Cycle Biomass - dedicated Nuclear Solar PV Wind onshore Wind offshore EUR2012/MWh Source: Ecofys
  39. 39. © ECOFYS | | Costs power generation(Europe, €/MWh): 2030-2035 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks41 Source: Ecofys 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 Coal - PC Gas - Combined Cycle Biomass - dedicated Nuclear Solar PV Wind onshore Wind offshore CCS - Coal CCS - NGCC EUR2012/MWh
  40. 40. © ECOFYS | | Impact on mitigation costs without CCS 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks42 Source: IPCC WG3 AR5
  41. 41. © ECOFYS | | Actual and expected CCS projects 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks43 Source: GCCSI
  42. 42. © ECOFYS | | Boundary Dam 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks44 Photo: Bellona
  43. 43. © ECOFYS | | ROAD project 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks > Post-combustion > 1.1 Mt/y > Empty gas field > EU and national subsidies > Awaiting FID 45 Source: E.On
  44. 44. © ECOFYS | | E.ON Coal-fired plant under construction 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks46 Photo: E.On
  45. 45. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks47 Source: Ecofys
  46. 46. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks48 Source: EcofysSee: ccs.ecofys.com/CONNECT-co2-transport-network-tool/
  47. 47. © ECOFYS | | CCS complex 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks49
  48. 48. © ECOFYS | | Themes requiring solutions (1) > Legal/Regulatory – Transboundary shipment of CO2 – Liability of stored CO2 – Recognition of stored CO2 from biomass in ETS – CO2 composition standards > Economics – Cost reduction – Demonstrations required – Impact of changing power markets – Financing systems 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks50
  49. 49. © ECOFYS | | Themes requiring solutions (2) > Public – Role of CCS – Safety aspects – Compensation scheme for local public > Technical – Monitoring systems for stored CO2 – Reducing energy use – Industrial sources and combining smaller sources > Organisational – Setting up infrastructure – Let the system work: capture – transport - storage 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks51
  50. 50. © ECOFYS | | Typical topics Ecofys on CCS > Environmental performance of CCS > Techno-economic studies > Stakeholder interaction > Business case development > Policy development > Economic value of CCS (market share, added value, employment) 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks52
  51. 51. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks53 Source: Ecofys
  52. 52. © ECOFYS | | Five ‘issues’ to address to improve CCS deployment 1. Role of CCS in abating CO2 emissions 2. Research and development to improve performance of CCS and improve stakeholder capacity building 3. Improvement of economic conditions to accelerate the deployment of CCS 4. Establish short, effective and transparent procedures to develop and implement CCS projects 5. CCS project developers need sufficient certainty about long- term spatial planning, long-term political commitment and economic viability 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks54
  53. 53. © ECOFYS | | Conclusion > For 2˚C target: CCS is required, including bioCCS > CCS: technology is available; policy context not > CCS is important for industry > CCS important for non-OECD countries > Current progress on CCS mainly outside Europe > Main challenges: – Economics – R&D and demonstration – Public acceptance – Complex organisation -> focus on clusters of industry/power 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks55
  54. 54. © ECOFYS | | Thank you! 03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks56
  55. 55. Dr. Chris Hendriks Managing Consultant Kanaalweg 15-G | 3526 KL Utrecht | The Netherlands T: +31 (0)30 662 3393 E: c.hendriks@ecofys.com I: www.ecofys.com
  56. 56. © ECOFYS | |03/07/2014 Chris Hendriks58 Scenarios using building blocks for steps in the value chain Fuel Extraction Fuel logistics Conversion and capture Compression Transport Storage > Natural gas > Coal > Biomass production > ….. > Ship oceanic + inland > Pipeline (gas) > LNG (oceanic) plus inland > …. > Pulverized coal + post combustion > Pulverized coal + oxyfuel > IGCC + pre- combustion > NGCC + post > …. > Electric (from grid/from power plant) > Gas fired > ……. > > Pipeline onshore > Ship + infra > Pipeline offshore > ………. > Aquifer (Offshore/ > Onshore) > Hydrocarbon (Offshore/ > Onshore) > ……………. > Coal (Dutch mix) > Ship oceanic + inland > Pulverized coal + post combustion > Electric (from power plant) > Pipeline onshore > Hydrocarbon (onshore) Lots of combinations possible, for example:

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