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PQ Forum 2011 proceedings http://www.leonardo-energy.org/power-quality-forum-2011-tue-eindhoven

PQ Forum 2011 proceedings http://www.leonardo-energy.org/power-quality-forum-2011-tue-eindhoven

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    Building automation-energy-efficiency Building automation-energy-efficiency Document Transcript

    • Leonardo ENERGY Power Quality Forum 2011 ENERGY EFFICIENCY: STATUS & OUTLOOK A CASE STUDY: BUILDING AUTOMATION Eindoven 27.1.2011 Angelo Baggini*, Franco Bua** *University of Bergamo angelo.baggini@ecd.it ** ECD Engineering Consulting and Design franco.bua@ecd.it New office building 132 m2Project archive ROMA Italia Ground Floor 1
    • 319 m2Project archive Floor 1, 2 e 3 Lighting 4x18 W FL 20 W biAL Floor 1, 2 e 3 2
    • User Profile and Operation Times 1,0 27 0,9 °C 0,8 25 0,7 0,6 23 500 lx Tset 0,5OCC 0,4 21 0,3 0,2 19 0,1 0,0 17 0h 2h 4h 6h 8h 10h 12h 14h 16h 18h 20h 22h 24h EN 15232:2007 (E) Lighting 59.228 kWh Floor 1, 2 e 3 3
    • Heathing ventilation and cooling system Floor 1, 2 e 3 User Profile and Operation Times 1,0 27 0,9 °C 0,8 25 0,7 0,6 23 Tset 0,5OCC 0,4 21 0,3 0,2 19 0,1 0,0 17 0h 2h 4h 6h 8h 10h 12h 14h 16h 18h 20h 22h 24h EN 15232:2007 (E) 4
    • Heathing ventilation and cooling system 55.190 kWh (5.788 m3/y gas) 16.153 kWh (electricity) Floor 1, 2 e 3 EN 15232 Energy performance of building Impact of building automation, controls and building management1. Definition of EE class related to building automation2. Criteria of assignement of class3. Methods for energy savings calculation 5
    • EN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building managementBAC efficiency class Class A:A • High Energy Performance BACS and TBM Class B : B • Advanced BACS and TBM Class C:C • Standard BACS (reference) Class D:D • Non energy efficient BACSEN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building management AUTOMATIC CONTROL DEFINITION OF CLASSES HEATING CONTROL Residential Non residential Function list and assignment to BAC efficiency classes EN 15232:2007(E) Emission control D C B A D C B A The control system is installed at the emitter or room level, for case 1 one system can control several rooms 0 No automatic control 1 Central automatic control Individual room automatic control by thermostatic valves or 2 electronic controller Individual room control with communication between controllers and 3 to BACS Integrated individual room control including demand control (by 4 occupancy, air quality, etc.) Control of distribution network hot water temperature (supply or return) Similar function can be applied to the control of direct electric heating networks 0 No automatic control 1 Outside temperature compensated control 2 Indoor temperature control Control of distribution pumps The controlled pumps can be installed at different levels in the network 0 No control 1 On off control 2 Variable speed pump control with constant Dp 3 Variable speed pump control with proportional Dp 6
    • EN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building management AUTOMATIC CONTROL DEFINITION OF CLASSES LIGHTING CONTROL Residential Non residential Function list and assignment to BAC efficiency classes EN 15232:2007(E) Occupancy control D C B A D C B A 0 Manual on/off switch 1 Manual on/off switch + additional sweeping extinction signal 2 Automatic detection Auto on / Dimmed 3 Automatic detection Auto on / Auto off 4 Automatic detection Manual on / Dimmed 5 Automatic detection Manual on / Auto off Daylight control 0 Manual 1 Automatic BLIND CONTROL 0 Manual operation 1 Motorized operation with manual control 2 Motorized operation with automatic control 3 Combined light/blind/HVAC control (also mentioned above)EN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building management Calculation procedure of BAC efficiency Detailed BAC factor Building Detailed calculation of BAC efficiency Detailed calculation of BAC efficiency Systems Bac efficiency factor Energy use Energy use Delivered energy Delivered energy 7
    • EN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building managementBAC(/TBM) factor method • Heating EN 15316 e 13790 • Cooling EN 15255 e 13790 • Lighting EN 15193 • Ventilation EN 15241 EBAC= fBAC· E User profile - Internal heat gains - Control accurancy and quality -EN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building management BAC(/TBM) Efficiency factors fBAC.EL fBAC.HC Building Building type D C B A D C B A Offices 1,10 0,93 0,87 1,51 0,80 0,70 Lecture hall 1,06 0,94 0,89 1,24 0,75 0,5a Education buildings (school) 1,07 0,93 0,86 1,20 0,88 0,80 Hospitals 1,05 0,98 0,96 1,31 0,91 0,86Non-residential Hotels 1,07 0,95 0,90 1,31 0,85 0,68 1 1 Restaurants 1,04 0,96 0,92 1,23 0,77 0,68 Wholesale and retail trade 1,08 0,95 0,91 1,56 0,6° service buildings 0,73 Single family housesResidential Apartment block 1,08 0,93 0,92 1,10 0,88 0,81 Other res. buildings or similar 8
    • EN 15232 - Energy performance of buildingImpact of building automation, controls and building management BAC(/TBM) Efficiency factors Energy need Losses Aux fBAC ENH + EN.aux ƒBAC.hcHeating = + Eh.aux ƒBAC.el ENC + EC.aux ƒBAC.hcCooling = + Ec.aux ƒBAC.elVentilation = Ev.aux ƒBAC.elLighting = Elight ƒBAC.elA Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBM Lighting • Offices • Show room • Toilets • Open Air • Parking TBM Heathing and Cooling • Room level • Generation and Distribution Ventilation • Automatic flow 9
    • Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBM Lighting – Offices• Daylight Control• Automatic detection Auto On/ Auto Off• Manual ON-OFF switch occupancy 0,97 Light level 0,96 Occupancy control 0,95 fW Daylight Control 0,94 0,93 Day Light 0,92 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Day ΔTm Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMLighting – Offices• Daylight Control• Automatic detection Auto On/ Auto Off• Manual ON-OFF switch 10
    • A Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMLighting – Show Room•Daylight Control•Automatic detection Auto On/ Auto Off Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMLighting – Toilets• Automatic detection Manual On/Auto Off 11
    • Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMLighting – Open Air• Manual on/off Switch• Automatic detection Manual On/Auto Off• Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMLighting – Parking• Automatic Detection Auto On / Auto Off 12
    • Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMHeating and Cooling – Room Level• Automatic Detection Auto On / Auto Off (presence)• Thermostat ON-OFF• Windows ON-OFF• Control Shields Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMHeating and Cooling – Generation and Distribution• Indoor temperature control• Variable speed pump• Automatic control with optimum start/stop• Output Temperature control with load• Priorities based on generator efficiency• Partial interlock (dependant of the HVAC system) 13
    • Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMVentilation• Automatic flow Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMTechnical Building Management• Optimization• Detecting faults• Reporting information regarding energy consumption 14
    • Class AA High Energy Performance BACS and TBM Offices Floor Ground Floor # Description # Description 3 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 1 Internet gateway 1 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 21 Rilevatore IR + crepuscolare nero 7 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 2 Attuatore 1 canale 16°A 2M nero 13 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 11 Attuatore comando motore 1 canale 8°A 2 Rilevatore IR + crepuscolare 9 Termostato con display da parete titanio 24 4 50.235,44 € + VAT Contatto a vista antintrusione Rilevatore crepuscolare 1-100lux IP55 4 Attuatore 1 canale 16°A 1 Rilevatore crepuscolare 1-100lux IP55 3 Alimentatore 640 mA 3 Alimentatore 320 mA 1 Alimentatore 320 mA 3 Accoppiatore di Linea/Area 1 Interfaccia USB 14 Interfaccia 4 canali per contatti tradizionale 8 Interfaccia 4 canali per contatti tradizionale 1 Attuatore 4 canali guida din generico 15 Dimmer universale 1 canale 500 VA 5 Attuatore 4 canali guida din generico Class BB Advanced BACS and TBM Lighting • Offices (group) • Show Room • Toilets • Open Air • Parking TBM Heathing and Cooling • Room Level • Generation and Distribution (software) Ventilation • Automatic flow 15
    • Class BB Advanced BACS and TBM Offices Floor Ground Floor # Descrizione # Descrizione 3 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 1 Internet gateway 1 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 21 Rilevatore IR + crepuscolare nero 7 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 2 Attuatore 1 canale 16°A 2M nero 13 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi 11 Attuatore comando motore 1 canale 8°A 2 Rilevatore IR + crepuscolare 9 Termostato con display da parete titanio 31.302,95 € + VAT 24 Contatto a vista antintrusione 3 Attuatore 1 canale 16°A 4 Rilevatore crepuscolare 1-100lux IP55 1 Rilevatore crepuscolare 1-100lux IP55 3 Alimentatore 640 mA 3 Alimentatore 320 mA 1 Alimentatore 320 mA 3 Accoppiatore di Linea/Area 1 Interfaccia USB 8 Interfaccia 4 canali per contatti tradizionale 8 Interfaccia 4 canali per contatti tradizionale 4 Attuatore 4 canali guida din generico 15 Dimmer universale 1 canale 500 VA 5 Attuatore 4 canali guida din generico BAC/TBM Efficiency factors – EN 15232:2007 (E) fBAC.EL fBAC.HC Building Building type D C B A D C B A Offices 1,10 0,93 0,87 1,51 0,80 0,70 Lecture hall 1,06 0,94 0,89 1,24 0,75 0,5a Education buildings (school) 1,07 0,93 0,86 1,20 0,88 0,80 Hospitals 1,05 0,98 0,96 1,31 0,91 0,86Non-residential Hotels 1,07 0,95 0,90 1,31 0,85 0,68 1 1 Restaurants 1,04 0,96 0,92 1,23 0,77 0,68 Wholesale and retail trade 1,08 0,95 0,91 1,56 0,6° service buildings 0,73 Single family housesResidential Apartment block 1,08 0,93 0,92 1,10 0,88 0,81 Other res. buildings or similar 16
    • Solution Comparison Consumptions (kWh/year) Savings EN 15232 Class CO2 Thermal Electrical Total Consumption Emission (kWh/y) (kg) D D 55.190 59.228 114.418 - - 35.119 B B 29.251 50.048 79.299 9.222 (30,7%) 41.961 A 25.608 46.849 72.457 11.281 (36,7%) Solution Comparison 14.000,00 IRR A = 3,28% 12.000,00 IRR B = 6,10% 10.000,00 8.000,00€/year 6.000,00 4.000,00 2.000,00 D B A D B A D B A 0,00 En. Termica En.Elet r. En. Totale 17
    • Anna and GianPaolo’s house Anna and GianPaolo’s flat renovation PAVIA Italyarchivio progetti Anna and GianPaolo’s 100 m2 flat Residenziale Lighting and conditioning illuminazione Residenziale riscaldamento illuminazione acqua 21% 3% 16% riscaldamento 21% 3% 16% acqua riscaldamento 4%4% riscaldamento ambiente ambiente 6% aria condizionata 6% 50% cucinare aria condizionata elettrodomestici 50% cucinare 10.776 kWh thermalarchivio progetti elettrodomestici 656 + 328 kWh el (cond. and light.) 18
    • Class AHigh Energy Performance BACS and TBM A Lighting • Corridoir etc. SUPERVISION Air conditioning • Rooms • Generation and distribution Ventilation • Automatic renovationA Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMLigthing• Automatic ON-OFF occupancy with timer (100%)• Manual ON-OFF * Number of points: unchanged 19
    • Class A A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMAir conditioning• Automatic occupancy ON-OFF • ON-OFF window opening• ON-OFF thermostat • Shading control A Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMHeating and cooling – Production and distribution• Water Temp. With room temp. • Input Temperature with the load• VSD distribution pumps • Generators on the base of efficiency• ON-OFF optimized • Heating and cooling interblock 20
    • A Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBM Ventilation• Automatic internal air renovation A Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBMControl and supervision• Consumption check/shifti • Optimimization• Centralized C-A Scenarios • Fault research 21
    • A Class A High Energy Performance BACS and TBM # Description 1 Alimentatore 320 mA 3 Attuatore 4 canali KNX-Easy 5 Attuatore 1 canale KNX-Easy 8 Interfaccia contatti 4 canali KNX-Easy 4 3.433,37 € + VAT Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi KNX-Easy 1 Scatola 8P. (4+4) alta capienza 5 Attuatore comando motore 1 canale 7 Contatto magnetico in plastica a vista antintrusione 1 Pannello di controllo KNX-Easy 4 Termostato da parate KNX-EasyClass BAdvanced BACS and TBMB Ligthing • Entrance and Corridor SUPERVISION Heating and cooling • Rooms (NO window contacts) • Distribution and generation (sw) Ventilation • Automatic renovation 22
    • Class BB Advanced BACS and TBM # Description 1 Alimentatore 320 mA 3 Attuatore 4 canali KNX-Easy 5 Attuatore 1 canale KNX-Easy 6 Interfaccia contatti 4 canali KNX-Easy 4 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi KNX-Easy 1 3.205,02 € + VAT Scatola 8P. (4+4) alta capienza 5 Attuatore comando motore 1 canale 2 Contatto magnetico in plastica a vista antintrusione 1 Pannello di controllo KNX-Easy 4 Termostato da parate KNX-EasyC Classe C standard BACS Lighting SUPERVISIONE • Full swich off Scenario Heating and cooling • Rooms (Manual Shad.) • Production and distribution Ventilation • Manual renovation 23
    • Classe CC standard BACS # Description 1 Alimentatore 320 mA 3 Attuatore 4 canali KNX-Easy 3 5 1.636,50 € + VAT Attuatore 1 canale KNX-Easy Interfaccia contatti 4 canali KNX-Easy 0 Rilevatore di movimento infrarossi KNX-Easy 0 Scatola 8P. (4+4) alta capienza 0 Attuatore comando motore 1 canale 0 Contatto magnetico in plastica a vista antintrusione 0 Pannello di controllo KNX-Easy 0 Termostato da parate KNX-Easy 1 Cronotermostato da pareteSolution comparison Consuption (kWh/year) Savings Classe Energy Emissions Thermal Electrical Total (kWh/y) CO2 (kg) D* D 10.776 984 11.760 - - 1.054 C B 9.795 911 10.706 238,9 (9,0%) 2.292 B 8.621 847 9.468 515,8 (19,5%) 2.991 A A 7.931 838 8.769 666,9 (25,4%) * As is 24
    • BAC/TBM Efficiency factors – EN 15232:2007 (E) fBAC.EL fBAC.HC Building Building type D C B A D C B A Offices 1,10 0,93 0,87 1,51 0,80 0,70 Lecture hall 1,06 0,94 0,89 1,24 0,75 0,5a Education buildings (school) 1,07 0,93 0,86 1,20 0,88 0,80 Hospitals 1,05 0,98 0,96 1,31 0,91 0,86Non-residential Hotels 1,07 0,95 0,90 1,31 0,85 0,68 1 1 Restaurants 1,04 0,96 0,92 1,23 0,77 0,68 Wholesale and retail trade 1,08 0,95 0,91 1,56 0,6° service buildings 0,73 Single family housesResidential Apartment block 1,08 0,93 0,92 1,10 0,88 0,81 Other res. buildings or similarSolution comparison Consuption (kWh/year) Savings Classe Energy Emissions Thermal Electrical Total (kWh/y) CO2 (kg) D* D 10.776 984 11.760 - - 1.054 C B 9.795 911 10.706 238,9 (9,0%) 2.292 B 8.621 847 9.468 515,8 (19,5%) 2.991 A A 7.931 838 8.769 666,9 (25,4%) * As is 25
    • Solution comparison €1.000,00 €900,00 €800,00 €700,00 €600,00€/year €500,00 €400,00 €300,00 €200,00 €100,00 D C B A D C B A D C B A €0,00 En. Termica En.Elettr. En. Totale 26