Course on Regulation and Sustainable Energy in Developing Countries - Session 10

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Session 10 will focus on how actual energy efficiency improvements can be achieved in organisations of different sizes. The presentation will start with a discussion of the status of energy efficiency in major developing countries. A variety of tools for working towards higher energy efficiency will be discussed, including benchmarking, energy audits, process analysis, and energy management schemes.

Kornelis Blok (1956) studied experimental physics at Utrecht University and received a Ph.D. degree in 1991 on a thesis ‘On the Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions’. In 1984 he was one of the founders of Ecofys, where he is now Director of Science. Dr. Blok has extensive research and consultancy experience in the field of energy efficiency improvement and clean energy production. He played an important role in the development of European energy policies and international climate policies and has worked in many countries around the globe. He is also with Utrecht University, where he holds a professorship in Sustainable Energy. He is supervising the master programme Energy Science. He authored and co-authored 90 articles in peer-reviewed scientific journals, several books and over 200 research reports, conference contributions and other scientific publications. He was a lead author for the Third and Fourth Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the institution that was award the Nobel Peace Prize in 2007. With his company he won the Erasmus award for the most innovative company of the Netherlands in 2008.

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Course on Regulation and Sustainable Energy in Developing Countries - Session 10

  1. 1. Energy Efficiency in Buildings and Industry Webinar 19 April 2012 Prof. Dr. Kornelis Blok Director of Science, Ecofys Group Course on Regulation and Sustainable Energy in Developing Countries – Session 10 www.leonardo-energy.org/course-regulation-and-sustainable-energy- developing-countries1
  2. 2. Energy Efficiency inBuildings and IndustryLeonardo-Energy Webinar, 19 April 2012Prof. dr Kornelis BlokDirector of Science, Ecofys GroupProfessor of Sustainable Energy, Utrecht University
  3. 3. Energy efficiency is the number one option to limitGHG emissions and enhance security of energy supply Confirmed by many many studies: • IPCC • International Energy Agency • Ecofys • McKinsey • Greenpeace 3 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  4. 4. The Energy Report - Transition to a fully sustainable global energy system by 2050 Energy efficiency improvement makes it possible to limit global energy use to current levels Baseline: 500 Fossil & Nuclear ~520 EJ/a Renewable Heat & Fuels Aggressive end- Renewable Power use energy 400 savings and electrificationFinal Energy (EJ/a) 300 Remaining fossil fuels 200 Substitution of 100 traditional by renewable sources Source: Ecofys 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 2050 4 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  5. 5. Table of contents • What is energy efficiency? • Benchmarking of energy efficiency in the world • Overview of energy use in industry and buildings • Energy audits • Energy management5 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  6. 6. How to measure energy efficiency? Specific Energy Consumption: also indicated as (physical) energy intensity energy use SEC = activity Examples: MJ/ton steel MJ/m2 heated office area MJ/vehicle-km6 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  7. 7. Energy Efficiency Index (EEI) Example: Refrigerator and freezers • Simple indicator for a refrigerator: Specific Energy Consumption in kWh/litre,year • Indicator for fridge/freezer combinations: energy efficiency index E kWh/litre,year EEI = Vr + 2.1× V f volume volume refrigerator freezer compartment compartment7 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  8. 8. What is energy efficiency improvement? Energy efficiency improvement: = reducing the use of energy per unit activity without affecting the level of these activities8 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  9. 9. Energy intensity of iron-making Source: De Beer, Ph.D. Thesis, Utrecht University, 1998 350 Energy efficiency improvements: Introduction coke fired blast 1760-1800: -1.9% a year furnaces 300 1800-1820: -0.2% a year 1820-1910: -1.1% a yearCoke demand (MJ/kg hot metal) 1910-1920: +0.2% a year 250 Steam engines 1920-1940: -1.4% a year 1950-1990: -3.4% a year 200 1760-1990: -1.4% a year Hot blast 150 Radical changes in shape and design 100 Closed top furnace Use of richer ores Larger hearth furnaces 50 Higher blast Ore 0 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 year 9 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  10. 10. Development of energy use by sector (EJ) Blok et al., Global Status Report on Energy Efficiency, REEEP, 200810 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  11. 11. Sectoral breakdown of total final industrial energy use, 2007 Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201011 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  12. 12. Breakdown of industrial energy use (USA, 2010?) Worrell et al., Managing Your Energy, LBNL, Berkely, CA, 201012 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  13. 13. Energy use in the service sector Electricity balance average office building lighting emergency 1% warm tapwater • Fuel is mainly used for space heating Cooling 1% lighting outside 1% 9% humidification 0% other (if any) 3% horeca • Electricity is 7%lighting inside 36% typically responsible for 50% of the primary ict-central energy use of the 21% service sector. ventilation 5% transport ict-decentral 2% 12% Data for the Netherlands pumps Source: Meijer Energie & Milieumanagement B.V., 2008 2% 13 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  14. 14. “Standby consumption” of buildings is substantial 20-55% of electricity consumption in office buildings takes place outside office hours. Ecofys research 1414 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  15. 15. Benchmarking of primary energy use of 16 cement plants in Shandong Province, ChinaPrice et al., Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, 2009 15 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  16. 16. Benchmark curve for copper production Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201016 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  17. 17. Benchmark curve for aluminium production Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201017 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  18. 18. Benchmark curve for steel production (EEI) Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201018 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  19. 19. Benchmark curves for ethylene production Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201019 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  20. 20. Benchmark curve for ammonia production Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201020 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  21. 21. Benchmark curve for clinker production Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201021 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  22. 22. Benchmark curve for paper production Saygin et al., Global Industrial Energy Efficiency Benchmarking, UNIDO, 201022 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  23. 23. Energy demand in the service sector (per capita) Blok et al., Global Status Report on Energy Efficiency, REEEP, 200823 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  24. 24. Development of specific energy use for space heating Blok et al., Global Status Report on Energy Efficiency, REEEP, 200824 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  25. 25. Energy audits Key elements of an energy audit: 1. understand how energy is used 2. identify opportunities for saving energy 3. cost-benefit analysis and recommendations25 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  26. 26. Energy audit 1. Understand how energy is used • Determine total energy use (e.g. bills) • Registration of equipment and operation time • Determination of thermal building characteristics • Additional measurements (!) • Draw up a complete energy balance • Determine load profiles • (Benchmarking) Nr. 1 deficiency: energy balance is not complete26 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  27. 27. Energy audits 2. Identify opportunities for saving energy • Generic building related measures (insulation, control ventilation, lighting, condensing boilers) • Generic industrial measures (motor systems, heat recovery, compressed air, steam systems, insulation) • Process-specific measures • Combined-generation-of-heat-and-power Nr. 2 deficiency: no attention for production processes27 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  28. 28. Energy audit 3. Cost-benefit analysis • Payback time • Net present value • Internal-rate-of-return • Life-cycle costs • Cost-supply curves28 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  29. 29. More efficient motor systems29 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  30. 30. Heat recovery and optimization of heat exchange systems Pinch technology: • Inventory of flows to be heated and flows to be cooled • Systematic optimisation of heat exchanger network • Large theoretical savings achievable30 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  31. 31. New production processesreduction Smelt (steel making) Strip casting 20 50 cn nos o ti u u re e tin ha g ht o b st la BF O c sti g a n fu a e rn c strip fu a e rn c mlil 20 00 0.2 mlti gp i t p rei n e n on u ro i nste l ro / e 0.1 10 50 0.1 Temperature (K) c a/ o e o lc k o / n r/ resi te 1.2 0.9 p le el ts 0.5 sc p ra 0.3 10 00 0.4 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.5 0.5 0.3 50 0 si te n r ck oe pa t ln oe vn 0 A sou e th l y c a g p r g u i =0 G trs b l te n ap h n e e rid nt .5 J/31 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  32. 32. Combinedgenerationof heat and power(CHP)“cogeneration” 32 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  33. 33. Energy saving opportunities in cement plants (16 plants in Shandong, China) • Electicity conservation potential is 40% (of which 16% cost- effective) • Fuel conservation potential is 8% (all cost- effective) • Discount rate 30% Price et al., Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, 200933 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  34. 34. Electricity conservation supply curve for 16 cement plants in Shandong Province, ChinaPrice et al., Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, 2009 34 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  35. 35. Fuel conservation supply curve for 16 cement plants in Shandong Province, ChinaPrice et al., Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China, LBNL, Berkeley, CA, 2009 35 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  36. 36. Principles for energy management • Make it a priority • Commit to energy savings (at all levels) • Assign responsibility • Look beyond first costs • Make energy management a continuous process Worrell et al., Managing Your Energy, LBNL, Berkely, CA, 201036 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  37. 37. Make energy management a continuous process Worrell et al., Managing Your Energy, LBNL, Berkely, CA, 201037 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  38. 38. Elements of energy management • Energy audits • Energy teams • Employee awareness • Monitoring Worrell et al., Managing Your Energy, LBNL, Berkely, CA, 201038 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  39. 39. Provide the right internal incentives. A targeted reward system can ensure that sufficient attention is devoted to energy saving. The combination of comprehensive energy-saving • Incorporate concrete information and a clear reduction target for targets in the salary technical managers at sorting centres resulted in system of those who energy savings of 10% in De Post-La Poste have an influence on (Belgium) sorting centres in 2009 compared to the energy 2008. First a detailed study was conducted in one sorting centre into the potential to reduce energy consumption of consumption and possible energy-saving buildings (and measures. The results of this study were rolled out ensure that they are to four other sorting centres. The savings potential sufficiently from implementing short-term measures was then empowered). translated into a target for the technical managers • This kind of reward of all sorting centres. The final savings achieved were reflected in the annual bonus of the system must managers. In 2009 this policy delivered a saving of obviously be part of 10%, which translated into an energy saving of a broader approach more than 3 million kWh. to energy saving. 3939 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  40. 40. Further reading40 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012
  41. 41. Contact details Prof. dr. Kornelis Blok Ecofys Group Director of Science Phone: +31-30-662 3399 E-mail: k.blok@ecofys.com41 © ECOFYS | 19/04/2012

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