Triple Bottom Line Reporting workshop slides, Laura Musikanski, July 2010


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Slides from Laura Musikanski's Triple Bottom Line Reporting workshop in Seattle, July 2010. See for background information and for Burr Stewart's guest lecture at the same class.

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Triple Bottom Line Reporting workshop slides, Laura Musikanski, July 2010

  1. 1. Triple Bottom Line Reporting July 2010 Laura Musikanski, JD, MBA, CEM, CELR Executive Director, Sustainable Seattle [email_address]
  2. 2. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Day One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introductions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition, Background, History </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introductions revisited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRI Overview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TBL Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lunch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burr Stewart Presentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GRI Revisited and TBL Examples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TBL report exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principles for TBL reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Day Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning Reflections & Revisit Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks and Liabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG Emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project TBL reporting and Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project TBL and Decision Making Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap up </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Introductions </li></ul>
  5. 5. Triple Bottom Line <ul><li>Introduction: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Definition </li></ul>
  7. 7. Definition <ul><li>Triple Bottom Line reporting is accounting for environmental, social and economic performance. </li></ul>Internal External
  8. 8. <ul><li>Triple Bottom Line Reporting is Voluntary </li></ul><ul><li>Financial Reporting is required by SEC </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental reporting - Required under some environmental regulations </li></ul>Defining Triple Bottom Line Reporting
  9. 9. Defining Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Most commonly accepted definition of sustainability: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” </li></ul><ul><li>Brundtland Commission </li></ul>
  10. 10. Areas of focus in Our Common Future, 1987 Security Oceans Urban Growth Industry Energy Species & Ecosystems Population & Human Resources Food Scarcity Economy Sustainable Development
  11. 11. Defining Triple Bottom Line Reporting Sustainability is practiced by managing environmental, social and economic impacts. Social Economic Environmental SYNERGY
  12. 12. Establishing a common language <ul><li>First step towards a new way of doing things </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel to abuse and healing of individuals </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><li>Natural and Built Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals </li></ul>Establishing a common language <ul><li>Equity </li></ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology </li></ul>People Profit Planet SYNERGY
  14. 14. Establishing a common language Three Legged Stool
  15. 15. Establishing a common language - Graphics Economy Jobs, Prosperity, Wealth creation Environment Natural Resources Biodiversity Society Social Equity Sense of community Healthy Ecosystems Thriving Local Economy SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
  16. 16. Establishing a common language- graphics Environment Economy Society <ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Establishing a common language <ul><li>Indigenous People’s perspective of seven generations and approach using the medicine wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine Wheel: An understanding of the Cyclical and Interdependent nature of all </li></ul><ul><li>Core: Fire, Earth, Water, Wind </li></ul><ul><li>Seasons: Spring, Summer, Fall, Winter </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Resources: Tobacco, Sweet grass, Sage, Cedar </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Spirits Eagle, Wolf, Buffalo, Bear and </li></ul><ul><li>Life cycle: Birth, Youth, Adulthood/Parents, Elder, </li></ul><ul><li>Directions: East, South, West & North </li></ul>
  18. 18. And the issue of establishing a common language…. How do we do this? An Ecosystem Interconnected & interdependent
  19. 19. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>You can’t manage what you don’t measure </li></ul><ul><li>You don’t care about what you don’t measure </li></ul>
  20. 20. Terms Triple Bottom Line Corporate Responsibility Citizenship Reports Corporate Social Responsibility EMS Accountability Environmental, Social and Economic Stewardship Community Reports
  21. 21. Terms <ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agenda 21 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Engagement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation, Restoration and Adaptation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Natural Step </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cradle to Cradle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Full Cost Accounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial Ecology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural Capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Capitalism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean Production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design for Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomimicry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eco-efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zero Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smart growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Foot Print </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon Footprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renewable resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take Back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closed loop systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems Thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restorative Business </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Takeaways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Triple bottom line </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Stakeholders – internal and external </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>qualitative, quantitative and graphics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnectedness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>– Holistic, Interdependent and Cyclic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability of natural, built, social and economic systems </li></ul></ul></ul>Triple Bottom Line Reporting
  23. 23. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Background </li></ul>
  24. 24. Background Growth in reporting: 27 to over 3.600 from 1992 - 2009
  25. 25. Background Subject areas: Environmental: from 78% to 15% Sustainability & CSR - 70% in ‘09
  26. 26. Background First Time Reports: Over 700 in 2009 Just under 400 in 2005
  27. 27. Background Growth in reporting: Europe North & Central America Asia South America Australia African & Middle Eash
  28. 28. Background <ul><li>Integrated reporting: Financial and non-financial reporting together, rather than stand alone reports </li></ul>
  29. 29. Background <ul><li>KPMG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>79% of Global Fortune 250 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>74 of 100 top revenue producing companies in 22 countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics & Economics are the drivers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>77% of reporting companies use GRI </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>International Survey of Corporate Responsibility Reporting 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>52% of Global Fortune 500 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economics is the primary driver </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Background <ul><li>Corporate Register: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>26,274 reports from 6527 entities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2006: 2378 reports recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2007: 2714 reports recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2008: 3270 reports recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2009: 3913 reports recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Reporting Initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>523 recorded for 2009 </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Background <ul><li>Industries in which reporting trend is up: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals, Mining, Oil, Gas, Forestry, Pulp and Paper, Utilities and Finance where Equator Principles apply. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industries showing changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Service industries, supply chain (more medium and small companies are reporting) </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Background <ul><li>142 countries have standards or laws regarding some aspect of sustainability reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>65% are mandatory, 34% are voluntary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Ecuador, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Mexico, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Source: Carrots and Sticks- Promoting Transparency and Sustainability UNEP. GRI, KPMG and Unit for Corporate Governance in Africa, Stellenbosch Business School </li></ul>
  33. 33. US requirements <ul><li>Equal opportunity -The EEO-1 Survey: report diversity report </li></ul><ul><li>SOX Section 404 requirements for top executives to sign off on detailed internal controls </li></ul><ul><li>SEC Rule S-K, Item 103 Instruction5 - Environmental Claims: disclose sanctions$100 000, any material capital expenditure or legal proceeding </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), 1988 Companies with over 10 FTE emissions data for specified toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Coming: GHG emission, energy portfolio, energy use </li></ul><ul><li>The National Association of Insurance Commissions (NAIC) : insurance companies must disclose to regulators financial risk and risk management actions from climate change and actions </li></ul>
  34. 34. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Reporting Forms </li></ul>
  35. 35. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>How is performance reported? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document: Hard copy, PDF </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand alone single document </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated into financial annual report </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stand alone multiple documents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pamphlets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally – management structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Within (Financial) Annual Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Communications (media, ads, etc) </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>History </li></ul>
  37. 37. Short History of TBL Reporting 1790 Stock Market Crash SEC FASB & GAAP 1929 1902 Census Bureau Created Great Depression First US Census 1930 1972 1934 Securities Act 1933
  38. 38. Short History of TBL Reporting 1962 Silent Spring National Environmental Protection Act 1970 EMS Systems & Env Regs 1992 1983 Brundtland Rio Declaration 1989 Exxon Valdez GRI 1997 Kyoto Protocol 2005 Katrina Inconvenient Truth, IPCC 4 2006 AB-32: CA Global Warming Solutions Act 2000 Enron 2002 SOX
  39. 39. Short History of TBL Reporting 2008 Climate Action and Green Jobs (HB 2815) 2010 RGGI comes into effect American Clean Energy and Security Act (H.R. 2454) Passed in House Jun 26, 2009 – Senate? Cap & Trade, 17-percent emissions reduction from 2005 levels by 2020, 80% by 2050, Electric utilities- Renewable energy portfolio 20% by 2020. EPA to regulate GHG emissions from light vehicles 2009
  40. 40. Short History of TBL Reporting 2008 2010 Sweden- Swedish Annual Accounts Act, Accounting Modernisation Directive 2003/51/EC Amendment in 2007: state-owned companies to present, from 2009, sustainability reports, independent & in accordance with GRI 2007 France- Nouvelles Régulations Economique Australia Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act 1999, S516A - Australian Government agencies report on their sustainability performance as part of Annual Reports. 2001 2003 Denmark – Financial Statement Act. Large companies must disclose corporate social responsibility SEC –guidance on climate change risk disclosure ISO 26000 to be released Watch- - Africa & South America
  41. 41. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Introductions revisited </li></ul>
  42. 42. <ul><li>Introductions Revisited </li></ul><ul><li>Partner Up </li></ul><ul><li>Identify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Your Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A Story illustrating your direction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Round about </li></ul><ul><li>One word closing </li></ul>
  43. 43. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Global Reporting Initiative </li></ul>
  44. 44. Frameworks for Triple Bottom Line Reports <ul><li>Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) </li></ul><ul><li>ISO 26000 </li></ul><ul><li>SRI Indices </li></ul><ul><li>Principles for Global Corporate Responsibility: Bench Marks for Measuring Business Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Agenda 21 </li></ul><ul><li>SA8000 standard </li></ul><ul><li>AA1000 AccountAbility Principles Standard (AA1000APS), </li></ul><ul><li>Seven Generations </li></ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul>
  45. 45. Global Reporting Initiative Environment Labor Practices & Human Rights Communication Public Relations Social Service/Good Responsibility Economic & Financial Basic Sustainability Framework
  46. 46. Triple Bottom Line Subject Areas Social Economic Environmental Financial Performance Product Responsibility Consumer Issues Community Development Communication Materials Waste and Recycle Biodiversity Governance Fair Operating Procedures Labor Practices Human Relations Integration Energy Emissions Water
  47. 47. GRI
  48. 48. GRI
  49. 49. GRI
  50. 50. GRI
  51. 51. GRI
  52. 52. GRI
  53. 53. GRI <ul><li>Sector Supplements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Agency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistics and Transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining and Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tour Operators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air Ports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apparel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food Processors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction and Real Estate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electric Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil & Gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Growing list </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. GRI is a set of guidelines for reporting <ul><li>GRI is not normative (ought to be) nor prescriptive (custom) </li></ul><ul><li>GRI provides guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>GRI does not provide information about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how to operate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to manage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals to set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GRI is allied with the UN Global Compact </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 5 000 business participants </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% are companies with over 250 employees. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Many SRI indices are based on GRI </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 1 : Businesses should support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights; and </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 2: make sure that they are not complicit in human rights abuses.   </li></ul><ul><li>Labour </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 3 : Businesses should uphold the freedom of association and the effective recognition of the right to collective bargaining; </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 4 : the elimination of all forms of forced and compulsory labour; </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 5 : the effective abolition of child labour; and </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 6 : the elimination of discrimination in respect of employment and occupation.    </li></ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 7 : Businesses should support a precautionary approach to environmental challenges; </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 8 : undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility; and </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 9 : encourage the development and diffusion of environmentally friendly technologies.    </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Principle 10 : Businesses should work against corruption in all its forms, including extortion and bribery.  </li></ul>
  56. 56. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Short Exercise </li></ul>
  57. 57. Sustainability Integration Curve Percent organizations Sustainability Integration
  58. 58. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Triple Bottom Line Reports </li></ul><ul><li>A look at 3 reports: </li></ul><ul><li>GRI –Dow Chemical </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability and Profit – CHUBB and Santander </li></ul><ul><li>Water and Basic Needs- Coca Cola Company and Coke Enterprises </li></ul>
  59. 59. TBL example- GRI
  60. 60. TBL example- GRI
  61. 61. TBL example- GRI
  62. 62. TBL example- GRI
  63. 63. TBL example- GRI
  64. 64. TBL example- GRI
  65. 65. TBL example- GRI
  66. 66. TBL example- GRI
  67. 67. TBL example- GRI
  68. 68. TBL example- GRI
  69. 69. TBL example- GRI
  70. 70. TBL example-GRI accord <ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><li>Resources to produce the report </li></ul><ul><li>Future reports </li></ul><ul><li>Managing what is measured </li></ul><ul><li>Integration – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commitment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allocation of Resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Measure progress </li></ul></ul></ul>
  71. 71. TBL example-GRI accord
  72. 72. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  73. 73. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  74. 74. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  75. 75. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  76. 76. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability and Operations
  77. 77. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  78. 78. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  79. 79. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  80. 80. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability United Nations Millennium Development Goals
  81. 81. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  82. 82. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  83. 83. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  84. 84. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  85. 85. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  86. 86. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  87. 87. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  88. 88. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  89. 89. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  90. 90. TBL Example- Profit and Sustainability
  91. 91. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  92. 92. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  93. 93. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  94. 94. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  95. 95. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  96. 96. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  97. 97. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  98. 98. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  99. 99. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  100. 100. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs
  101. 101. TBL reports – Water and Basic Needs Foreign Policy, Washington Post
  102. 102. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>TBL Exercise: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teams of 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Review Report </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss– 3 points each </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appoint Spokesperson – 2 main points </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class discussion </li></ul></ul>
  103. 103. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Burr Stewart </li></ul>
  104. 104. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Principles for TBL Reports </li></ul>
  105. 105. Principles <ul><li>GRI Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materiality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder Inclusiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completeness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timeliness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clarity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul></ul>
  106. 106. Criteria Barb Slob and Gerard Oonk, The ISO Working Group On Social Responsibility Developing the Future ISO SR 26000 Standard, March 2007 <ul><li>ISO 26000 Principles </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for Internationally recognized Instruments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>International Labour Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Compact </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compliance with the law </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of stakeholder's rights </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical conduct/behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Precautionary approach </li></ul><ul><li>Primacy of respect for fundamental human rights </li></ul><ul><li>Respect for diversity </li></ul>
  107. 107. Best Practices <ul><li>Prioritize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakeholder interest: What is important to them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control and Influence: What can you really do? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quantify </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Numbers – comparable and understandable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standardize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRI & industry practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verify </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell story in language & medium for audience </li></ul></ul>
  108. 108. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Homework </li></ul><ul><li>Fill in Short form TBL report </li></ul><ul><li>View 3 reports on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 reports from the same entity, consecutive years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 reports from different entities, same year </li></ul></ul>
  109. 109. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Take-aways </li></ul>
  110. 110. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Day Two </li></ul>
  111. 111. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Agenda </li></ul><ul><li>Day Two </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Morning Reflection & Revisit Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Homework Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Indicators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks and Liabilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG Emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project TBL reporting and Decision Making </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project TBL Discussion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wrap up </li></ul></ul>
  112. 112. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Regional Indicators </li></ul>
  113. 114. <ul><li>Founded in 1991, Sustainable Seattle is a non-profit organization dedicated to enhancing the long term quality of life in the Central Puget Sound.  </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Seattle provides communities and individuals with meaningful information that reflect their priorities and helps them make sustainable choices. </li></ul>
  114. 143. <ul><li>Choose three indicators for yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>Team of Two </li></ul><ul><li>Describe why these three </li></ul><ul><li>Group discussion </li></ul>Exercise
  115. 144. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Risks and Liabilities </li></ul>
  116. 145. <ul><li>Nike v. Kasky </li></ul><ul><li>Law: Unfair Competition Laws, Cal. B&P § 17200  and False Advertising Claims, Cal. B&P § 17600). </li></ul><ul><li>Kasky sued Nike in 1998 for publishing that it had a code of conduct for labor rights but not complying with it along  its supply chain. The California Supreme Court found Kasky has a right to sue Nike. The U.S. Supreme Court first granted a certiorari then determined not to hear the case and sent it back to California. Nike Settled in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>US Supreme Court Decision 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: TBLs Commercial Speech? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market Place of Ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What about cause marketing? </li></ul></ul>Risks and Liabilities
  117. 146. <ul><li>Doe v. Unocal </li></ul><ul><li>Law: Alien Tort Claims Act of 1789 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ [t]he district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States…” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myanmar Villagers sued Unocal in 1997 for  forced labor, murder, rape, and torture. Unocal allowed governmental forces and others to help them in constructing a gas pipeline. The help Unocal received included forcing villagers with murder, rape and torture to work on the pipeline.  </li></ul><ul><li>The court found Unocal is subject to liability because it knew of the crimes. </li></ul><ul><li>Unocal settled. Undisclosed amount 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forum Non-Conveniens </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roman Statute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Codes of conduct/voluntary policy </li></ul></ul>Risks and Liabilities
  118. 147. <ul><li>Wiwa v. Royal Dutch Shell </li></ul><ul><li>Law: Torture Victim Prevention Act of 1991 (28 U.S.C. Section 1350) </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Dutch Shell received help from the Nigerian government  to explore for oil. Protesters were rated, beaten and executed by the government in 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>The Court found Royal Dutch Shell is subject to liability as there was substantial cooperation between the government and Royal Dutch Shell. </li></ul><ul><li>Trial set for Feb. 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Issue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul></ul>Risks and Liabilities
  119. 148. Other Constituency Statutes <ul><li>Model Business Corporations Act requires Directors to act: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Good faith standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ordinarily prudent person in similar circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manner reasonably believed to be in the best interests of the corporation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>with the BJR – not gross negligence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Revlon Duties: Hostile Takeovers and Friendly Mergers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directors may not consider the interests of non-shareholders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow duty to maximize shareholder value </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Constituency Statutes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State statute that allows managers to take into account the best interests of various non-shareholder constituencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hostile Takeovers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pennsylvania - 1983 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 40 States… not Delaware </li></ul></ul>
  120. 149. Other Constituency Statutes <ul><li>Permissive -permit, but do not require, directors to consider the interests of other constituencies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mandatory - require directors consider the interests of other constituencies. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecticut and Arizona </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presumed validity of directors’ determination - explicitly provide that shareholder interests need not be held above stakeholders interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action must be approved by a majority of disinterested directors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must not be able to prove after reasonable investigation that the disinterested directors did not act in good faith. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indiana and Pennsylvania </li></ul></ul>
  121. 150. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Interfaith Center on Corporate Responsibility Shareholder Resolutions </li></ul>CORPORATION ISSUE Abbott Laboratories Executive Compensation Health Care Reform Principles - Pharma Right of Access to Medicine/HIV Report Adobe Systems Incorporated Political Contributions Aetna Health Care Reform Principles - Pharma AK Steel Holding Corp. Sexual Orientation Discrimination Allegheny Energy, Inc. Electric Power - GHG Report Allegheny Technologies Sustainability Reporting (MI) Allergan, Inc. Report on Animal Testing Alliant Energy Corp. GHG Reduction Through Energy Efficiency Altria Group, Inc. Apply MSA/Kessler Ruling Globally Health Care Reform Principles - Tobacco Stop Youth-Oriented Ad Campaigns Two Cigarette Approach to Marketing
  122. 151. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Some examples of shareholder proposals filed in 2008 include: </li></ul><ul><li>The Sisters of Ste-Anne of Montreal have filed a resolution with the world’s largest gold producer, Barrick Gold , whose massive Pascua Lama mining project on the Chile-Argentina border presents potentially serious environmental risks to both countries. </li></ul><ul><li>EnCana , Canada’s largest independent oil and gas producer, is bein asked by one of its shareholders to incorporate the cost of carbon emissions into its business strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>Major Canadian airlines – including Air Canada, WestJet and Trans AT – have been asked to prepare annual sustainability reports, which would involve in part discussing how they are responding to and managing their impacts on climate change. </li></ul>Kairos: Canadian Ecumenical Justice Initiatives
  123. 152. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Executive Order 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct environmental, transportation, and energy-related activities environmentally and economically sound, integrated, continuously improving, efficient, and sustainable manner. </li></ul><ul><li>3% GHG emissions reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2015, Baseline 2003. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Environmentally preferable products </li></ul><ul><li>Waste prevention & recycling programs </li></ul><ul><li>High Performance and Sustainable Buildings </li></ul><ul><li>Fleets: reduce, hybrids </li></ul><ul><li>EPEAT </li></ul>
  124. 153. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Executive Order 13423 continued: </li></ul><ul><li>EMS Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Collection, analysis, and reporting of performance </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental management training </li></ul><ul><li>Review and audit </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership awards </li></ul><ul><li>Extends to contractors for contractor operation of government-owned facilities or vehicles </li></ul>
  125. 154. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Executive Order 13423 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean (including tidal, wave, current and thermal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Municipal solid waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain hydroelectric generation </li></ul></ul>
  126. 155. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Oregon Executive Order </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Sustainability Represents a significant economic opportunity for the State of Oregon” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient and Effective </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Environment, Economy and Communities work together </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Industries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Technologies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agencies to develop Sustainability Plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EMS programs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fleet </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Green Building </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Procurement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate into bridge repair progra ms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy </li></ul></ul>
  127. 156. Risks and Liabilities <ul><li>Federal Trade Commission Green Guides </li></ul><ul><li>16 CFR Part 260, Section 5 of FTC Act to environmental advertising and marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>promotional materials, etc. through words, symbols, emblems, logos, depictions, brand names, etc. in connection with sale or marketing of any product or package. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not enforceable regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Does not preempt other regulations </li></ul><ul><li>Open to lawsuit </li></ul>
  128. 157. <ul><li>Federal Trade Commission Green Guides </li></ul><ul><li>General Principles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifications and disclosures should be clear and prominent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be a clear distinction between benefits of product and package </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not overstate environmental attributes, expressly or by implication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for comparative claims must be made clear, and advertiser should substantiate claim </li></ul></ul>Risks and Liabilities
  129. 158. <ul><li>Regulations in the US </li></ul><ul><li>SOX: Section 404 top execs sign off on detailed internal controls, code of ethics </li></ul><ul><li>SEC: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Item 101(c)(1)(xii) mandates disclosure of cost to comply with environmental laws where compliance costs are material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Item 303: Management's discussion and analysis of financial conditions and result of operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EEO-1 US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee profiles: race and gender </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxic Release Inventory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 10 FT employees submit data on emissions to EPA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drivers or no? </li></ul>Risks and Liabilities
  130. 159. <ul><li>Brundtland Commission Report </li></ul><ul><li>Survival of the human and other species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental degradation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Global warming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ozone layer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty & Inequality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improving our lot in the environment in which we live </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industrialization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Norms of Behavior: campaigns, education and public participation </li></ul></ul>Risks and Liabilities 1983
  131. 160. <ul><li>WWF Discussion Paper, CSR an overview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Call for legally binding global rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate sustainable development into core business strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reactive to Passive to Proactive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk Assessment and Branding to Change of Business Model </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good to Services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Win-win to strategic investments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing to Responsible Marketing </li></ul></ul></ul>Drivers
  132. 161. Drivers: The Triple Bottom Line Social Economic Environmental Reduce Costs & Increase Revenues Emerging markets Manage risks Resource Limitations Regulations & Laws Attract & retain quality talent License to operate Reputation HIGHEST POTENTIAL
  133. 162. Drivers Ethics Quality of Life Long term value Alignment with Organization First to Market Goodwill Branding Departmental and Agency Directives Stakeholder Expectations Shareholder Resolutions Regulations and Requirements
  134. 163. <ul><li>Is CSR profitable? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meta-analysis of 52 studies, representing 33,878 observations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CSR is correlated to profitability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CSR leads to reputation benefits, leading to public endorsement from regulators ( EPA, OSHA) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CSR integrate into strategy to enhance financial position. </li></ul></ul></ul>Drivers
  135. 164. <ul><li>Results suggest that environmental information, particular in the extreme, has value in the stock selection process. </li></ul><ul><li>Results did not suggest that environmental ranking is negatively correlated to price performance. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Strong environmental performance translates into superior equity performance” (Derwall et al ., 2004: 15) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovest ratings employing over sixty different environmental criteria for S&P500 stock universe, employing the proprietary quantitative investment model, US Active Equity Alpha, as baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>Drivers
  136. 165. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Emissions </li></ul>
  137. 166. <ul><li>Protocols: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WRI & WBCSD Greenhouse Gas Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Climate Registry General Verification Protocol-DRAFT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California Climate Action Registry General Reporting Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EIA Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>API Compendium of Greenhouse Gases Emissions Methodology for Oil and Gas Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Petroleum Industry Guidelines. for Reporting. Greenhouse Gas Emissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>EPA Climate Leaders, Design Principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ISO 14064 Emerging Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Verification Standard </li></ul></ul>GHG Emissions
  138. 167. GHG Emission Calculators <ul><li>Seattle Climate Partnerships Carbon Calculator Tool: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>EPA Personal Emissions Calculator </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lifecycle Climate Footprint Calculator </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Terrapass </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many others </li></ul></ul>
  139. 168. <ul><li>Main Issues in an inventory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verification </li></ul></ul>Components of a Climate Change Assessment
  140. 169. <ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation/Mandate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Citizenship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Court of Public Opinion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change Impacts </li></ul></ul>GHG emissions Inventory
  141. 170. Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gas CO2 equivalent units Carbon dioxide 1 Methane 21 Nitric oxide 310 Hydroflorocarbons 1,300 Perflorocarbons 6,500 Sulfur hexfloride 23,900
  142. 172. GHG Emission Drivers <ul><li>Electricity (production & consumption) </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Refrigerants </li></ul><ul><li>Supply chain </li></ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul><ul><li>Land use </li></ul>
  143. 173. <ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Baseline </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First year for which there is reliable data </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Target Year: i.e. Kyoto Protocol - 1990 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>First Year of Reporting (no baseline) Used when the entity did not exist before the inventory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rolling Baseline - used when an entity regularly merges, acquires, etc . </li></ul></ul></ul>Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory
  144. 174. <ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership, Equity and Influence  Decision </li></ul><ul><li>Control and Influence  Liability </li></ul>GHG Emissions Inventory Control Influence Importance Activity A Activity B <ul><li>Availability of Data </li></ul>
  145. 175. GHG Emissions Inventory <ul><li>Data Gathering </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities Bill (Electricity, Gas, Alternatives) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Travel Agent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ops or Accounting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hauler </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Survey/Observations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supply chain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calculations tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting system </li></ul></ul></ul>
  146. 176. <ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Scope 1 : Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Scope 2 : Purchased </li></ul><ul><li>Scope 3 : Influence </li></ul>GHG Emissions Inventory
  147. 177. <ul><li>Direct </li></ul><ul><li>Scope 1 : Activities and property controlled or owned by the organization. </li></ul>GHG Emissions Inventory
  148. 178. <ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Scope 2: Purchased energy from off site sources for own use (i.e. consumed by owned or controlled equipment or operations) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchased electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Office/Facilities heat, cooling, air conditioning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity purchased for other purposes. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission & Distribution of electricity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electricity used during transmission and distribution is reported by company that owns or controls the transmission & distribution </li></ul></ul></ul>GHG Emissions Inventory
  149. 179. GHG Emissions Inventory <ul><li>Indirect </li></ul><ul><li>Scope 3: GHG emissions from production of purchased services or goods- activities not controlled, owned or due to use and purchasing of energy- Everything else </li></ul>
  150. 180. <ul><li>Most inventorying is based on activity data and a calculation tool i.e.: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AF x EF x CF = GHG emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AF is Activity Factor gathered from fuel uses, utility bills, structure sq. ft </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>EF is Emission Factor gathered from a protocol (WRI, IPCC) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CF is Conversion Factor converting units and global warming potential units . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry Specific –WRI & 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (Includes industrial process and product use, Ag, Forestry and other land use, waste). </li></ul></ul>GHG Emissions Inventory
  151. 181. GHG emissions calculation tools <ul><li>World Resource Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change </li></ul><ul><li>Seattle Climate Partnership Tool </li></ul><ul><li>ICLEI Local Government Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Clean Air-Cool Planet </li></ul><ul><li>Construction Carbon Calcultor – </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Input-Output LCA (Carneigie-Mellon Univ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Careful of embedded assumptions….question of offsetting </li></ul></ul>
  152. 182. Boundaries and GHG emission inventories <ul><li>Boundaries are influenced by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope of activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control, Influence and level of importance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Availability of data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impacts on verification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk preference for liability </li></ul></ul>
  153. 183. GHG Emissions Inventory <ul><li>Verification - What: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Registry General Verification Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Verification- Who: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountants and Consultants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulators (Clean Air Act) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary non-binding agreements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntary binding agreements </li></ul></ul>
  154. 184. <ul><li>Example GHG Emissions Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>REI </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Aspiration: Become a climate-neutral company by 2020 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intermediate Climate Goal: Reduce our climate impact by 1/3 from 2006 baseline by 2009 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  155. 185. GHG Emissions Partner with Bonneville Environmental Foundation Green Tags Program 1. Employee survey of Employees atHQ – sample size of 750 - actual miles traveled, type of transportation & the number of days for each type. 2. Sample process for distribution center 3. Estimates for nationwide based on initial survey and sample Company Travel booking software and CO2 estimates from Climate Neutral Network Based on estimates from identified activities i.e.hydrofluorocarbon gas that escapes from air-conditioning systems during routine maintenance 2008 REI Stewardship Report
  156. 186. GHG Emissions Goods Inbound: Sea Shipments : calculation based on container loads based on the container-miles. CO2 per container mile data published by the clean cargo group accounting for the average of all container ships. Truck Transport : ton-mile calculation used the vendor location, distance of the shipment and the freight weight to arrive at a total ton-miles of freight CO2 impact per ton mile derived from the average values published for &quot;less than truckload&quot; freight shipments and based on company calculations Direct Delivery- total ton-miles of freight multiplied by the average impacts of parcels and company calculations 1. Goods inbound - from vendors or factories to our distribution centers or stores 2. Intra-company transfers - shipments from our distribution center to our stores, between stores, or from stores back the distribution center. Inter-company transfers Compute total freight “ton-miles” based on total tons of cargo, number of deliveries and the distance from the distribution center to each store & use national average truck fleet data for fuel mileage (7 miles/gallon) and truck hauling weight) along with a standard conversion from diesel fuel gallons to pounds of CO2 (22.2 pounds/gallon) to arrive at a factor for pounds of CO2 per freight ton-mile. 2006 REI Stewardship Report
  157. 187. GHG Emissions Kilowatt hours from electricity bills for stores, headquarters and distribution center, with CO2 estimates based on the EPA Power Profiler, except in WA – based on Washington State Department of Community Trade and Economic Developments (CTED) for 2005 . Natural Gas: Not stated Direct Fulfillment; Ground- assumed the average shipping distance is 1342 miles CO2 based on average package weight shipped with used the same CO2 factor computed for truck delivery. Air- adjusted the average weight of a package compared to a person with CO2 estimates based on Climate Neutral Network. 2008 REI Stewardship Report
  158. 188. GHG Emissions 2006 REI Stewardship Report
  159. 189. GHG Emissions – Global Source: European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC)/Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL). Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR), release version 4.0. /2009 .
  160. 190. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Exercise <ul><li>For your home or place of work </li></ul><ul><li>Identify one of each emitters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scope 1, Scope 2 Scope 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For each: Control or Influence? </li></ul><ul><li>One main takeaway, or, if you have already performed a ghg emissions- lesson to share </li></ul>
  161. 191. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Greenhouse Gas Emissions </li></ul><ul><li>Risks, Liabilities and Drivers </li></ul>
  162. 192. Climate Change Impacts <ul><li>U.S. Climate Change Science Program Report </li></ul><ul><li>A joint effort of more than a dozen government agencies </li></ul>
  163. 193. Climate Change Impacts - U.S. Climate Change Science Program Report <ul><li>Abnormally hot days and nights, along with heat waves, are very likely to become more common. </li></ul><ul><li>Cold nights are very likely to become less common. </li></ul><ul><li>Sea ice extent is expected to continue to decrease and may even disappear in the Arctic Ocean in summer in coming decades. </li></ul><ul><li>Precipitation, on average, is likely to be less frequent but more intense. </li></ul><ul><li>Droughts are likely to become more frequent and severe in some regions. </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes will likely have increased precipitation and wind. </li></ul><ul><li>The strongest cold-season storms in the Atlantic and Pacific are likely to produce stronger winds and higher extreme wave heights. </li></ul>
  164. 194. <ul><li>Adaptation Assessment Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Bio-diversity and ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Water quality and supply </li></ul><ul><li>Fresh water inflow </li></ul><ul><li>Surface water management </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-level rise </li></ul><ul><li>Flooding management </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard management </li></ul><ul><li>Wetland loss </li></ul><ul><li>Permafrost melt </li></ul>Climate Change Examples of several Climate Change Adaptations Assessments available
  165. 195. <ul><li>Adaptation Assessment Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Safety and Human Security </li></ul><ul><li>Land Use </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Waste management </li></ul><ul><li>Ag and fisheries </li></ul><ul><li>Energy demand </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Islands </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of tourism/ recreational assets </li></ul><ul><li>Storm activity Extreme weather events </li></ul><ul><li>Economic Impacts </li></ul>Components of a Climate Change Assessment Image from “Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Urban Systems in Greater Vancouver” 2003
  166. 196. GHG Emissions Source:
  167. 197. Greenhouse Gas Emissions <ul><li>Western Climate Initiative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to adopt legislation in the state. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GHG reductions to 15% below 2005 levels by 2020 through market-based multi-sector mechanism & other policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cap and Trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Economy Wide Reduction goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tail Pipe Standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active in Climate Registry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HB 2815 - Regulated: 10,000 Metric Tons CO2e scope 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Triggers Scope 2 accountability </li></ul></ul></ul>
  168. 198. Greenhouse Gas Emissions <ul><li>States with Renewable Portfolio Standards (most recently Ohio) </li></ul>Pew Center on Global Climate Change WA Initiative 937
  169. 199. Renewable and Alternative Energy:
  170. 200. Greenhouse Gas Emissions <ul><li>Washington Initiative 937 passed on Nov. 7, 2006, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities serving 25,000 people or more. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15 percent of their energy using renewable sources by 2020. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy sources: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geothermal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Landfill Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wave, Ocean </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tidal Power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Qualifying Biomass Resources. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas From Sewage Treatment Facilities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel fuel that is not derived from crops raised on land cleared from old growth or first-growth forests </li></ul></ul></ul>Position WA as leader <ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect clean air and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job creation and training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilize prices, economic growth , </li></ul></ul>
  171. 201. Climate Change To date, 1042 mayors have signed the U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement.
  172. 202. Climate Change <ul><li>U.S. Mayors Climate Protection Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Kyoto Protocol Targets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to meet or beat the Kyoto Protocol targets in their own communities, through actions ranging from anti-sprawl land-use policies to urban forest restoration projects to public information campaigns. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advocate for State and Federal policies & programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urge their state governments, and the federal government, to enact policies and programs to meet or beat the greenhouse gas emission reduction target suggested for the United States in the Kyoto Protocol -- 7% reduction from 1990 levels by 2012. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Advocate for Federal Law </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Urge the U.S. Congress to pass the bipartisan greenhouse gas reduction legislation, which would establish a national emission trading system </li></ul></ul>
  173. 203. <ul><li>Development of market based system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cap and Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department of Ecology creates the reporting rule </li></ul></ul>Washington’s Climate Action & Green Jobs (HB 2815) Source: Vertis
  174. 204. Washington’s Climate Action & Green Jobs (HB 2815) <ul><li>GHG Emission Reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WA Dept of Ecology rule public meetings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>November 3 at Ecology’s Regional Offices in Spokane, Washington </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>November 5 at Ecology’s Headquarters in Lacey, Washington. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEPA checklist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate ghg emissions before and after measures to reduce ghg emission considered for the project </li></ul></ul></ul>
  175. 205. <ul><li>Vehicle Miles Traveled: </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarks for reducing vehicle-miles traveled (VMT) </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease annual per capita VMT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18% by 2020 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30% by 2035 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% by 2050 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Requires the Department of Transportation to develop strategies to achieve the benchmarks </li></ul>Washington’s Climate Action & Green Jobs (HB 2815)
  176. 206. <ul><ul><li>Green economy jobs growth initiative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tripling the number of green jobs by 2020.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor market research  to establish a job training grant program to be funded in 2009. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration into existing workforce training institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$50,000 in House budget for a study examining ways to encourage women and minority-owned businesses to enter into clean energy industries. </li></ul></ul></ul>Washington’s Climate Action & Green Jobs (HB 2815) Social Economic Environmental New Industry Social Justice GHG Emissions Reductions
  177. 207. Washington State GHG emissions reporting <ul><li>The Washington rule includes entities not included in federal rule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food processors, industrial landfills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural gas extraction, processing, storage, transmission, and distribution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Threshold for stationary sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reporting year 2009 - 25,000 metric tons of CO2 per year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2010 and beyond- 10,000 metric tons </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reach the threshold of direct emissions requiring reporting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>must report indirect emissions; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reports must be verified by a third-party – not self-certified. </li></ul>
  178. 208. EPA GHG emission reporting rule <ul><li>Threshold of 25,000 metric tons CO2 for all years, no indirect, self reporting </li></ul><ul><li>29 specific categories </li></ul><ul><ul><li>oil refineries, pulp and paper manufacturing, landfills, manure management, and producers of aluminum, cement, iron and steel, glass, and various chemicals, and facilities with large stationary fuel burning sources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some sources will have to report their GHG emissions regardless of threshold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Upstream” GHG sources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>producers, importers, and exporters of petroleum products, natural gas, and industrial GHGs based upon the GHG content of the fuels or gases they supply into the market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>excludes coal suppliers and underground coal mines (entities generating electricity will report these emission) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>heavy-duty trucks, motorcycles, airplanes, and non-road engines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No fleets, natural gas, food processors or industrial landfills </li></ul></ul>
  179. 209. Trends in Law <ul><li>Nuisance Case: Connecticut v. American Electric Power, No. 05-5104) (2nd Cir, Sept. 21, 2009) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A nuisance claim against GHG emissions from the nation's largest utilities goes forward. – 2nd Circuit decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 states, City of NY & several private land trusts, sued six electric utility companies responsible for “ten percent of worldwide carbon dioxide emissions from human activities.” They claim to represent the interests of 77 million people, their environments, and economies,& cite the harmful impacts of global warming on people, their environment & economies. </li></ul></ul>
  180. 210. Trends in Policy <ul><li>RCW 39.35D High Performance Buildings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All major facility projects of public agencies receiving any funding in a state capital budget, or projects financed through a financing contract as defined in RCW 39.94.020, must be designed, constructed, and certified to at least the LEED silver standard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coming: Capital Investments: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-cycle cost analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of development and operation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life-cycle assessment or life-cycle environmental assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Represents the full direct and indirect environmental impacts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Life -cycle benefit assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Full functional contribution of a facility to the system or degree of system enhancements or the community contribution </li></ul></ul></ul>
  181. 211. Climate Change <ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction of total state emissions by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Development and expansion of bioenergy resources </li></ul><ul><li>“ Clean Car” GHG Tailpipe Emissions and Fuel Efficient Tire Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial Truck Stop Idling Reduction and Speed Limits Enforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Smart Growth Transportation Land Use Measures </li></ul><ul><li>Co-benefits from agricultural practices: manure management, no-till agriculture, planting shade- trees </li></ul><ul><li>Potential environmental improvements: wildlife habitat, biodiversity, water quality, soil stabilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job creation and support for local economic development </li></ul><ul><li>Non-GHG environmental benefits, such as local air quality leading to direct health co-benefits from reduced mortality, morbidity, and hospital visits from respiratory illness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lower energy bills and overall cost savings to consumers and businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Some Cost savings and some added costs for energy producers, </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce dependence on imported fuels and reduction in cost of natural gas </li></ul><ul><li>Lower vulnerability to energy price volatility </li></ul>Effects of Regulations and Market driven initiatives
  182. 212. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis </li></ul>
  183. 213. Kyoto Protocol <ul><li>Life Cycle Analysis: Analysis of impacts throughout the life cycle (extraction to end of use) </li></ul>Life Cycle Analysis Material Extraction Manu- facturing Ware- house & Packaging Package & Transport Use Recycle Reuse Dispose Design
  184. 214. Life Cycle Analysis
  185. 215. Life Cycle Analysis
  186. 216. <ul><li>Patagonia Footprint Chronicles </li></ul>Life Cycle Analysis Design Material Extraction Manufacture Distribution Distance traveled CO2 emitted Waste generated Energy Consumed
  187. 217. Life Cycle Analysis Timberland’s Eco-label Climate Impact Resource Consumption Chemical Use The Timberland Company, 2006 Corporate Social Responsibility Report
  188. 218. Life Cycle Analysis Unilever 2006 Sustainable Development Report
  189. 219. Adapted from Office of Sustainability and the Environment Lifecycle Social Benefit Assessment Lifecycle Fiscal Assessment Building community and enhancing social capital Improved pedestrian access Indoor environmental quality and occupant health Future proofing Public art / improved aesthetics Deconstruction of existing facility/ building re-use Water efficiency, rainwater harvest Stormwater management and water recharge Energy and atmospheric impacts Habitat diversity and ecological function Advancing thriving economy and social justice Crime deterrence Initial capital costs Energy costs Facility flexibility -- costs to upgrade or adapt Disposal costs Materials and resource selection Water costs Staffing costs Janitorial costs Maintenance costs – equipment durability Integrated universal access Preservation/ enhancement of neighborhood character Green Building and Sustainable Development Ordinance TBL LCA for Infrastructure Lifecycle Environmental Assessment Meeting needs of historically underserved Community/neighborhood economic development contributions Transportation connectivity Inclusive public involvement process Revenue generation capacity
  190. 220. The Stream King County Equity & Social Justice Initiative, Equity Report 2008 Upstream: Everyone in all communities should have these conditions Midstream: Move people from conditions that decrease health & well-being to conditions that support them Downstream: Act to change behaviors or conditions causing stress and poor health Pro-Equity Policies No Racism Affordable Housing Access to Transportation Good Paying Jobs Quality Education Healthy Environment Low Birth Weight Incarceration Need action at Societal Level Need action at Individual and Family Level Safe Neighborhoods Obesity Untreated Mental Illness Access to Healthcare Poor Health Status Homelessness Fair Standards of Living Physical Activity Need action at Community Level
  191. 221. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Stakeholders </li></ul>
  192. 222. Stakeholders Stakeholders: Present And Future Customers, Indigenous & Vulnerable Peoples & Media & Public Shareholders & Investors Employees Governmental Agencies & Law Enforcement & Elected Officials Suppliers & Distributors & Transportation Agencies Industry Partners & NGOs & Associations
  193. 223. Stakeholders <ul><li>John Elkington </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharks - Attach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Orcas – Fear and Bully </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sea Lions – Play it safe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dolphins – Intelligent, creative, fend off attack </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Green to Gold </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulemakers and Watchdogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea Generators and Opinion Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business Partners and Competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumers and Community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investors and Risk Assessors </li></ul></ul>Danile Esty and Andrew Winston, Green to Gold
  194. 224. Stakeholder Engagement <ul><li>Avon Metals </li></ul><ul><li>Communication on Progress- United Nations Global Compact </li></ul><ul><li>GRI integrated </li></ul>
  195. 225. Paper or Plastic: LCA
  196. 226. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Project TBL reporting </li></ul><ul><li>& Decision Making </li></ul>
  197. 227. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Wind-up </li></ul>
  198. 228. <ul><li>Tips for an effective TBL report </li></ul><ul><li>Address stakeholder interest, provide feedback loop and respond to stakeholder feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Look backwards- Identify challenges and root causes of such </li></ul><ul><li>Look forwards- State goal and means to measure performance, demonstrate programs for continual improvement & understanding of sustainability as a journey </li></ul><ul><li>Use Indicators that are relevant, comparable, and accessible to the entity, in the industry and cross industries </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators Index, third-party assurance & recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Link to online updates, supplements and references </li></ul>
  199. 229. Tips for a writing a TBL report <ul><li>Identify Scope: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time & Baseline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance- stakeholders, drivers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine Indicators: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GRI, competitors, cross-industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated triple bottom line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interconnected : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal & Across Time (Long Term) & </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Out in Environment, Society & Economy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  200. 230. Tips for writing a TBL report <ul><li>Gather Data </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal and External </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set path for future accountability & management controls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tell the story </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantitative and Qualitative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Material & Reliable: Use communication channels tailored to your intended audience </li></ul></ul>
  201. 231. <ul><li>THANK YOU </li></ul>
  202. 232. Triple Bottom Line Reporting <ul><li>Triple Bottom Line Reports </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>GRI –Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Merck- Corporate Governance </li></ul><ul><li>City Development –dilemmas of development </li></ul>
  203. 233. GRI- Sustainability Report 2007/2008
  204. 234. GRI- Sustainability Report 2007/2008
  205. 235. GRI- Sustainability Report 2007/2008 – Environment Emissions
  206. 236. GRI- Sustainability Report 2007/2008 – Labor Practices
  207. 237. GRI- Sustainability Report 2007/2008 – Labor Practices
  208. 238. Corporate Governance & Society - Community Impacts <ul><li>Global Compact </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Millennium Development Goals </li></ul><ul><li>GRI </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Medicines Index </li></ul>
  209. 239. Merck 2008 CR report <ul><li>GRI </li></ul><ul><li>Global Compact </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations Millennium Development Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Access to Medicines Index </li></ul>
  210. 240. Global Compact
  211. 241. United Nations Millennium Development Goals
  212. 242. Access to Medicines Index
  213. 243. Merck 2008 CR report
  214. 244. Merck 2008 CR report: Labor Practices- Diversity & Equal Opportunity
  215. 245. Merck 2008 CR report: Society – Corruption & Public Policy
  216. 246. Merck 2008 CR report: Economic – Indirect Impacts or Product Responsibility- Customer Health & Safety?
  217. 247. Merck 2008 CR report: Economic – Indirect Impact or Product Responsibility- Customer Health & Safety?
  218. 248. City Development Sustainability Report 2009
  219. 249. City Development Sustainability Report 2009
  220. 250. City Development Sustainability Report 2009
  221. 251. City Development Sustainability Report 2009 – Environment: Energy & Water
  222. 252. City Development Sustainability Report 2009 – Environment : Emissions, Energy & Material
  223. 253. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Australian Government Dept of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs </li></ul>
  224. 254. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Australian Government Dept of Families, Housing, Community Services and Indigenous Affairs </li></ul>
  225. 255. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Executive Order 13423: Strengthening Federal Environmental, Energy, and Transportation Management </li></ul><ul><li>WSDOT </li></ul>
  226. 256. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Swedish Annual Accounts Act, Accounting Modernisation Directive 2003/51/EC Amendment in 2007: state-owned companies to present, from 2009, sustainability reports, independent & in accordance with GRI </li></ul><ul><li>SAS (apx. 21% state owned) </li></ul>
  227. 257. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Swedish Annual Accounts Act, Accounting Modernisation Directive 2003/51/EC Amendment in 2007: state-owned companies to present, from 2009, sustainability reports, independent & in accordance with GRI </li></ul><ul><li>Green Cargo – Government owned logistics company </li></ul>
  228. 258. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Nouvelles Régulations Economique </li></ul><ul><li>AREVA </li></ul>
  229. 259. TBL Reports Mandated <ul><li>Nouvelles Régulations Economique </li></ul><ul><li>Carrefour </li></ul>