Over last 50 Years moved from domination and plundering of nature, to recognition that human action can impact with negative consequences and unknown feedbacks, to increasing understanding of the value of natural systems and our dependence on their continued successful functioning. There followed 30 years (1950-1980) of designation of sites for wildlife, though the designation was backed neither with adequate protection nor proper management of the sites – indeed, there was not even systematic notification of the sites, so that many owners and managers were not even aware of their existence. The ‘green revolution’ of agricultural intensification and a burgeoning human population meant that many sites were lost or damaged. The Wildlife and Countryside Act (1981) introduced notification systems and new laws to prevent damage, and some 20 years of significantly increased protection followed, although often sites were still knowingly allowed to deteriorate. During this period a new tier of protection was also introduced by European Directives on Birds (1979) and Habitats (1992). At the turn of the millennium, the Countryside and Rights of Way Act (2000) introduced legislation to encourage, and if need be enforce, proper management of wildlife sites, so that the last ten years (2000-2010) have seen a substantial improvement in the management of the backbone of national wildlife sites, the Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) and National Nature Reserves (NNRs) (see Section 4.1 for definitions of these and other types of wildlife sites). Since 2000, under a focused and intensive campaign of management, Government, agencies, national and local voluntary organisations, and tens of thousands of individual farmers and site owners, have worked together to move the condition of the English SSSI series from 50% to 93% favourable (or recovering) – an impressive achievement
Better – where are the unmanaged parcels and where are the concentrations of unmanaged parcels – separate out onsite and offsite (ie WFD) issues on separate maps Bigger – where are the priorities for increasing size across the SE and where are the concentrations – identify the smallest percentage eg 20%, with some stats to ay what this is More joined up – where are the highly fragmented parcels and the concentrations of fragmented parcels (ie the non functioning ecological networks) More – This is partly answered by addressing fragmentation and linking in to the existing habitat network (ie ‘more joined up’ as above), and is then probably better driven by green infrastructure and local access priorities All of the above combined – where are the overall priorities for action? – equal weighting given to better, bigger and more joined up More permeable landscape – where are the priorities for this – two measures 1. Hostility of land around BAP habitat, 2. Measure across whole BOA in relation to a-e scheme coverage Do all of the above in relation to: Everywhere BOAs identifying priority BOAs for targeting project development - BOAs could be used as a first filter for some of the above, a framework for landscape scale delivery? Local Authority boundaries
demonstrate local leadership, raising awareness about the vital services and benefits which a healthy natural environment brings for people, communities and the local economy; use their knowledge and expertise to develop a shared environmental vision and set of priorities for their area (this could highlight how protection and enhancement of the natural environment can bring economic and social benefits or could include measures to establish and improve local ecological networks at a landscape scale); add value to a local area’s development through contributing to local authority plans that affect the environment, as well as local plans and local development frameworks; help contribute to the Green Economy by, for example, providing relevant information for Local Enterprise Partnerships in development of their plans; bring together a range of local stakeholders, which may include people from local authorities, businesses, statutory authorities, civil society organisations, land managers, local record centres, local enterprise partnerships and people from communities themselves who can align efforts and make best use of available resources; co-operate with other partnerships where this results in more efficient use of resources and better outcomes. Co-operation can also be with partnerships that share common interests; work at a landscape scale to improve the range of benefits and services we get from a healthy natural environment. They will aim to improve the multiple benefits we receive from good management of the land through, for example, constituent members supporting Nature Improvement Areas, biodiversity offsets pilots or similar schemes; and form at a level that can take a strategic-enough approach to deliver integrated outcomes with a wide range of benefits. We anticipate around 50 Partnerships across England. However, we will not prescribe that Partnerships should cover a particular spatial area or administrative boundary, as we want to encourage them to form around the places, areas and natural systems that work best locally.
Obesity Obesity is one of the most important public health issues of today The UK has the highest rate in the EU In the UK rates have tripled in the past 20 years By 2050 60% of population and 1 in 4 under 16 year olds will be obese Total cost of obesity to society will be £50 billion by 2020 Regular physical activity can help decrease levels of obesity CMO 5 x 30 moderate physical activity Obesity contributing to cancer mortality doubling by 2050: Sir Michael Marmot, World Cancer Research Fund found that, in addition to poor diet and growing alcohol consumption, obesity could contribute to the number of people dying from cancer doubling in the next 40 years. Mental ill health - Mental illness affects 1 in 6 of the adult population - 1 in 5 under 16yr olds have a mental disorder - By 2020 the WHO claims that depression will be the second most prevalent cause of ill health The total cost to the economy is £75 billion; (£12 billion to NHS) Physical activity has been found to be as effective a treatment for depression as antidepressants for mild or moderate depression. A NICE document in 2004 suggested that 20% could recover through exercise.
4 generations of adults – showing the diminishing range that they had to play in. Present generation cannot go further than the end of the road – as this is busy with traffic.
Natural England launched the concept of a Natural Health Service in 2009. Health walks are a major feature as Natural England sponsors these and there are over 90 schemes across the region, engaging people on weekly walks in the natural environment. A low cost option that has been recognised, endorsed by NICE and backed by the Department of Health.
Delivering the new biodiversity agenda Roger Matthews Natural England
Nature Improvement Areas are large, discrete areas that will deliver a step change in nature conservation, where a local partnership has a shared vision for their natural environment. The partnership will plan and deliver significant improvements for wildlife and people through the sustainable use of natural resources, connecting local sites and joining up local action.
Ecological restoration Zones
Different to LNPs
10,000 – 50,000 ha in size
12 initial NIAs in first tranche
NIAs funded for 3 years 2011-2014
Panel chaired by Prof. John Lawton
Some of the developing NIAs in the South East 100+ developing across England
Farmland bird targeting & delivery on the South Downs - The South Downs is a very important area for farmland birds, in particular lapwing, grey partridge and corn bunting, as well as skylark, yellowhammer and linnet, - Use new data on specific farmland bird habitat area requirements, overlain with current a-e scheme farmland bird prescription areas, to target squares lacking in key options, whilst avoiding those where thresholds already met. Combine the above with our good knowledge of species current distribution, - Use targeting to guide a significant Classic scheme early transfer programme, new HLS agreements, and refresh of existing HLS agreements where targeting suggests farmland bird options are missing, - Work closely with landowners and partners to take forward agreed work programme.
Enhance social interaction & promote independent living
Help promote & sustain increased physical activity
Help local authorities with pressing social, health & wellbeing issues
Evidence to support the case: Living in the greenest areas significantly reduces the health inequality gap between rich and poor. (Lancet, 2008) For every 10% increase in green space there can be a reduction in health complaints in communities equivalent to a reduction of 5 years of age. (Nature & Health, 2001)