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Sussex Wetland Conference: Rob McInnes
 

Sussex Wetland Conference: Rob McInnes

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Ecosystem Services and Sussex Wetlands Rob McInnes

Ecosystem Services and Sussex Wetlands Rob McInnes

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    Sussex Wetland Conference: Rob McInnes  Sussex Wetland Conference: Rob McInnes Presentation Transcript

    • Ecosystem Services and Sussex Wetlands Robert McInnes Director RM Wetlands & Environment LtdWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • The bad news . . .UK wetlands No completely pristine freshwater ecosystems remain in the UK. Over 40% of all floodplains in England and Wales have been separated from their river. Only 18.4% of all English SSSI rivers are in favourable condition. Less than 14% of the original extent of the UK lowland raised bog remains in a semi-natural condition. UK breeding populations of redshank, curlew and lapwing continue to decline at rates in excess of 20%. Globally the position is even worse . . . . From Maltby & Ormerod (2011)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • The degradation and loss of wetlands is more rapid than that for other ecosystems Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • How are things in Sussex?Protected wetlands in SussexAnalysis of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) There are 142 SSSIs in Sussex. Over 75% of all biological SSSIs support a wetland habitat.Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • How are things in Sussex?Protected wetlands in SussexAnalysis of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) 5000 4500 4000 3500 Habitat area (ha) 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Wetland SSSIs habitat ≈ 8,120ha (38%) excluding neutral grassland and shrub heath Approximately 2.2% of SussexWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • How are things in Sussex?Protected wetlands in SussexAnalysis of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) 100.0 87.6 90.0 80.0 Over 90% of Condition (% habitat area) 70.0 60.0 wetland SSSIs 50.0 habitat is not in a 40.0 favourable state 30.0 20.0 8.5 10.0 3.3 - - 0.6 - Destroyed Part Unfavourable Unfavourable Unfavourable Favourable destroyed declining no change recoveringWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • How are things in Sussex? Protected wetlands in Sussex Analysis of Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSIs) 100.0 4000 80.0 3500Condition (% area) 60.0 3000 40.0 2500 Condition (ha) 20.0 2000 0.0 Bogs - Fen, marsh Rivers and Standing 1500 lowland and swamp - streams open water lowland and canals 1000 Destroyed Part destroyed 500 Unfavourable declining Unfavourable no change Unfavourable recovering Favourable 0 Bogs - Fen, marsh Rivers and Standing lowland and swamp - streams open water lowland and canals Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for Sussex January2012
    • How are things in Sussex?Protected wetlands in SussexAnalysis of Ramsar Sites There are four Ramsar Sites in Sussex. 1. Arun Valley 2. Chichester and Langstone Harbour 3. Pagham Harbour 4. Pevensey LevelsWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • How are things in Sussex?Protected wetlands in SussexAnalysis of Ramsar Sites 1 4 3Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • How are things in Sussex?Protected wetlands in SussexAnalysis of Ramsar Sites Destroyed 4,000 Part destroyed 3,500 Unfavourable declining 3,000 Unfavourable no change Unfavourable recovering 2,500 Area (ha) Favourable 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Broadleaved, Fen, marsh and Littoral sediment Neutral Standing open Supralittoral mixed and yew swamp - lowland grassland - water and canals sediment woodland - lowland lowland Over 84% of Ramsar site habitats are not in a favourable stateWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystems are critically important to our well-being and economic prosperity but . . . are consistently undervalued in conventional economic analyses and decision-making UK National Ecosystem Assessment (2011)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesThe benefits humans derive from the natural worldMillennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005) proposed a four-foldclassification of ecosystem services: Provisioning services Regulating services Cultural services Supporting servicesWork has progressed through TEEB (The Economics of Ecosystemsand Biodiversity) and nationally through the UK NationalEcosystem Assessment.Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesWetlands deliver a disproportionate about of benefits Costanza, et al. (1997)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesThe benefits humans derive from the natural world Food for humans Sustenance for humans (e.g. fish, molluscs) Drinking water for humans and/or livestock Water for irrigated agriculture Fresh water Water for industry Water for energy production (hydro-electricity) Timber Fuel wood Peat Provisioning Services Wetland products non-food products Livestock fodder Reeds and fibre Other Biochemical products Extraction of material from biota Medicinal products Genes for tolerance to certain conditions (e.g. salinity) Genetic materials Genes for resistance to plant pathogens Ornamental species (live and dead) Groundwater recharge and discharge Maintenance of hydrological regimes Storage and delivery of water for agriculture and industry Erosion protection Soil, sediment and nutrient retention Pollution control and detoxification Water purification/waste treatment or dilution Local climate regulation/ buffering of change Regulating Services Climate regulation Regulation of climactic processes Biological control of pests and disease Support of predators of agricultural pests Flood control, flood storage Hazard reduction Coastal shoreline and river bank stabilization and storm protection Pollination Acts a source for pollination of other areasWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesThe benefits humans derive from the natural world Recreational hunting and fishing Water sports and activities Recreation and tourism Picnics, outings, touring Nature observation and nature-based tourism Inspiration Cultural heritage Spiritual and inspirational Contemporary cultural significance Cultural Services Spiritual and religious values Aesthetic and “sense of place” values Educational activities and opportunities Important knowledge systems, and importance for research Scientific and educational Long-term monitoring site Major scientific study site ‘Type location’ for a taxon Biodiversity Supports a variety of all life forms Sediment retention Soil formation Accumulation of organic matter Supporting Services Storage, recycling, processing and acquisition of nutrients Nutrient cycling Carbon storage/ sequestrationWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesEcosystem services and Ramsar sites in SussexMethodologyRecognised {  Reviewed Ramsar Information Sheet (RIS)  Listed ecosystem services  Explicit recognition  Key word searchedUnrecognised {     Interpreted language SSSI information Peer-reviewed and grey literature GoogleEarth reviewWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem services Ecosystem services and Ramsar sites in Sussex Sustenance for humans (e.g. fish, molluscs) Provisioning Services Drinking water for humans and/or livestock Water for irrigated agriculture Pevensey Levels Water for industry Arun Valley Water for energy production (hydro-electricity) Pagham Harbour Timber Fuel woodChichester & Langstone Harbour PeatUnrecognised Livestock fodder Reeds and fibre Pevensey Levels Other Arun Valley Extraction of material from biota Pagham Harbour Medicinal products Genes for tolerance to certain conditions (e.g. salinity)Chichester & Langstone Harbour Genes for resistance to plant pathogensRecognised 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Ornamental species (live and dead) Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for Sussex January2012
    • Ecosystem services Ecosystem services and Ramsar sites in Sussex Regulating Services Groundwater recharge and discharge Pevensey Levels Storage and delivery of water for agriculture and industry Arun Valley Soil, sediment and nutrient retention Pagham Harbour Water purification/waste treatment or dilutionChichester & Langstone Harbour Local climate regulation/ buffering of changeUnrecognised Regulation of climactic processes Pevensey Levels Support of predators of agricultural pests Arun Valley Flood control, flood storage Pagham Harbour Coastal shoreline and river bank stabilization and storm protectionChichester & Langstone Harbour Acts a a source for pollination of other areasRecognised 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for Sussex January2012
    • Ecosystem services Ecosystem services and Ramsar sites in Sussex Cultural Services Recreational hunting and fishing Pevensey Levels Water sports and activities Arun Valley Picnics, outings, touring Nature observation and nature-based tourism Pagham Harbour InspirationChichester & Langstone Harbour Cultural heritageUnrecognised Contemporary cultural significance Pevensey Levels Spiritual and religious values Arun Valley Aesthetic and “sense of place” values Pagham Harbour Educational activities and opportunitiesChichester & Langstone Harbour Important knowledge systems, and importance for researchRecognised 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for Sussex January2012
    • Ecosystem services Ecosystem services and Ramsar sites in Sussex Supporting Services Pevensey Levels Arun Valley Pagham Harbour Chichester & Langstone HarbourUnrecognised Supports a variety of all life forms Pevensey Levels Sediment retention Arun Valley Accumulation of organic matter Pagham Harbour Storage, recycling, processing and acquisition of nutrients Chichester & Langstone Harbour Carbon storage/ sequestrationRecognised 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for Sussex January2012
    • Ecosystem servicesEcosystem services and Ramsar sites in Sussex Chichester & Langstone Harbour Pagham Harbour Provisioning Services Provisioning Services 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 Supporting Services 0.0 Regulating Services Supporting Services 0.0 Regulating Services Cultural Services Cultural Services Recognition Gap Arun Valley Pevensey Levels Provisioning Services Provisioning Services 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5 Supporting Services 0.0 Regulating Services Supporting Services 0.0 Regulating Services Recognised Cultural Services Unrecognised Cultural ServicesWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • When both the market and non- marketed economic benefits of wetlands are included, the total economic value of unconverted wetlands is often greater than that of converted wetlands Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Recognizing value in ecosystems, landscapes, species and other aspectsof biodiversity is a feature of all human societies and communities, and is sometimes sufficient to ensure conservation and sustainable use. TEEB (2010)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesUnderstanding value is a means to an end,not an end in itself “The benefits that inland wetlands bring to water quality are worth up to £1.5billion per year to the UK.” “The amenity benefits of living close to rivers, coasts and other wetlands is worth up to £1.3billion per year to the UK.” Defra (2011)Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesWe need to understand value in order to reverse degradationof wetland ecosystems and to improve human-well being: Just like “built” capital assets and infrastructure, investment in wetland conservation and wise use yields tangible returns and cost savingsWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Ecosystem servicesSome key messages ALL of the wetlands in Sussex have value. Need to consider both the threatened or rare and the common and mundane. Need to be better at recognising, demonstrating and capturing value. Need to communicate in different languages. If designated sites are in unfavourable condition what does this mean for undesignated wetlands?Water and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • So, what is the value of the Arun Valley Ramsar Site? Provisioning Fresh Water Regulating Pollination Cultural Service: Recreation Regulating Carbon Provisioning Food Habitats for Species Cultural Service: Tourism Regulating Water Treatment Cultural Service: Aesthetics Regulating FloodsWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012
    • Thank youWater and Wetlands: Key Issues and Future Priorities for SussexJanuary2012