Exp learng refl-assgn3-learningand_cognitivethemes1

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  • How many words did you get correct? Despite having two minutes to memorize the words, you may find it surprisingly difficult to later recall even a handful of the words. This experiment demonstrates some of the limitations of short-term memory. According to researcher George A. Miller, the typical storage capacity for short-term memory is seven plus or minus two items. However, memory rehearsal strategies such as chunking can significantly increase memorization and recall.
  • How many words did you get correct? Despite having two minutes to memorize the words, you may find it surprisingly difficult to later recall even a handful of the words. This experiment demonstrates some of the limitations of short-term memory. According to researcher George A. Miller, the typical storage capacity for short-term memory is seven plus or minus two items. However, memory rehearsal strategies such as chunking can significantly increase memorization and recall.
  • Obituaryhttp://www.princeton.edu/main/news/archive/S34/33/10E46/index.xml?section=topstories
  • http://www.kurzweilai.net/george-a-miller
  • http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/information-processing.htmlApplication: Information processing theory has become a general theory of human cognition; the phenomenon of chunking has been verified at all levels of cognitive processing. Example: The classic example of chunks is the ability to remember long sequences of binary numbers because they can be coded into decimal form. For example, the sequence 0010 1000 1001 1100 1101 1010 could easily be remembered as 2 8 9 C D A. Of course, this would only work for someone who can convert binary to hexadecimal numbers (i.e., the chunks are "meaningful"). The classic example of a TOTE is a plan for hammering a nail. The Exit Test is whether the nail is flush with the surface. If the nail sticks up, then the hammer is tested to see if it is up (otherwise it is raised) and the hammer is allowed to hit the nail. PrinciplesShort term memory (or attention span) is limited to seven chunks of information. Planning (in the form of TOTE units) is a fundamental cognitive process. Behavior is hierarchically organized (e.g., chunks, TOTE units).
  • Information processing modelThe information processing model suggests that information is channeled in different ways.[citation needed] For example, the sensory register takes in via the five senses: visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory, and taste. These are all present since birth and are able to handle simultaneous processing (e.g., food – taste it, smell it, see it). In general, learning benefits occur when there is a developed process of pattern recognition. The sensory register has a large capacity and its behavioral response is very short (1-3 seconds). Within this model, short term memory or working memory has limited capacity. Its duration is of 5-20 seconds before it is out of the subject's mind. This occurs often with names of people newly introduced to. Images or information based on meaning are stored here as well, but it decays without rehearsal or repetition of such information. On the other hand, long-term memory has a potentially unlimited capacity and its duration is indefinite. Although sometimes it is difficult to access, it encompasses everything learned until this point in time. One might become forgetful or feel as if the information is on the tip of the tongue.
  • http://wordnet.princeton.edu/
  • http://wordnet.princeton.edu/
  • About WordNetWordNet® is a large lexical database of English. Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing a distinct concept. Synsets are interlinked by means of conceptual-semantic and lexical relations. The resulting network of meaningfully related words and concepts can be navigated with the browser. WordNet is also freely and publicly available for download. WordNet's structure makes it a useful tool for computational linguistics and natural language processing.WordNet superficially resembles a thesaurus, in that it groups words together based on their meanings. However, there are some important distinctions. First, WordNet interlinks not just word forms—strings of letters—but specific senses of words. As a result, words that are found in close proximity to one another in the network are semantically disambiguated. Second, WordNet labels the semantic relations among words, whereas the groupings of words in a thesaurus does not follow any explicit pattern other than meaning similarity.StructureThe main relation among words in WordNet is synonymy, as between the words shut and close or car and automobile. Synonyms--words that denote the same concept and are interchangeable in many contexts--are grouped into unordered sets (synsets). Each of WordNet’s 117 000 synsets is linked to other synsets by means of a small number of “conceptual relations.” Additionally, a synset contains a brief definition (“gloss”) and, in most cases, one or more short sentences illustrating the use of the synset members. Word forms with several distinct meanings are represented in as many distinct synsets. Thus, each form-meaning pair in WordNet is unique.RelationsThe most frequently encoded relation among synsets is the super-subordinate relation (also called hyperonymy, hyponymy or ISA relation). It links more general synsets like {furniture, piece_of_furniture} to increasingly specific ones like {bed} and {bunkbed}. Thus, WordNet states that the category furniture includes bed, which in turn includes bunkbed; conversely, concepts like bed and bunkbed make up the category furniture. All noun hierarchies ultimately go up the root node {entity}. Hyponymy relation is transitive: if an armchair is a kind of chair, and if a chair is a kind of furniture, then an armchair is a kind of furniture. WordNet distinguishes among Types (common nouns) and Instances (specific persons, countries and geographic entities). Thus, armchair is a type of chair, BarackObama is an instance of a president. Instances are always leaf (terminal) nodes in their hierarchies.Meronymy, the part-whole relation holds between synsets like {chair} and {back, backrest}, {seat} and {leg}. Parts are inherited from their superordinates: if a chair has legs, then an armchair has legs as well. Parts are not inherited “upward” as they may be characteristic only of specific kinds of things rather than the class as a whole: chairs and kinds of chairs have legs, but not all kinds of furniture have legs.Verb synsets are arranged into hierarchies as well; verbs towards the bottom of the trees (troponyms) express increasingly specific manners characterizing an event, as in {communicate}-{talk}-{whisper}. The specific manner expressed depends on the semantic field; volume (as in the example above) is just one dimension along which verbs can be elaborated. Others are speed (move-jog-run) or intensity of emotion (like-love-idolize). Verbs describing events that necessarily and unidirectionally entail one another are linked: {buy}-{pay}, {succeed}-{try}, {show}-{see}, etc.Adjectives are organized in terms of antonymy. Pairs of “direct” antonyms like wet-dry and young-old reflect the strong semantic contract of their members. Each of these polar adjectives in turn is linked to a number of “semantically similar” ones: dry is linked to parched, arid, dessicated and bone-dry and wet to soggy, waterlogged, etc. Semantically similar adjectives are “indirect antonyms” of the contral member of the opposite pole. Relational adjectives ("pertainyms") point to the nouns they are derived from (criminal-crime). There are only few adverbs in WordNet (hardly, mostly, really, etc.) as the majority of English adverbs are straightforwardly derived from adjectives via morphological affixation (surprisingly, strangely, etc.)Cross-POS relationsThe majority of the WordNet’s relations connect words from the same part of speech (POS). Thus, WordNet really consists of four sub-nets, one each for nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, with few cross-POS pointers. Cross-POS relations include the “morphosemantic” links that hold among semantically similar words sharing a stem with the same meaning: observe (verb), observant (adjective) observation, observatory (nouns). In many of the noun-verb pairs the semantic role of the noun with respect to the verb has been specified: {sleeper, sleeping_car} is the LOCATION for {sleep} and {painter}is the AGENT of {paint}, while {painting, picture} is its RESULT.More InformationFellbaum, Christiane (2005). WordNet and wordnets. In: Brown, Keith et al. (eds.), Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Second Edition, Oxford: Elsevier, 665-670
  • Verbs hypernym: the verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X is a (kind of) Y (to perceive is an hypernym of to listen)troponym: the verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y is doing X in some manner (to lisp is a troponym of to talk) entailment: the verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be doing Y (to sleep is entailed by to snore) coordinate terms: those verbs sharing a common hypernym (to lisp and to yell)Adjectives related nouns similar to participle of verbAdverbs root adjectiveshttp://www.cfilt.iitb.ac.in/wordnet/webhwn/
  • http://wordnet.princeton.edu/
  • http://www.globalwordnet.org/

Transcript

  • 1.  Select one contributor for Behaviorist or Cognitive theories of learning and create a: 1. Resume or 2. Linkedin profile or 3. Facebook page or 4. Prezi presentation or 5. Storybird story or 6. Any other medium that summarizes the contributor’s work and theories.Susmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 1
  • 2.  Keep a sheet of paper and pen ready. Within the next one minute, write down as many words from the list you saw.  Look at the list of words below for two minutes and memorize as many words as you can in this amount of time. Nine Swap Cell Ring Lust Plugs Lamp Apple Table Sway Army Bank Fire Hold Worm Clock Horse Color Baby Sword Desk Hold Fin Bird RockSusmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 2
  • 3.  Keep a sheet of paper and pen ready. Within the next one minute, write down as many words from the list you saw.  Look at the list of words below for two minutes and memorize as many words as you can in this amount of time. Nine Swap Cell Ring Lust Plugs Lamp Apple Table Sway Army Bank Fire Hold Worm Clock Horse Color Baby Sword Desk Hold Fin Bird Rock How many words did you get correct?Susmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 3
  • 4.  Observe another data set for two minutes. Within the next one minute, write down as many words from the list you saw. Horse Cat Dog Fish Bird Orange Yellow Blue Green Black Table Chair Desk Bookcase Bed Teacher School Student Homework Class Apple Banana Papaya Grape MangoSusmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 4
  • 5.  Observe another data set for two minutes. Within the next one minute, write down as many words from the list you saw. Horse Cat Dog Fish Bird Orange Yellow Blue Green Black Table Chair Desk Bookcase Bed Teacher School Student Homework Class Apple Banana Papaya Grape Mango How many words did you get correct? Is this number higher or lower than the previousSusmita Pruthi exercise? NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 5
  • 6.  Miller (1956) presented the idea that short-term memory could only hold 5-9 chunks of information (seven plus or minus two) where a chunk is any meaningful unit.  A chunk could refer to digits, words, chess positions, or peoples faces.  The concept of chunking and the limited capacity of short term memory became a basic element of all subsequent theories of memory.  Chunking is a strategy used to improve memory performance. It helps you present information in a way that makes it easy for your audience to understand and remember. Chunking is based on the assertion that our working memory is easily overloaded by excessive detail.  The best way to deliver your message is therefore to organiseSusmita Pruthi disparate pieces of information into meaningful units ("chunks"). NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 6
  • 7. • All information should be • A digestible unit of • Human beings can understand presented in small digestible information contains no more and remember no more than 7 + units. than nine separate items of / - 2 items of information at a information. time. As the complexity of the information increases the chunking limit decreases. Digestible unit Principle Rationale defined • All information intended for • By chunking information the human consumption should author improves the readers be presented in units that do comprehension and ability to not exceed the chunking access and retrieve the limit. information.Susmita Pruthi Lessons learned Benefits NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 7
  • 8.  In the software industry this principle can be applied to documentation, object, data, functional and dynamic models and synthesis of computer programs. Applications • No more than nine bullet points on a slide • No more than nine bullet points on a bulleted list - classify the information into smaller logically related groups and introduce a subheading • No more than nine bubbles on a single data flow diagram - consider reducing this further if the functions are complex • No more than nine classes in an object model module - consider creation of more super-classes or a more granular partitioningSusmita Pruthi • No more than nine states in a single state transition diagram - consider creation of super-states. NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 8
  • 9. Ivan Pavlov 1849-1936 Classical Conditioning Theory Cognitive Behaviorism • learning as purely • focus on a mental/ observable neurological behavior process Social Humanistic • humans learn • emotions and best in group affect play a role activities in learningSusmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 9
  • 10. George A. Miller was born February 3, 1920, in Charleston, West Virginia. In 1940 he received a Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of Alabama and in 1946 he received his Ph.D. in Psychology from Harvard University. He taught at Harvard, Rockefeller, and Princeton universities He is known for  His contributions to Cognitive Psychology and Science  The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two  Directing WordNet Miller, together with Jerome Bruner and Noam Chomsky, led the "cognitive revolution" that replaced behaviorism as the leading psychological approach to understanding the mind in the 1950s.NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 10
  • 11. 1951 1960 Assistant professor at 2003 Founded Harvard Center for Cognitive Studies Massachusetts Institute Received Outstanding with J.S. Brunner of Technology Lifetime Contribution to Authored "Plans and the Structure of Behavior” 1946 Psychology at APAs Thesis on ‘Optimal 1969 1986 Annual Convention Design of Jamming President of the Oversaw Signals’ American Psychological development of Association WordNet Feb 3, 1920 1979 Born in Joined the faculty at Charleston, West Princeton University Virginia1940 1968 July 22, 2012Bachelors of Arts Joined Rockefeller Died inAt University of University for next Plainsboro, NewAlabama 14 years 1980 Jerse 1948 Founded Princeton Assistant professor 1962 Cognitive Science of psychology at Elected to the Laboratory Harvard National Academy of Science 1955 Joined back Harvard 1991 for next 12 years Received National 1956 Medal of Science,Susmita Pruthi Authored "The Magical Louis E. Levy Medal Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two” NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 11
  • 12. The Psychology ofCommunication, 1967 Plans and the Structure of Behavior, 1960Language andCommunication, 1951
  • 13.  George A. Miller has provided two theoretical ideas that are fundamental to cognitive psychology and the information processing framework. Chunking and the capacity of TOTE (Test-Operate-Test-Exit) proposed Chunking TOTE short term memory: Miller by Miller, Galanter & Pribram (1960). (1956) presented the idea that Miller et al. suggested that TOTE should short-term memory could only replace the stimulus-response as the hold 5-9 chunks of information basic unit of behavior. (seven plus or minus two) In a TOTE unit, a goal is tested to see if it A chunk could refer to digits, has been achieved and if not an words, chess positions, or operation is performed to achieve the peoples faces. goal; this cycle of test-operate is The concept of chunking and the repeated until the goal is eventually limited capacity of short term achieved or abandoned. memory became a basic The TOTE concept provided the basis of element of all subsequent many subsequent theories of problemSusmita Pruthi theories of memory. solving (e.g., GPS) and production systems. NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 13
  • 14. OUTPUT Rehearsed Encoded - Transferred Transferred Sensory Short-Term Long-Term Memory Memory Memory Retrieved Forgotten ForgottenSusmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 14
  • 15. A lexical database for English  A computer simulation of human word memory  George A. Miller began the WordNet project in the mid- 1980s in the Princeton University Department of Psychology.  WordNet superficially resembles a thesaurus, in that it groups words together based on their meanings.  Nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs are grouped into sets of cognitive synonyms (synsets), each expressing aSusmita Pruthi distinct concept. NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 15
  • 16. A lexical database for English  A computer simulation of human word memory  George A. Miller began the WordNet project in the mid- 1980s in the Princeton University Department of Psychology  It is currently housed in the Department of Computer Science.  Over the years, many people have contributed to the development of WordNet.  WordNet is being translated into multiple languages and is widely used by linguists in language processing systems.Susmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 16
  • 17.  The main relation among words in WordNet is synonymy, as between the words shut and close or car and automobile.  Synonyms--words that denote the same concept and are interchangeable in many contexts--are grouped into unordered sets (synsets). WordNet interlinks not just WordNet labels the semantic word forms—strings of relations among words, letters—but specific senses whereas the groupings of of words. As a result, words words in a thesaurus does that are found in close not follow any explicit proximity to one another in pattern other than meaningSusmita Pruthi the network are semantically similarity. disambiguated. NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 17
  • 18. Noun X Y Y is a hypernym of X if every X is a (kind of) Y Canine Dog Y is a hyponym of X if every Y is a (kind of) X Canine Dog Y is a coordinate term of X if X and Y share a hypernym Wolf / Dog Dog / Wolf Y is a holonym of X if X is a part of Y Window Building Y is a meronym of X if Y is a part of X Window Building Verbs X Y the verb Y is a hypernym of the verb X if the activity X to listen to perceive is a (kind of) Y the verb Y is a troponym of the verb X if the activity Y to talk to lisp is doing X in some manner the verb Y is entailed by X if by doing X you must be to snore to sleepSusmita Pruthi doing Y those verbs sharing a common hypernym to lisp to yell NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 18
  • 19.  Name: wnstats - WordNet 3.0  Database statistics POS Unique Strings Synsets Total Word-Sense Pairs Noun 117798 82115 146312 Verb 11529 13767 25047 Adjective 21479 18156 30002 Adverb 4481 3621 5580 Totals 155287 117659 206941Susmita Pruthi NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 19
  • 20.  The Global WordNet Association is a free, public and non- commercial organization that provides a platform for discussing, sharing and connecting wordnets for all languages in the world. The aims of the association are: o To establish distribution facilities for the dissemination of the Association and Association publications and information materials: o To promote cooperation and information exchange among related professional and technical societies that build or use wordnets. o To provide information on wordnets to the general public. o To promote the standardization of the specification of wordnets for all languages in the world, including: o the standardization of the Inter-Lingual-Index for inter-linking the wordnets of different languages, as a universal index of meaning o the development of a common representation for wordnet data o To promote the development of sense-tagged corpora in all the linked languages. o To promote sharing and transferring of data, software and specifications across wordnet builders for different languages o To promote the development of guidelines and methodologies for building wordnets in new languagesSusmita Pruthi o To promote the development of explicit criteria and definitions for verifying the relations in any language o To promote the development of consistency checking, comparison and evaluation modules o To promote research into the psychological adequacy of models of the mental lexicon o The Global WordNet Association (GWA) builds on the results of Princeton WordNet and EuroWordNet. NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 20
  • 21. Beginning of a journey of discovery … NU ET511 | Assignment 3 | Learning and Cognitive Themes 21