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E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
E lit Research
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E lit Research

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  • 1. THE METHOD OF E-LIT RESEARCH SISWO HARSONO
  • 2. BACKGROUND <ul><li>The development of electronic technology. </li></ul><ul><li>The social, intellectual, and professional interests of electronic literature. </li></ul><ul><li>The creations, researches, studies, and teachings of electronic literature. </li></ul><ul><li>The theory, methodology, and application of e-lit research. </li></ul>
  • 3. Problems <ul><li>The existence of electronic literature needs investigating scientifically . </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific research needs underlying theory an d methodology relevant to the material an d formal object of electronic literature . </li></ul><ul><li>T he theory an d methodology e-lit research need applying . </li></ul>
  • 4. Problem formulation <ul><li>How should a research on electronic literature be done? </li></ul><ul><li>What are theory an d methodology applicable to e-lit research ? </li></ul>
  • 5. Aims of research <ul><li>Creating a methodological composition of e-lit research . </li></ul><ul><li>Applying the composition textually, intertextually, contextually, hypertextually, an d cybertextually. </li></ul>
  • 6. Functions <ul><li>Theoretical function is to develop the theory an d methodology of e-lit research . </li></ul><ul><li>Practical function is to be applied in e-lit reasearches, studies, an d creations. </li></ul>
  • 7. UNDERLYING PHILOSOPHY
  • 8. <ul><li>Ontology: what is electronic literature? </li></ul><ul><li>Epistemology: how can we get the knowledge of electronic literature ? </li></ul><ul><li>Axiology: what are the value and fuction of electronic literature ? </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology: how can we investigate electronic literature ? </li></ul>
  • 9. UNDERLYING ONTOLOG Y <ul><li>Usually, literary paradigm is only undersood as written literature, derived from literary concept that refers to alphabeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral literary paradigm that refers to orality is not regarded as literature, but tradition. </li></ul><ul><li>E-lit paradigm is not regarded as literature, but media. </li></ul>
  • 10. ONTOLOGI CAL DEVELOPMENT <ul><li>The literary concept refers to written, oral, and even non-written and non-oral alphabeths. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three kinds of alphabeths: written, oral, and non-written/oral . </li></ul>
  • 11. LITERARY PARADIGM
  • 12. ELECTRONIC LITERATURE
  • 13. E-LIT MEDIA
  • 14. AUDIO LITERATURE
  • 15. AUDIOVISUAL LITERATURE
  • 16. HYPERMEDIA LITERATURE
  • 17. UNDERLYING EPISTEMOLOG Y <ul><li>The method of getting scientific knowledge of electronic literature should be done by scientific research. </li></ul><ul><li>Science is an organization of knowledge which is systematically ordered based on general rule. </li></ul><ul><li>Science forms a habit and increases the skills of observation , e x perimenta t i on , c las s ifi c a t i on , anal y sis, and generalization . </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific thinking framework is the process of logi c o-h y pot h eti c o- verificative which combines deductive an d inductive reasoning . </li></ul>
  • 18. UNDERLYING AXIOLOGY <ul><li>Underlying aksiologis is the fo u nda t i on of values related to the functions of e-lit knowledge for human beings . </li></ul><ul><li>The functions of e-lit creations, studies, teachings, and so c io- cultural events. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the functions of e-lit knowledge include creative, academic, and socio-cultural aspects . </li></ul>
  • 19. UNDERLYING METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Developing methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Composing research methods </li></ul><ul><li>Research procedures </li></ul><ul><li>Research techniques </li></ul>
  • 20. DEVELOPING METHODOLOGY <ul><li>Developing met h odolog y by combining an d the met h od s an d the steps of research which is adequately applicable for e-lit research . </li></ul><ul><li>Textually, combining stru c tural-semioti c - c inemati c methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Intertextually, combining inter/intra-texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Contextually, combining so c iologi cal method and viewer respon se. </li></ul><ul><li>H yperte x tual ly, combining hypertextuality and hypertextual methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Cybertextually, combining cybertextuality and user respon se . </li></ul>
  • 21. COMPOSITION OF METHODS <ul><li>M et h odologi cal combination and composition : (1) choosing material object of e-lit , (2) close watching, (3) writing the fact of story , (4) textual analysis , (5) intertextual analysis , (6) contextual analysis , (7) hypertextual analysis , an d (8) cybertextual analysis . </li></ul>
  • 22. WORKING STEPS <ul><li>Choosing material object </li></ul><ul><li>Close watching </li></ul><ul><li>Writing the fact of story </li></ul><ul><li>Textual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Intertextual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertextual analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Cybertextual analysis </li></ul>
  • 23. LIBRARY RESEARCH <ul><li>Aim of library research: managing results, limiting problems, avoiding duplication, providing theories. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: clarifying problems , exploring follow-up research , knowing the results of other similar researches , an d knowing unsolved problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Ways: reading literatur e , both t h eor y and previous result . </li></ul>
  • 24. UNDERLYING THEORY <ul><li>Textual theory is applied in intrinsic analysis on the material and formal object of electronic literature . </li></ul><ul><li>Intertextual theory is applied in the analysis of intertextual relation. </li></ul><ul><li>Contextual theory is applied in extrinsic analysis of electronic literature . </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertextual theory in applied in the analysis of intra/inter-link relation in internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Cybertextual theory is applied in the analysis of e-lit user response in internet. </li></ul>
  • 25. TEXTUAL THEORY <ul><li>Narratology </li></ul><ul><li>Cinematography </li></ul><ul><li>Dramaturg y </li></ul>
  • 26. Narratology <ul><li>Greimasian narratology to analyze sequence , a c tan, plot , and t h em e. </li></ul><ul><li>Shklovskyan defamiliarization to analyze the aspect of literariness. </li></ul><ul><li>Peircean semiotics to analyze symbol, icon and index . </li></ul>
  • 27. CINEMATOGRAPHY <ul><li>Cinematography to analyze cinematic aspects of audiovisual e-lit. </li></ul><ul><li>visual aspects include settings , costumes , make-up , lightings , acting , shootings, and editing . </li></ul><ul><li>Aural aspects include audio-verbal, audio-musical, and sound effect . </li></ul>
  • 28. D RAMATURGY <ul><li>Dramaturg y in non-cinematic audiovisual e-lit </li></ul><ul><li>Dramaturg y in non-cinematic hypermedia e-lit </li></ul>
  • 29. CONTEXTUAL THEORY <ul><li>Sociology of literature: e-lit production-consumption. </li></ul><ul><li>Viewer response: individual, social, and institutional. </li></ul>
  • 30.  
  • 31. HYPERTEXTUAL THEORY <ul><li>Hypertext </li></ul><ul><li>Hypertextuality </li></ul>
  • 32. HYPERTEXT <ul><li>Hyperte xt is a text which has internal and external links to other texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Landow: “ Hypertext denotes an information medium that link verbal and non-verbal information.” </li></ul><ul><li>Mark Amerika: “I link therefore I am.” </li></ul>
  • 33. HYPERTEXTUALITY <ul><li>According to Chandler, the transtextual types from Gennet include intertextuality , paratextuality, architextuality, metatextuality, hypotextuality, dan hypertextuality . </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Riffaterre, “ intertextuality is the complete opposite of hypertextuality because the former builds a structured network of limits that will keep the reader on track (towards the correct interpretation), the later is a loose web of free association.&quot; </li></ul>
  • 34. CYBERTEXTUAL THEORY <ul><li>Passive response: users only enjoy e-lit. </li></ul><ul><li>Active response: users give comment, criticism, or analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Creative response: users create new e-lit creations. </li></ul>
  • 35. CREATIVE RESPON SE
  • 36. Makna Respon <ul><li>Imaging commutation in the level of perceptive signifier, the image of Mr. Bean as a comedian becomes a terrorist. </li></ul><ul><li>In the level of signified ideology, the image of Mr. Bean oppositely transformed with the image of Bin Laden causes a comic face of humorist / terrorist . </li></ul>
  • 37.  
  • 38. Thank you

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