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The Reflective Journal as a site of Student Engagement, Learning and Transformation

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The is presentation describes using the journal tool in Blackboard Vista to engage 1200 first year students in reflection on action with feedback on a health behaviour change plan

The is presentation describes using the journal tool in Blackboard Vista to engage 1200 first year students in reflection on action with feedback on a health behaviour change plan

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    • 1. The Reflective Journal as a site of Student Engagement, Learning and Transformation Susie Macfarlane ITL Teaching & Learning Conference Deakin University 2008
    • 2. Background
      • HBS110 Health Behaviour
      • Faculty core unit first year
        • Health Science, Nursing, Primary Teaching, Psychology
      • Unit Chair: Semester 1, 2007
      • Assessment
        • MC exam: 60%
        • Written assignment on 1 model: 40%
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 3. Introduction of new assessment task
      • Students chose health behaviour to work with:
        • Increase physical activity
        • Healthy eating
        • Smoking reduction or cessation
        • Drinking reduction
        • Stress reduction
        • Enhance sleep
      • 10 weekly journal posts on DSO
        • Private: visible only to teaching staff
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 4. Task: Create a plan for Health Behaviour Change
      • Establish clear goals: short term and long term
          • Identify any research you need to do to establish appropriate goals
          • Develop strategies to achieve your goals
      • Anticipate the barriers or challenges you may encounter
      • Develop strategies to overcome these barriers
      • Identify what support you may require
      • Begin your plan
      • Monitor your progress and difficulties, recording, analysing and reflecting on them in your weekly journal
      • Observe any changes that are occurring
      • Celebrate and reward your successes
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 5. Support and Guidance
      • Students were supported via:
        • Labs and eLive sessions
        • Guidelines for posts
        • Lectures
        • Feedback on posts
          • Fortnightly for on-campus students
          • weekly for off-campus students
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 6. Rationale: Assessment integrated with learning James, R., McInnis, C. and Devlin, M. (2002). Assessing Learning in Australian Universities Victoria: Centre for the Study of Higher Education University of Melbourne Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 7. Rationale: Assessment integrated with learning
      • Assessment greatest determinant of how students learn 1
      • Assessment integrated into learning provides: 2
        • Feedback to students ( mistakes and achievements)
        • Motivation and a sense of achievement
        • Application of abstract learning to practical contexts
        • Evidence of learning
        • Lecturers with feedback on effectiveness of teaching
      2 Brown & Glasner (2005) 1 Boud (1998) Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 8. Rationale for Implementation Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment AIM: to ensure students STRATEGY Engage in deep, experiential learning not surface Reflection on action Develop discipline based skills Require performative knowledge not declarative Develop cognitive skills Questioning by tutor Interact with course materials Students required to link their experience to course concepts Provide evidence of learning Formative assessment
    • 9. Outcomes: first iteration
        • Expected: learning outcomes demonstrated
        • Unexpected: significant health behaviour change and meaningful learning occurring
        • … but someone was lurking…
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 10. Q. Do you think it’s scaleable?
        • In a moment of madness, the Faculty Education Developer proposed the journal would work in the following semester with 1260 students…
        • Support from AHoS… tutors recruited…
        • uhoh…
        • 37 labs on 3 campuses…
        • plus120 off-campus students…
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 11. Numbers… Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 12. Numbers… Semester 2 2007
        • On-campus posts: 14 777
        • Off-campus posts: 1 885
        • Total journal posts: 16 662
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 13. Training and Mentoring of Facilitators
        • Guidelines for tutors
        • Our role is to teach
        • No advice (refer student to health guidelines)
        • No suggestions re strategies, ask student*
        • Be highly encouraging and supportive
        • The quality of learning environment important, safe learning space
        • Recognise effort, & challenge of task
        • Over time, tutors gently challenge barriers, excuses and assumptions
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 14. Facilitators: attitude to learner & learning
      • Change and learning are difficult
      • The learner is in a process of development
      • The tutor is non-authoritative and respectful
      • The tutor is privileged to be invited into the learning process
      Background Background Background Background Background Background Outcomes Scaling Rationale Background New Assessment
    • 15. Facilitator skills: feedback
      • Focus on behaviour initially- what is happening, and what is not
      • A model for responding that focussed on asking questions rather than providing answers, solutions or recommendations
      • Provide 75% safety
        • what went well and why
        • Taking every opportunity to acknowledge achievement
      • Provide 25% challenge
        • Stimulate student to ask what else might have worked?
        • Gently challenge barriers, excuses and assumptions
      Background Background Background Background Background (Hadikin, 2004; Claridge and Lewis, 2005) Background Outcomes Scaling Rationale Background New Assessment
    • 16. Example 1: Student Post
      • Post from a student engaged in smoking cessation:
      • “ Beginning of Week 3 and so far off to a great start, had my last cigarette (well i hope my last) on Saturday night…
      • With not smoking anymore, the biggest challenge is when I go out and have a few drinks, I have a 21st this week end, and my challenge is to not have any cigarettes”
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 17. Example 1: Tutor response
      • Response from tutor to a student engaged in smoking cessation:
      • “ That is terrific you are continuing with your quitting program. Well done for noticing when you find it hard, such as when there are drinks involved. Are you able to work out any strategies to help you at this time?”
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 18.
      • Response to a student engaged in smoking cessation:
      • “ That is terrific you are continuing with your quitting program. Well done for noticing when you find it hard, such as when there are drinks involved. Are you able to work out any strategies to help you at this time?”
      Example 1: Tutor response Encouragement for effort Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 19.
      • Response to a student engaged in smoking cessation:
      • “ That is terrific you are continuing with your quitting program. Well done for noticing when you find it hard, such as when there are drinks involved. Are you able to work out any strategies to help you at this time?”
      Example 1: Tutor response Identification and recognition of demonstrated skill Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 20.
      • Response to a student engaged in smoking cessation:
      • “ That is terrific you are continuing with your quitting program. Well done for noticing when you find it hard, such as w hen there ar Are you able to work out any strategies to help you at this time? ”
      Example 1: Tutor response Prompt to develop further cognitive skill Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 21. Learning Cycle Planning Information Action Reflection Feedback Teaching staff Student Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 22. Teaching Outcomes
      • Student engagement
      • Evidence of of learning
      • Responsive to student diversity
      • Rapid cognitive skill development
      • Provision of effective learning environment
      • Authentic Assessment task
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 23. Learning Outcomes
        • Analytical skills development
        • Attitude to course content & ability to learn
        • Deep and resilient learning
        • Transfer learning to other contexts
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 24. Health Behaviour Outcomes
      • Over 20 students have quit smoking
      • Many enhanced nutrition, reduced junk food, reduction in drinking
      • Many established regular physical activity
      • Others worked on stress reduction, time management, assertiveness
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 25. Outcomes: SETUs Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment Question 2006 2007 2008 This unit was well taught. 3.4 3.8 4.0 I would recommend this unit to other students. 3.4 3.7 3.8 The on-line teaching and resources in this unit enhanced my learning experience. 3.6 3.8 4.0 The teaching staff gave me helpful feedback. 3.5 3.9 4.0
    • 26. Outcomes: informal survey [DSO quiz tool] N = 462 Learning Activity worthwhile % Student Responses Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 27. Outcomes: informal survey N = 462 % Student Responses Change in understanding of health behaviour change Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 28. Outcomes: informal survey N = 462 Importance of change in health behaviour % Student Responses Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 29. Outcomes: Student feedback 1
      • I was reluctant at first - how dare they ask us to change our lifestyle! ... may have been confronting for some, but it was
      • an invaluable experience for a bunch of future health-care professionals who will be advising others re behaviour change - the issues raised will be applicable across a range of behaviour change areas, and making the whole thing a personal experience was a great teaching tool that I benefitted from greatly. The more indepth / conceptual research analysis in assignment 2 added even more to what was learned , and assisted in developing a deeper understanding of the issues. The experience was very worthwhile, and I hope it 's repeated - much more interesting/relevant than last year 's assessment activities, according to feedback I got from fellow-students who did this unit last year (2006).
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 30. Outcomes: Student feedback 2
      • “ Well final entry!!! I have decided I am going to continue keeping a journal as it really makes me think about things in more depth and follow through with my plans and strategies. Once I am happy with the change in my smoking behaviour I am going to choose another unhealthy behaviour to try and change as there I so many I can choose from!!!
      • I have learnt so much about myself and just how much control I really have. I picked what I thought would be my hardest behaviour to change so I now know that I can change other unhealthy behaviours. I have also learnt so much more about others around me (friends and family) and who I can trust and go to for support.”
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 31. Outcomes: Student feedback 3
      • I thought that it was fantastic . It was active learning which made it fun and exciting as well as being personally significant . The journal also helped in making the learning easy as we can relate what we have learned in the semester to how we coped in changing our health behaviour .
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 32. Enablers of success…
        • Managing Unit
        • Support from school
        • Committed tutors
        • Effective mentoring and monitoring of tutors
      • Managing students
        • clear guidelines re content & style (“dear diary”)
        • regular feedback
        • supportive learning environment
      Background Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale New Assessment
    • 33.
      • Ballard, B & Clanchy (1991) Teaching Students from Overseas , Longman Cheshire, Sydney.
      • Biggs, J. (2003). Teaching for quality learning at university: What the student does (2nd ed.). Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press.
      • Brown, S & Glasner, A (1999) Assessment Matters in Higher Education: choosing and Using Diverse Approaches , Open University Press, Buckingham.
      • Brown, S, Race, P, & Bull, J. (1999) Computer-Assisted Assessment in Higher Education , Kogan Page, London.
      • Brunning, H (2006) Executive Coaching: Systems-Psychodynamic Perspective , Karnac, London.
      • Claridge, M & Lewis, T. (2005) Coaching for Effective Learning: A Practical Guide for Teachers in Health and Social Care,   Radcliffe Publishing, U.K.
      • Cranton, P, (1997) Transformative Learning in Action: Insights from Practice, Jossey-Bass Publishers, San Francisco.
      • Farmer, M, Riddick, B, Sterling, C (2002) Dyslexia and inclusion: Assessment and Support in Higher Education , Whurr Publishers, London.
      • Grant, A. (2003). The impact of life coaching on goal attainment, metacognition and mental health. Social Behavior and Personality, 31(3 ), 253-264.
      • Hadikin, R. (2004) Effective Coaching in Healthcare, Elsevier Science, London.
      References Enablers References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale Background New Assessment
    • 34.
      • Kolb, D. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development , Prentice-Hall, New Jersey.
      • Mezirow, J 1997, ‘Transformative learning: theory to practice’, New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, no. 74, summer, pp. 5–12.
      • McDowell, (1996) Enabling student learning through innovative assessment’ in G. Whisker and S. Browns (Eds) Enabling student Learning: Systems and Strategies. London: Kogan Page, SEDA.
      • McGill, I & Beaty, L (2001) Action Learning, Kogan Page, London.
      • Northedge, A (2005) Enabling participation in Academic discourses in Shaw, G. (Ed.) Tertiary Teaching and Learning Dealing with Diversity, Charles Darwin University Press, Darwin.
      • Skiffington, S & Zeus, P. (2003) Behavioural Coaching , McGraw Hill, Sydney.
      • Yancey, K, (1998) Reflection in the Writing Classroom. Logan, Utah.
      • Yates, L. (2004) What does Good Education Research look like? Situating a field and its practices, Open University Press, England.
      • Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice. Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
      References Outcomes Learning Cycle Examples Outcomes Scaling Rationale Background New Assessment Enablers References

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