How the Americas Change:The Long 19th Century<br />By Susan Hiner<br />History 141<br />Fall 2011<br />
The Americas in the 19th Century<br />The Creole elites of Latin America dominated and conquered the native people.<br />Mexico had many governments ruled by armies too powerful for the middle-class and peasant workers who fought for land and liberty in the Mexican revolution (1911-1920)<br />Civil wars occurred both in Latin America and the United States. North America fought over slavery and individual state rights and Latin America’s war was for independence from Spanish and Portuguese rule.<br />The Americas won their independence from European powers, however, we are struggling still today to obtain freedom, equality and a constitutional government.<br />
The Americas in the 19th Century<br />Growth and power caused the natives of each nation to be either relocated or forced into a society formed by the new government leaders. <br />Millions of immigrants from Europe and Asia to America increased the population and economic growth, causing western expansion and the Mexican-American War.<br />Canada’s growth was due to the British loyalists moving from the U.S. Britain granted Canada their independence and although there were political and ethnic differences between the French and British Canadians, they were resolved for fear of a U.S. invasion of their territories.<br />
The Little Ice Age<br />Northern Europeans immigrated to the U.S due to the cold weather.<br />English defeated the Spanish Armada by blocking their ships which were later destroyed by the storm.<br />Napoleon retreats from Russia to Vilnius resulting in the death of 90,000 men who starved or froze during their trek, and only 4-5 thousand survived of the 40,000 who made it to Vilnius.<br />George Washington’s Battle of Trenton was won with his surprise attack against Britain, crossing an ice clogged Delaware River.<br />
Frontiers of the Americas<br />Colonial wars in South America between the Spanish and Portuguese as well as civil wars from 1763 lasting for 160 years were major factors in the culture and politics, including the Catholic Church.<br />Brazilian politics focused on family and their differing government views resulting in revolts.<br />Due to the type of land in Brazilian-Uruguayan area, cattle slaughtering was the accepted gaucho culture which led to brutal human violence. It was socially accepted and honorable to slit someone’s throat in public to settle a dispute between class and race differences.<br />Pride, greed, hatred and competition led men to violence to determine who was better with a knife and who his enemies were.<br />
Frontiers of the Americas<br />In 1803 the U.S. purchased all or part of 15 states and two Canadian provinces from France for $15 million, known as the Louisiana Purchase, which doubled the size of the U.S.<br />New Orleans was a major trade port to France and Spain. The purchase by Thomas Jefferson ensured American trade access, previously blocked by Spain.<br />A Swiss artist, Karl Bodmer and a German scientist and native cultural historian, Prince MaximilanzuWied, visited the native U.S. Indians resulting in important historical records of the tribes from their paintings and diaries.<br />The Haitian Revolution occurred between slaves and French colonists who owned the profitable colony of Saint-Domingue.<br />If the Haitians had not revolted and succeeded, the slave rebellion in the U.S. may have decreased as well as the number of refugees. Expansion would be reduced if France decided to keep Louisiana.<br />
Crossroads of FreedomEuropean Powers<br />Battlefield events and cotton exports from the south were important to Britain and France.<br />The Confederates wanted to persuade the British to break the Union blockade of exports. Also, they wanted diplomatic recognition to ensure Confederate success, which may have provoked a possible war with the United States.<br />Both Britain and France abolished slavery and Britain opposed the Confederates of America issue on slavery, even though it was slaves that grew the cotton.<br />After Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation by President Lincoln, the majority of the British people thought it was a turning point in our history. It had a positive and wide effect on the British politicians and other European nations.<br />
Crossroads of FreedomNews & Morale<br />Newspapers were widely read and the editorials were sometimes exaggerated as in the case of Lee’s invasion of Maryland. The New York Herald predicted mass destruction and farmers in Pennsylvania moved north and the archives were shipped to New York.<br />Wall Street stocks and value of the dollar fell after the North was defeated in the Seven Days Battles in July 1862. The press predicted a July 4th victory at Richmond before the battle engaged. Northern newspapers wrote upsetting stories of British intervention before the news reached Europe.<br />After the Union captured Norfolk, the New York Herald wrote that Virginia would be next. Panic arose, gold reserves set for evacuation as well as Jefferson Davis’ family and Cabinet members. Rumors flew and denials of them were ignored.<br />Public Opinion and morale was an important factor<br />Army of the Potomac received a warm welcome from the Maryland folks which increased morale.<br />
Crossroads of FreedomGeorge B. McClellan<br />“The Young Napoleon” George B. McClellan was a Union General who was much admired by his troops. He always overestimated enemy strength, however he succeeded in organizing his men.<br />McClellan frequently held back on attacking or waiting for Washington to send more men or voicing his concerns about being outnumbered or the road conditions. He took no initiative without absolute assurance of success.<br />President Lincoln was urged by his cabinet members to dismiss McClellan, however there was no other alternative, until November 7 1862 when he finally ordered General Burnside to take command.<br />
Crossroads of FreedomSharpsburg<br />General Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson was brilliant, bold, mobile and took chances. <br />General Robert E. Lee decided to divide his army to attack in four areas. He issued Special Orders No. 191 which was found by a Corporal in the Union army. McClellan was made aware of the plans but did not act immediately, which gave Lee time to attack. <br />Harpers Ferry surrendered to Jackson’s army.<br />Lee’s confederate army was not totally destroyed or beaten but they did retreat, and lost almost a quarter of all troops because they were outnumbered.<br />The Union was victorious at Antietam, however more lives were lost on September 17, 1862 than in any other day in American history.<br />
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