Team Dynamics

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Team Dynamics

  1. 1. Team . Dynamics MHA -107 MS. S Bhaumik 1
  2. 2. What are Teams? • Groups of two or more people • Interact and influence each other • Are mutually accountable for achieving common objectives • Perceive themselves as a social entity 2
  3. 3. Definition Harvard Business School Press,1993 “ A team is a small number of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose, performance goals, and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable” 3
  4. 4. Types of Teams 1.Self managed teams – Team-based departments – Self-directed teams 2.Task forces/ problem solving team – Temporary teams that investigate a problem – Same department Courtesy of TRW Canada 3.Cross functional teams – Temporary teams – Formed spontaneously, using borrowed resources, to develop products or solve problems 4
  5. 5. 4. Virtual Teams • teams that operate across space, time and organizational boundaries using electronic technology • Increasingly possible because of: – Technology – Knowledge-based work • Increasingly necessary because of: – Globalization – Knowledge management – Need for team work – Ex - crew of TV network 5
  6. 6. Why Informal Teams Exist • Relatedness Needs – Fulfil need for social interaction – Social identity • Goal accomplishment • Emotional support 6
  7. 7. Team Effectiveness Model Organizational and Team Team Design Team Environment Effectiveness • Reward systems •Task characteristics •Team size • Achieve • Communication organizational systems •Team composition goals • Physical space • Satisfy member • Organizational needs Team Processes environment • Maintain team • Organizational •Team development survival structure •Team norms • Organizational •Team roles leadership •Team cohesiveness 7
  8. 8. Team Design Elements • Task characteristics – Better when tasks are clear, easy to implement – Task interdependence – Share common inputs, processes, or outcomes • Team size – Smaller teams are better – But large enough to accomplish task • Team composition – Members motivated/competent to perform task in a team environment – Team diversity 8
  9. 9. Stages of Team Development Performing Norming Storming Existing teams Forming might regress Adjourning back to an earlier stage of development 9
  10. 10. Conformity to Team Norms 100 Day 12: Peer pressure Day 28: 75 Units begins Employee Pressed has doubled performance per Hour 50 Day 1: Day 20: 25 Employee Employee begins job begins with team working alone 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 Production Days 10
  11. 11. Changing Team Norms 1. Introduce norms when team formed 2. Select members with preferred norms 3. Discuss counterproductive norms 4. Rewards to support desired behaviours 5. Disband the team 11
  12. 12. Causes of Team Cohesiveness Member Similarity External Member Challenges Interaction Team Cohesiveness Team Team Success Size Somewhat Difficult Entry 12
  13. 13. Team Cohesiveness Outcomes Members of cohesive teams: • Want to remain members • Willing to share information • Strong interpersonal bonds • Want to support each other • Resolve conflict effectively • More satisfied and experience less stress 13
  14. 14. Cohesiveness and Performance Team Norms Support Moderately High Firm’s High Task Task Goals Performance Performance Team Norms Moderately Oppose Low Task Low Task Firm’s Performance Goals Performance Low Team High Team Cohesiveness Cohesiveness 14
  15. 15. The Trouble With Teams • Individuals better/faster on some tasks • Process losses - cost of developing and maintaining teams • Companies don’t support best work environment for team dynamics • Social loafing 15
  16. 16. Conditions for Social Loafing • Low task interdependence • Individual output not visible • Routine, uninteresting tasks • Low task significance • Low collectivist values 16
  17. 17. TEAM FUNCTIONS (facilitation & application) • Understanding • Ownership • Creativity and contribution • Trust • Common understanding • Personal development • Conflict resolution • Participative decision making • Clear leadership • commitment 17
  18. 18. The elements that distinguish teams from groups are:- (1)full commitment by members to a common goal and mission, (2) mutual accountability, (3) shared leadership, (4) trust and a collaborative culture (5) achievement of synergy, and (6) complementary skills. Teams are found to be higher on these six variables as compared to groups. Groups meet to share information for enabling each member to perform efficiently in his/her own area of responsibility. Normally groups may not jointly work on collective goals. Teams have full commitment to collective goals and mission. Group may have designated leader while teams have shared leadership. 18

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