1200 BC- 400 BC A.M- downfall, religion S.C-geography, government S.S-Global pd 1
Located in the Guatemala.Tikal is bounded by rivers to the east and westthat go into the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.Wetlands provided fertile areas for agriculture.Maya’s homeland was from southern Mexico tonorthern Central America.Had a highland and lowland region; located on theYucatan Peninsula.In peninsula is hot and humid because it is in thetropics and near the coast.The climate of the Highlands greatly contrastedwith that of the Lowlands as it was much coolerand drier.The highlands were rich in obsidian, jade, andother valuable metals that Mayans used todevelop a lively trade.They also grew squash, beans, chili peppers,amaranth, manioc, cacao, cotton for light cloth.The lowlands are a limestone shelf bordered onthe north and west by the Gulf of Mexico and onthe east by the Caribbean Sea.The northern lowland climate is hot and has littleto no rain. They only had cenotes which werelarge sinkholes filled with rainwater.The southern lowlands consist of rainforest andsavannas and their rivers were linked to theUsumacinta River.
Mayan society was divided into seperate city-states.Each city-state was ruled by a noble family. The kingdoms were controlled by dynasties whichclaimed they descended from The Hero TwinsOne of the most famous Maya rulers was Lord Pacal. Pacal was a king for about 50 years before he died. When his tomb was discovered he was wearing a jade death maskEach king was regarded as a holy figure, and the throne was passed down to the eldest sonThe government was ruled by priests and kings - the priests had fantastic power; they ruledcities, led ceremonies, and performed other jobs.Others were elected to help the nobles run the city-states; judges, warriors and a council orelders were necessary
They also believed that Jaguar was their underworld inReligion was a key factor in Mayan life which people would have their afterlife, after going aThe king was a holy figure and on the top of the social dangerous soul expedition.classes although that did not ensure him a place in The Mayans had religious rituals that included humanheaven. sacrifice, where they nourished the gods with theirThe Mayans were polytheistic, believing in many god blood.such as the gods of corn, death, rain and war. Their religious beliefs gradually connected withGames were played in ball courts to maintain the astronomy, mathematics and the production of theircycles of the sun and moon and to bring rain. calendar.Believed that each day represented a different god, so Believed that each day represented a different god, sothey made a calendar to be prepared for the behavior they made a calendar to be prepared for the behavior ofof the different god each day. the different god each day.Worshipped in temple-pyramids, palaces and The religious calendar was created based on theobservatories, all hand made w/out metals tools and all position of the planets, sun and moon and was a 260contain beautiful stone carvings, representing religious day calendar.beliefs. Solar calendar: 18, 20 day months In addition, both calendars were linked and helped to determine the best time to plant crops, the best time to interact in war, and the beginning of new rulers reign.
Trade and Agriculture Maya cities were linked together by trade alliances - trade played an important role in connecting the empire Salt, flint, feathers, shells, honey, cotton, textile, and jade ornaments were popular products Cacao beans sometimes severed as currency The Maya farmed maize, beans, and squash - these crops were the foundation of Mayan life. Used different farming techniques, some unique to their society (see Advancements and Innovations), such as slash-and-burn agriculture and a method of planting crops of raised beds above swamps and hillside terraces. Having several productive farming techniques allowed Mayan farmers to produce copious amounts of food
Sophisticated farming technique of planting crops on raised beds above swamps and onhillside terraces that allowed farmers to grow large amounts of foodUsed obsidian to make tools and weaponsUsed glyphs, which stood for whole words or syllables, as a writing systemUsed codex (bark paper book) to record historical eventsDeveloped a calendar and math system, and also ideas in astronomy 260 day religious calendar, consisting of twelve 13 day months a second 365 day solar calendar, consisting of eighteen 20 day months based calendars off study of the moon, planets and sun; made possible by using a math system that included the concept of zero
CultureThe Maya were influenced strongly by the Olmec.The Maya were also incredibly in touch with nature -in their religion, government, agriculture, andinnovationsDuring the Classic Period (AD 250 - 900) the Mayaflourished built Tikal (major city) cities were full of giant pyramids, temples, palaces and elaborate stone carvings of the gods, and even ball courts urban centers were often found in the rainforestThe Maya were knowledgeable of mathematics andastronomyTheir population was relatively small, and very fewactually lived in the urban centersNoble class (priests, leading warriors) followed byMerchants, and then peasants made up classsystemThe Mayan had specific ideas about beauty prized a long, backward sloping forehead crossed-eyes babies would be altered to achieve these characteristics
In the late 800s the Mayansdeserted a few of their cites,although other cities ( Yucatan. etc.)continued to flourish. No one knowsfor sure why.Soon the northern Toltecs movedin on the Maya. As a result, culturewas changed and the existence ofcertain cities completely wiped out.The civilization slowly began toweaken. Violence became aproblem and people were forced tolive in jungles in poverty andfamine.When the Spanish arrived in 1500,The Maya were merely a fraction ofwhat they used to be. They wereeasily overcome.