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Qualitative Data collection

Qualitative Data collection

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  • When the desired population for the study is rare or very difficult to locate and recruit for a study, purposive sampling may be the only option. For example, you are interested in studying cognitive processing speed of young adults who have suffered closed head brain injuries in automobile accidents. This would be a difficult population to find. Probability sampling strategies typically use a random or chance process, although there are important exceptions to this rule. Random sampling is a strategy for selecting study participants in which each and every person has an equal and independent chance of being selected. Haphazard sampling is a strategy that is almost guaranteed to introduce bias into your study. It should be avoided at all costs. A typical haphazard strategy uses a "man-on-the-street" technique to recruit those who wander by or selects a sampling frame that does not accurately reflect the population. Convenience sampling selects a particular group of people but it does not come close to sampling all of a population. Researchers want to study the effectiveness of a diversion program for preventing further criminal activity among first-time juvenile offenders. Many cities across the nation have such programs but the researchers study the program in their city. The sample would generalize only to similar programs in similar cities. Convenience sampling is widely used in student research projects. Students contact professors that they know and ask if they can use their classes to recruit research subjects. Ref http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/res_methd/sampling/sampling_04.html
  • Simple random sampling is the most straightforward of the random sampling strategies. We use this strategy when we believe that the population is relatively homogeneous for the characteristic of interest. Systematic sampling yields a probability sample but it is not a random sampling strategy (it is one of our exceptions). Systematic sampling strategies take every nth person from the sampling frame. For example, you choose a random start page and take every 45th name in the directory until you have the desired sample size. Its major advantage is that it is much less cumbersome to use than the procedures outlined for simple random sampling. Stratified random sampling is used when we have subgroups in our population that are likely to differ substantially in their responses or behavior. This sampling technique treats the population as though it were two or more separate populations and then randomly samples within each. http://www.wadsworth.com/psychology_d/templates/student_resources/workshops/res_methd/sampling/sampling_17.html Proportionate sampling is a variation of stratified random sampling. We use this technique when our subgroups vary dramatically in size in our population. For example, we are interested in risk taking among college students and suspect that risk taking might differ between smokers and nonsmokers. Given increasing societal pressures against smoking, there are many fewer smokers on campus than nonsmokers. Rather than take equal numbers of smokers and nonsmokers, we want each group represented in their proportions in the population. Proportionate sampling strategies begin by stratifying the population into relevant subgroups and then random sampling within each subgroup. The number of participants that we recruit from each subgroup is equal to their proportion in the population. Cluster sampling is useful when it would be impossible or impractical to identify every person in the sample. Suppose a college does not print a student directory. It would be most practical in this instance to sample students from classes. Rather than randomly sample 10% of students from each class, which would be a difficult task, randomly sampling every student in 10% of the classes would be easier. Our final strategy within the broader category of probability sampling is multistage sampling. This is our most sophisticated sampling strategy and it is often used in large epidemiological studies. To obtain a representative national sample, researchers may select zip codes at random from each state. Within these zip codes, streets are randomly selected. Within each street, addresses are randomly selected. While each zip code constitutes a cluster, which may not be as accurate as other probability sampling strategies, it still can be very accurate.
  • Purposeful sampling or Purposive sampling Purposive sampling targets a particular group of people. When the desired population for the study is rare or very difficult to locate and recruit for a study, purposive sampling may be the only option. For example, you are interested in studying cognitive processing speed of young adults who have suffered closed head brain injuries in automobile accidents. This would be a difficult population to find.
  • Maximum variation sampling , also known as  heterogeneous sampling , is a purposive sampling technique used to capture a wide range of perspectives relating to the phenomenon that you are interested in studying; that is, maximum variation sampling is a search for variation in perspectives, ranging from those  conditions  that are view to be  typical  through to those that are more extreme in nature. By conditions, we mean the units (i.e. people, cases/organisations, events, pieces of data) that are of interest to the researcher. These units may exhibit a wide range of attributes, behaviours, experiences, incidents, qualities, situations, and so forth. Extreme or Deviant Case Sampling Sometimes extreme cases are of interest because they represent the purest or most clear cut instance of a phenomenon we are interested in. For example, if we were interested in studying management styles, it might be most interesting to study an organization that did exceptionally well and/or another that had high expectations but did exceptionally poorly.   Typical Case Sampling Sometimes we are interested in cases simply because they are not unusual in any way. For example, years ago Howard Becker and some of his colleagues were interested in studying how medical students were socialized into the profession. They did their research at the University of Kansas Medical School – not a highly prestigious medical school such as Harvard or Johns Hopkins – exactly because there was nothing unusual about it and, for that reason, was probably somewhat typical of the medical school experience. Theory‐guided Sampling Researchers who are following a more deductive or theory‐testing approach would be interested in finding individuals or cases that embody theoretical constructs. As this could be considered a particular type of criterion sampling, it also illustrates the overlaps that can exist between these categories (e.g.,theory‐based sampling might also lead the researcher to look for particularly intense or extreme cases). Homogeneous sampling is a purposive sampling technique that aims to achieve a homogeneous sample; that is, a sample whose  units  (e.g. people, cases, etc.) share the same (or very similar) characteristics  or  traits  (e.g. a group of people that are similar in terms of age, gender, background, occupation, etc.). In this respect, homogeneous sampling is the opposite of maximum variation sampling . A homogeneous sample is often chosen when the  research question that is being address is specific to the characteristics of the particular group of interest, which is subsequently examined in detail. Critical case sampling is a type of purposive sampling technique that is particularly useful in exploratory   qualitative research, research with  limited resources , as well as research where a single case (or small number of cases) can be  decisive  in explaining the phenomenon of interest. It is this decisive aspect of critical case sampling that is arguably the most important. To know if a case is decisive, think about the following statements: "If it happens there, it will happen anywhere"; or "if it doesn’t happen there, it won’t happen anywhere"; and "If that group is having problems, then we can be sure all the groups are having problems" (Patton, 2002, p.237). Whilst such critical cases should not be used to make  statistical generalisations , it can be argued that they can help in making  logical generalisations . However, such logical generalisations should be made carefully. A  convenience sample or opportunistic sampling  is a matter of taking what you can get. It is an  accidental  sample. Although selection may be unguided, it probably is not random, using the correct definition of everyone in the population having an equal chance of being selected. Volunteers would constitute a convenience sample. This involves following new leads during field work, taking advantage of the unexpected flexibility. Snowball sampling . Some  populations  that we are interested in studying can be  hard-to-reach  and/or  hidden . These include  populations  such as drug addicts, homeless people, individuals with AIDS/HIV, prostitutes, and so forth. Such  populations  can be  hard-to-reach  and/or  hidden  because they exhibit some kind of social stigma, illicit or illegal behaviours, or other traits that makes them atypical and/or socially marginalised. Snowball sampling is a  non-probability based sampling technique  that can be used to  gain access  to such  populations . Confirming and disconfirming cases. Elaborating and deepening initial analysis like if you had already started some study, you are seeking further information or confirming some emerging issues which are not clear, seeking exceptions and testing variation. This is the process of selecting cases that either: serve as additional examples that lend further support, richness and depth to patterns emerging from data analysis (confirming cases) serve as examples that do not fit emergent patterns and allow the research team to evaluate rival explanations (disconfirming cases).  This can help the research team understand and define the limitations of research findings. Disconfirming or Negative Case Sampling : With this strategy the researcher is looking to extend his or her analysis by looking for cases that will disconfirm it, both to test theory and simply because it is often from our failures that we learn the most. The general principle here is, “If you think your results are not generalizable or the existence of a particular kind of case will undermine all that you ‘know’ to be true about a phenomenon, then look for that kind of case.”   Expert sampling is a type of purposive sampling technique that is used when your research needs to glean knowledge from individuals that have  particular expertise . This expertise may be required during the  exploratory  phase of qualitative research, highlighting potential new areas of interest or opening doors to other participants. Alternately, the particular expertise that is being investigated may form the basis of your research, requiring a focus only on individuals with such specific expertise. Expert sampling is particularly useful where there is a lack of empirical evidence in an area and high levels of uncertainty, as well as situations where it may take a long period of time before the findings from research can be uncovered. Therefore, expert sampling is a cornerstone of a  research design  known as  expert elicitation  [see the article:  Expert elicitation: Getting started   coming soon ]. Total population sampling is a type of purposive sampling technique where you choose to examine the  entire population  (i.e. the  total population ) that have a particular set of  characteristics (e.g. specific experience, knowledge, skills, exposure to an event, etc.). In such cases, the entire population is often chosen because the size of the population that has the particular set of characteristics that you are interest in is very small. Therefore, if a small number of  units  (i.e. people, cases/organisations, etc.) were not included in the sample that is investigated, it may be felt that a significant piece of the puzzle was missing. Combination or mixed purposeful sampling  This combines various sampling strategies to achieve the desired sample. This helps in triangulation, allows for flexibility, and meets multiple interests and needs. When selecting a sampling strategy it is necessary that it fits the purpose of the study, the resources available, the question being asked and the constraints being faced. This holds true for sampling strategy as well as sample size. Paradigmatic Case Sampling:   A case is “paradigmatic” when it is considered the exemplar for a certain class. For example, if one wanted to study the management of professional sports teams, the paradigmatic case in hockey of a successful franchise would be the Montreal Canadiens; for baseball it would be the New York Yankees. Criterion Sampling: This involves searching for cases or individuals who meet a certain criterion, e.g., that they have a certain disease or have had a particular life experience. For example, a colleague of mine is doing research with men who have been clients of sex workers; this would be considered criterion sampling. Stakeholder Sampling: Particularly useful in the context of evaluation research and policy analysis, this strategy involves identifying who the major stakeholders are who are involved in designing, giving, receiving, or administering the programme or service being evaluated, and who might otherwise be affected by it.   Ref http://www.sfu.ca/~palys/Purposive%20sampling.pdf http://dissertation.laerd.com/articles/purposive-sampling-an-overview.php#maximum http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/sampnon.php
  • Maximum variation sampling , also known as  heterogeneous sampling , is a purposive sampling technique used to capture a wide range of perspectives relating to the phenomenon that you are interested in studying; that is, maximum variation sampling is a search for variation in perspectives, ranging from those  conditions  that are view to be  typical  through to those that are more extreme in nature. By conditions, we mean the units (i.e. people, cases/organisations, events, pieces of data) that are of interest to the researcher. These units may exhibit a wide range of attributes, behaviours, experiences, incidents, qualities, situations, and so forth.
  • Extreme or Deviant Case Sampling Sometimes extreme cases are of interest because they represent the purest or most clear cut instance of a phenomenon we are interested in. For example, if we were interested in studying management styles, it might be most interesting to study an organization that did exceptionally well and/or another that had high expectations but did exceptionally poorly.  
  • Typical Case Sampling Sometimes we are interested in cases simply because they are not unusual in any way. For example, years ago Howard Becker and some of his colleagues were interested in studying how medical students were socialized into the profession. They did their research at the University of Kansas Medical School – not a highly prestigious medical school such as Harvard or Johns Hopkins – exactly because there was nothing unusual about it and, for that reason, was probably somewhat typical of the medical school experience.
  • Theory‐guided Sampling Researchers who are following a more deductive or theory‐testing approach would be interested in finding individuals or cases that embody theoretical constructs. As this could be considered a particular type of criterion sampling, it also illustrates the overlaps that can exist between these categories (e.g.,theory‐based sampling might also lead the researcher to look for particularly intense or extreme cases).
  • Homogeneous sampling is a purposive sampling technique that aims to achieve a homogeneous sample; that is, a sample whose  units  (e.g. people, cases, etc.) share the same (or very similar) characteristics  or  traits  (e.g. a group of people that are similar in terms of age, gender, background, occupation, etc.). In this respect, homogeneous sampling is the opposite of maximum variation sampling . A homogeneous sample is often chosen when the  research question that is being address is specific to the characteristics of the particular group of interest, which is subsequently examined in detail.
  • Critical case sampling is a type of purposive sampling technique that is particularly useful in exploratory   qualitative research, research with  limited resources , as well as research where a single case (or small number of cases) can be  decisive  in explaining the phenomenon of interest. It is this decisive aspect of critical case sampling that is arguably the most important. To know if a case is decisive, think about the following statements: "If it happens there, it will happen anywhere"; or "if it doesn’t happen there, it won’t happen anywhere"; and "If that group is having problems, then we can be sure all the groups are having problems" (Patton, 2002, p.237). Whilst such critical cases should not be used to make  statistical generalisations , it can be argued that they can help in making  logical generalisations . However, such logical generalisations should be made carefully.
  • This involves following new leads during field work, taking advantage of the unexpected flexibility.
  • Snowball sampling . Some  populations  that we are interested in studying can be  hard-to-reach  and/or  hidden . These include  populations  such as drug addicts, homeless people, individuals with AIDS/HIV, prostitutes, and so forth. Such  populations  can be  hard-to-reach  and/or  hidden  because they exhibit some kind of social stigma, illicit or illegal behaviours, or other traits that makes them atypical and/or socially marginalised. Snowball sampling is a  non-probability based sampling technique  that can be used to  gain access  to such  populations .
  • Confirming and disconfirming cases. Elaborating and deepening initial analysis like if you had already started some study, you are seeking further information or confirming some emerging issues which are not clear, seeking exceptions and testing variation. This is the process of selecting cases that either: serve as additional examples that lend further support, richness and depth to patterns emerging from data analysis (confirming cases) serve as examples that do not fit emergent patterns and allow the research team to evaluate rival explanations (disconfirming cases).  This can help the research team understand and define the limitations of research findings.
  • Key informants can be surveyed or interviewed individually or through focus groups.
  • Focus groups are a gathering of 8 to 12 people who share some characteristics relevant to the evaluation. (some textbook allow 6-10 people http://iseibpsychology2012.wikispaces.com/Interview-Group+2-+Sarah,+Hae-In,+Sol-A ) Focus groups combine elements of both interviewing and participant observation. The focus group session is, indeed, an interview (Patton, 1990) not a discussion group, problem-solving session, or decision-making group. At the same time, focus groups capitalize on group dynamics. The hallmark of focus groups is the explicit use of the group interaction to generate data and insights that would be unlikely to emerge without the interaction found in a group. The technique inherently allows observation of group dynamics, discussion, and firsthand insights into the respondents’ behaviors, attitudes, language, etc. When to use focus groups . When conducting evaluations, focus groups are useful in answering the same type of questions as indepth interviews, except in a social context. Specific applications of the focus group method in evaluations include identifying and defining problems in project implementation; identifying project strengths, weaknesses, and recommendations; assisting with interpretation of quantitative findings;  5 obtaining perceptions of project outcomes and impacts; and generating new ideas. Assumption: “Human beings are storytellers, and that the researcher’s task is to explore the different stories being told.” - Narrative = the self constructs a story of identity in relation to other people - People’s minds are shaped to the patterns of daily life - Narratives = sometimes are constructed like real stories (opening, middle, ending) - To see how people impose a kind of order on their experiences so as to make sense of events in their lives - Representations of an individual’s life (facts + interpretations) - Help in understanding how individual lives relate to the historical/cultural context ü Can take different forms  (ex. the life-story interview)
  • http://iseibpsychology2012.wikispaces.com/Interview-Group+2-+Sarah,+Hae-In,+Sol-A
  • The Reflective Journal is a body of work reflecting the candidate’s exposure to the theory, process and practice of Visual Arts with special reference to the Expressive Forms studied. The Journal must show evidence of research undertaken inclusive of samples, photographs, interviews, critiques, descriptive and personal statements and reflections.
  • http://www.socqrl.niu.edu/myers/a.htm more
  • Field notes refer to transcribed notes or the written account derived from data collected during observations and interviews. There are many styles of field notes, but all field notes generally consist of two parts: descriptive in which the observer attempts to capture a word-picture of the setting, actions and conversations; and reflective in which the observer records Field notes should be written as soon as possible after the observation and/or interviews. The original data may be recorded in cryptic form, and unless they are fleshed out as soon as possible after the observation, important details may be forgotten and not appear in the field notes. Field notes are used to "broaden your range of vision" and produce data that will be of use in later stages of the system design.
  • Ref http://hci.cs.siue.edu/NSF/Files/TeachingPD/How_CI_Observation%20and%20Field%20Notes.pdf
  • Due to its covert nature it raises a number of issues which would arguably be almost impossible to justify in the current research situation (Humphrey 1970). The role as complete observer is that which entails the role of the researcher being limited to one of mere observation, and is a role which is rarely used.
  • Whilst participant-as-observer is the participant in those setting changes action as observer only.
  • Base on participant are:
  • Base on question In-depth interviews is a dialogue between a skilled interviewer and an interviewee. Its goal is to elicit rich, detailed material that can be used in analysis (Lofland and Lofland, 1995). 
  • In the first approach, the interviewer (or in some cases the transcriber) listens to the tapes and writes a verbatim account of everything that was said. Transcription of the raw data includes word-for-word quotations of the participant’s responses as well as the interviewer’s descriptions of participant’s characteristics, enthusiasm, body language, and overall mood during the interview. Notes from the interview can be used to identify speakers or to recall comments that are garbled or unclear on the tape. 
  • The major advantages of this transcription method are its completeness and the opportunity it affords for the interviewer to remain attentive and focused during the interview. The major disadvantages are the amount of time and resources needed to produce complete transcriptions and the inhibitory impact tape recording has on some respondents. If this technique is selected, it is essential that the participants have been informed that their answers are being recorded, that they are assured confidentiality, and that their permission has been obtained. A second possible procedure for recording interviews draws less on the word-by-word record and more on the notes taken by the interviewer or assigned notetaker. This method is called "note expansion.” This approach is recommended when resources are scarce, when the results must be produced in a short period of time, and when the purpose of the interview is to get rapid feedback from members of the target population.  The note expansion approach saves time and retains all the essential points of the discussion. In addition to the drawbacks pointed out above, a disadvantage is that the interviewer may be more selective or biased in what he or she writes.
  • The usefulness of existing sources varies depending on whether they are accessible and accurate. In the hypothetical project, documents can provide the evaluator with useful information about the culture of the institution and participants involved in the project, which in turn can assist in the development of evaluation questions. Information from documents also can be used to generate interview questions or to identify events to be observed. Furthermore, existing records can be useful for making comparisons (e.g., comparing project participants to project applicants, project proposal to implementation records, or documentation of institutional policies and program descriptions prior to and following implementation of project interventions and activities).
  • http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/1997/nsf97153/chap_3.htm http://www.fmhs.auckland.ac.nz/soph/centres/hrmas/_docs/collecting_and_analysing_qualitative_data.pdf http://libweb.surrey.ac.uk/library/skills/Introduction%20to%20Research%20and%20Managing%20Information%20Leicester/page_54.htm

Qualitative data collection Qualitative data collection Presentation Transcript

  • Qualitative Data Collection Dr. Susheewa Wichaikull, RN, Ph.D.
  • WHAT IS THE PROCESS OF QUALTATIVE DATA CLLECTION? 1- Identify the participants and sites. 2- Gain access i.e. permission. 3- Define the type of data to collect. 4- Develop data collection forms i.e. observational checklist. 5- Administer the process in an ethical manner.
  • Populations and siteHow to recruit participant and site?- Random sampling Vs Purposive sampling
  • Random “Quantitative” Purposeful “Qualitative” sampling sampling Select people or sites who can best Select representative individuals help us understand our phenomenon To generalize from sample to the To develop a detailed understanding populationTo make “claims” about the population That might provide useful information. That might help people learn about theTo build/test “theories” that explain the phenomenon.population. That might give voice to silenced people.
  • Purposive Sampling• Researchers intend to select individuals and sites based upon the limitation in order to learn and understand the central phenomenon.
  • Types of Purposive Sampling o Maximal Variation Sampling o Extreme Case Sampling o Typical Sampling o Theory or Concept Sampling o Homogeneous Sampling o Critical Sampling o Opportunistic Sampling o Snowball Sampling o Confirming and Disconfirming Sampling
  • Maximal Variation Sampling: A purposive sampling strategy in which the researcher samples cases or individuals that differ on some characteristic or trait. e.g. different age groups.
  • Extreme Case SamplingIs a form of purposive sampling in which the study an outlier case or one that displays extreme characteristics.-Choose extreme cases after knowing the typical or average case-e.g., outstanding successes, crisis events
  • Typical SamplingA form of a purposive sampling in which the researcher studies a person or site that is “typical” to those unfamiliar with the situation.
  • Theory or Concept SamplingA purposive sampling strategy in which the researcher samples individuals or sites because they can help the researcher generate or discover a theory or specific concepts within the theory.
  • Homogeneous SamplingThe researcher purposefully samples individuals or sites based on membership in a subgroup that has defining characteristics.
  • Critical SamplingIdentify the case that can illustrate some phenomenon dramatically.
  • Opportunistic SamplingPurposive sampling undertaken after the research begins, to take advantage of unfolding events that will help answer research questions.
  • Snowball SamplingA form of purposive sampling that typically proceeds after a study begins and occurs when the researcher asks participants to recommend other individuals to study.
  • Confirming and Disconfirming SamplingA purposive strategy used during a study to follow up on specific cases to test or explore further specific findings.
  • A key informantA key informant is• a person who has unique skills or professional background related to the issue being studied.• A person who is knowledgeable about the project participants, or has access to other information of interest to the evaluator.• A person who has a way of communicating that represents the essence of what the participants say and do.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of using key informants • Advantages •Information concerning causes, reasons, andbest approaches from an "insider" point of view •Advice/feedback increases credibility of study •Pipeline to pivotal groups •May have side benefit to solidify relationships between evaluators, clients, participants, and other stakeholders
  • Disadvantages• Time required to select and get commitment may be substantial• Relationship between evaluator and informants may influence type of data obtained• Informants may interject own biases and impressions• May result in disagreements among individuals leading to frustration/ conflicts
  • HOW TO GAIN ACCESS TO THE SITES? Gaining access to the site or individual(s) in qualitative inquiry involves obtaining permission at different levels, such as: The organisation The site The individuals The campus institutional review boards
  • WHAT INFORMATION ARE INVOLVED Observations, reflective journal, field note Interviews , Tape or video record Documents, newspaper, poem, diary Photographs Audiovisual materials, songs
  • Categories of Data Collection Data collection strategy Method Attributes ChallengesData Collected directly in words from peopleInterviews: one-to-one Reveal information about the Interviews are a time-question-and-answer sessions worldview of a single individual. consuming form of datawhere the researcher may This is a flexible strategy that collection. To gather datause a variety of techniques. can be massaged during data from one person requiresInterviews average 30-45 collection as needed to heighten preparation, the time of theminutes per person results. interview, and the time of transcription.Focus groups: group More time effective than The group dynamics mayInterviews, using the same interviews but with slightly less interfere with complete orvariety of techniques and flexibility. The group process accurate data.talking approximately the may encourage results from shysame length of time as or hesitant people when theinterviews. group brings up topic with which they agree.
  • Considerations in conducting in-depth interviews and focus groups Factors to consider in determining the setting for interviews (both individual and group) include the following: • Select a setting that provides privacy for participants. • Select a location where there are no distractions and it is easy to hear respondents speak.
  • • Select a comfortable location.• Select a nonthreatening environment.• Select a location that is easily accessible for respondents.• Select a facility equipped for audio or video recording.
  • • Stop telephone or visitor interruptions to respondents interviewed in their office or homes.• Provide seating arrangements that encourage involvement and interaction.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of in-depth interviewsAdvantages•Usually yield richest data, details, new insights•Permit face-to-face contact with respondents•Provide opportunity to explore topics in depth•Afford ability to experience the affective as well ascognitive aspects of responses•Allow interviewer to explain or help clarify questions,increasing the likelihood of useful responses•Allow interviewer to be flexible in administeringinterview to particular individuals or circumstances
  • Disadvantages• Expensive and time-consuming• Need well-qualified, highly trained interviewers• Interviewee may distort information through recall error, selective perceptions, desire to please interviewer• Flexibility can result in inconsistencies across interviews• Volume of information too large; may be difficult to transcribe and reduce data
  • Categories of Data Collection Method Data collection strategy Attributes ChallengesData Collected once or throughout a process of changeReflective Journals: Subjective account of the event Similar to interviews,Handwritten of verbal from the point of view of the reflective journals displayaccount of an event, or group writer, who may be the the worldview of singleof events, overtime. researcher or a subject of a individuals. They alsoThese often unveil how research. Can be collected once frequently requirewriters subscribe meaning to or throughout a process of transcription.their topics. changeField notes: written May follow a prescribed format Somewhat more objectiveexplanations or data taken, or be open-ended. than reflective dataoften by multiple observers at although still subject to thea single event, capturing biases of the writer.interactions of interest to thelarger topic under study.
  • Reflective Journal• Reflective journal is a series of writings in response to life experiences and events that may also involves reflections on what took place, express emotions, understandings and conclusions, lessons learned or action plans. Often called a “Journal Entry”
  • The sample of reflective journal
  • FieldnotesField notes refer to transcribed notes or the written account derived from data collected during observations and interviews.
  • FormatThere is no one format for field notes. Three possible formats are:• Save content part of field notes and reflective part of field notes in separate files.• Use two columns. The column on the right contains the content portion of field notes, with reflective comments relating to particular parts of the content part, written in the left column.
  • • Use wide left margin. Body of file contains content part, with the observers comments written in parentheses and indented under related paragraphs.
  • Sample
  • Categories of Data Collection Method Data collection strategy Attributes ChallengesData Collected during the event(s) being studiesAnecdotal evidence and logs: May follow a prescribed format or be Somewhat moredata taken from people often open-ended. May be more objective objective thanoutside the research team about the topic of study, since not reflective datathat report the facts of the constrained by the biases of the although still subjectinteractions as understood by research team’s discussions of the to the biases of thethe writer. topic under study. writer.Observations: stylized note Are often collected over a period of Accuracy may betaking about predetermined time. Can be a collected by a variety constrained by theportions of an event or group of people, thereby increasing the point of view of theof events under study, possibility of reliable results. Accuracy person recording thegenerally taken by more than may be helped by voice or video data.one observer. Observations recording prior, with multiple peopleoften tally the number of taking part in analysis.times an event takes place.Student work: Can also be collected over time and May be hard to with the intention of showing growth. interpret accurately.
  • • Becker (1958) described the role of the participant observer as the gatherer of data by participating in the daily life of the group or organisation.
  • Observational roles A participant observer: is an observational role adopted by researchers when they take part in activities (the same as their participants) in the setting they observe.
  • Observational roles A nonparticipant observer: is an researcher who visit a site and records notes without becoming involved in the activities of the participants.
  • Observational roles• A changing observational role: is one where researchers adapt their role to the situation.
  • ObservationsThe process of gathering open-ended, firsthand information by observing people and places at a research site.
  • Advantages : opportunity to record information as it occurs in a setting,1- To study actual behavior and Permit evaluator to enter into andunderstand situation/context.2- Provide direct information about behavior of individuals andgroups3- To study individuals who have difficulty verbalizing their ideas.4. Provide good opportunities for identifying unanticipatedoutcomes5- Exist in natural, unstructured, and flexible setting
  • Disadvantages: Disadvantages1- Researcher will be limited to those sites andsituations where he/she can gain access.2- Researcher may have difficulty developrapport with individuals there.3- Culture shock may occur4- Hawthorne effect5-Expensive and time consuming6- Need well-qualified, highly trained observers7-Selective perception of observer may distortdata
  • InterviewsOccur when researchers ask one or more participants (groups), open- ended questions and record their answers.
  • Types of interviews Can be described into two ways : base upon participants and questions 1- one-on-one interviews: is a data-collection process in which the researcher asks questions to and records answers from only one participant in the study at a time.
  • 2- focus group interviews: the process ofcollecting data through interviews with agroup of people, typically four to six.
  • 3- telephone interviews: is the processof gathering data using the telephoneand asking a small number of generalquestions.
  • 4- electronic e-mail interviews: consistof collecting open-ended data throughinterviews with individuals usingcomputer and the internet to do so.
  • Type of interview• Formal interview or structure• Informal interview or unstructured interview• Semi-structure interview• In-depth interviews focus on the depth detail of data.
  • Getting research participants to talk “Personal relations of trust are the basic ingredient for a research project which intends the collection of truthful information, data which retain the integrity of the actor’s perspective and social context. Such relations are essential for any project which seeks to penetrate the public fronts of our everyday lives”. (Johnson 1975: 121)
  • • Rapport are vital to gain trust.• Gate keeper is helpful person.
  • Transcribe tape record• Interviewer (or transcriber) listens to the tapes and writes a verbatim account of everything that was said.• Transcription of the raw data includes word- for-word quotations of the participant’s responses as well as the interviewer’s descriptions of participant’s characteristics, enthusiasm, body language, and overall mood during the interview.
  • • Notes from the interview can be used to identify speakers or to recall comments that are garbled or unclear on the tape.
  • Advantages and disadvantages of the interview: Advantages: 1- provide further information when you cannot directly observe participants. 2- Allow participants to describe detailed informationDisadvantages :1- Provides only information “filtered” through the views of theinterviewers.2- interview data may be deceptive and provide the perspective theinterviewee wants the researcher to hear.3- the presence of the researcher may affect how the intervieweeresponds.4- interviewee responses also may not be articulate, perceptive, orclear.
  • Conducting interviews:1- Identify the interviewees.2- Determine the type of interview you will use.3- During the interview, audiotape the questions and responses.4- Take brief notes during the interview.5- Locate a quiet, suitable place for conducting the interview.
  • 6- Obtain the consent from the interviewee to participate in the study.7- Have a plan, but be flexible.8- Use probes to obtain additional information.9- Be courteous and professional when the interview is over.
  • DocumentsConsist of public and private records thatqualitative researchers obtain about a siteor participants in a study and they caninclude newspapers, minutes of meeting,personal journals, and letters.
  • Documents Advantages: 1- Being in the language and words of the participants. 2- Ready for analysis without the necessary transcription that is required observational or interview data.Disadvantages:1- Documents are some times difficult to locate and obtain.2- Information may not be available to the public.3- Information may be located in distant archives, requiring theresearcher to travel, which take time and can be expensive.4- The documents may be incomplete, inauthentic, or inaccurate. 5- In personal documents such as diaries or letters, the handwriting maybe hard to read.
  • Two main types of document• Public records are materials created and kept for the purpose of "attesting to an event or providing an accounting" (Lincoln and Guba, 1985)• Personal documents are first-person accounts of events and experiences. These "documents of life" include diaries, portfolios, photographs, artwork, schedules, scrapbooks, poetry, letters to the paper, etc.
  • Collecting documents: 1- Identify the type of documents that can provide useful information to answer your qualitative research questions.2- consider both public and private documents assources of information of your research.3- once the documents are located, seek permission touse them from the appropriate individuals in charge ofthe materials.
  • 4- if you ask participants to keep a journal, provide specific instructions about the procedure.5- once you have permission to use documents,examine them for accuracy, completeness, andusefulness in answering the research questions in yourstudy.6- record information from the documents.
  • Audiovisual materialsConsist of images or sounds that researchers collect to help them understand the central phenomenon under study.
  • The advantages and disadvantages of using visual materials Advantages: 1- people easily relate to images because they are so pervasive in our society. 2- Images provide an opportunity for the participant to share directly their perceptions of reality. 3- images such as videotapes and films, for example, provide extensive data about real life as people visualize it.
  • Disadvantages:1- They are difficult to analyze because of the rich information.2- you as a researcher may influence the data collected.3- in selecting the photo album to examine or requesting that a certain type of drawing be sketched, you may impose your meaning of the phenomenon on participants, rather than obtain the participants’ views.
  • Steps of collecting audiovisual :materials1- determine what visual material can provideinformation to answer research questions and howthat material might augment existing forms of data,such as interviews and observations.2- identify the visual materials available andobtain permission to use it.
  • 3- check the accuracy and authenticity of the visual materials if you do not record it yourself.4- collect the data and organize it.
  • How do you record data?For observations and interviews,qualitative researchers use speciallydesigned protocols.
  • Data recording protocols: Are forms designed and used by qualitative research to record information during observations and interviews.
  • Interview protocolIs a form designed by the researcher thatcontains instructions for the process ofthe interview, the questions to be asked,and space to take notes of responsesfrom the interviewee.
  • Development and design of an interview protocol1- It contains a header to record essentialinformation about the interview, statementsabout the purpose of the study a reminder thatparticipants need to sign the consent form, andsuggestion to make preliminary test of therecording equipment.
  • 2- following this header are five brief open-ended questions that allow participantsmaximum flexibility for responding to thequestions.3- the core questions, 2 through 4, address majorresearch in the study.
  • Observational protocolIs a form designed by the researcher before data collection that is used for taking fieldnotes during an observation
  • Further ReadingDenzin, N.K., and Lincoln, Y.S. (Eds.). (1994). Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Fetterman, D.M. (1989). Ethnography: Step by Step. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 17. NewburyPark, CA: Sage.Guba, E.G., and Lincoln, Y.S. (1981). Effective Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Krueger, R.A. (1988). Focus Groups: A Practical Guide for Applied Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.LeCompte, M.D., Millroy, W.L., and Preissle, J. (Eds.). (1992). The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education.San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Lincoln, Y.S., and Guba, E.G. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Lofland, J., and Lofland, L.H. (1995). Analyzing Social Settings: A Guide to Qualitative Observation and Analysis, 3rdEd. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Merton, R.K., Fiske, M., and Kendall, P.L. (1990). The Focused Interview: A Manual of Problems and Procedures, 2ndEd. New York: The Free Press.Miles, M.B., and Huberman, A.M. (1994). Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA:Sage.Morse, J.M. (Ed.). (1994). Critical Issues in Qualitative Research Methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Patton, M.Q. (1990). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods, 2nd Ed. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Schatzman, L., and Strauss, A.L. (1973). Field Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Seidman, I.E. (1991). Interviewing as Qualitative Research: A Guide for Researchers in Education and SocialSciences. New York: Teachers College Press.