A robot is a mechanical or virtual artificial agent, usually an
electro-mechanical machine which performs a variety of tasks that is
guided by a computer program or electronic circuitry.
Types- Stationary robot, Mobile robot.
Constitution of robot- locomotive system, power supply, actuators,
sensory devices for feedback, control system.
Applications- Manufacturing industry, medical science, robots in
space, national defense, transportation, agriculture etc…
• KIT ASSEMBLING Kit is assembled through
many mechanical parts and circuit board.
• MOTHER BOARD It contains various type of
chips, power supply, connectors, ports and
• Types There is various type of robot’s
application. Here we discuss about
1. Line following robot
2. Obstacle detector robot
CONTENTS OF MOTHERBOARD
• 1117 VOLTAGE REGULATOR
• L293DNE MOTOR DRIVER
• 16 X 2/16 X 1 LCD INTERFACE
• POWER SUPPLY
• It is a micro computer chip which stores and execute programs.
1117 VOLTAGE REGULATOR
• It is a three terminal 5V voltage regulator IC used to provide a
constant voltage supply.
• This IC acts as a voltage conversion.
L293DNE MOTOR DRIVER
• This is basically a motor driver IC which is used for driving the DC
motors by using separate power supply.
• The LCD interface is used for displaying in 4 bit mode any
message, status or for debugging purpose and also as a
general purpose input output port
• Four tact switches along with a Reset switch are present on
the board in order to provide an external input to the
• A battery or an AC adaptor is used for providing power
supply to the mother board which regulated power supply
to all its peripherals.
• RED-Active High
• ORANGE- Logic Power ON indicator
• GREEN - Driver Power ON indicator
Program is written in C language.
Code is written to give instructions to computer to perform a
particular task in a particular condition.
Code is compiled to generate machine file.
Computer only understand this machine file which is in the
language of 0 & 1.
Now this file is been feed in the memory of the microcontroller.
TYPES OF ROBOTICS
• LINE FOLLOWER ROBOT
• OBSTECLE DETECTOR
Two motors have been used to rotate the two wheels clockwise or
anticlockwise. This provides motion to the robot.
Motors are arranged in a fashion called H-Bridge.
H-Bridge-It is an electronic circuit which enables a voltage to be
applied across a load in either direction.
To power the motor, two switches are turned on that are diagonally
opposed in the H-Bridge.
The combination of switches that are on, decide the motion of robot
whether it will go forward, backward or take turn.
The working model of a line follower consists of two motors, one
ATmega8 circuit board, two wheels, two IR sensors, LEDs, wires and
IR sensors provide the input, motors give the output and the wheels
make the robot to follow a line.
Follower robot is a mobile machine that can follow a path. The path
can be a visible black line on a white surface.
The IR sensors receive an analog signal that depends on
the intensity of light reflected by the black line of emitted beam by
The microcontroller gives instructions to motor to perform work.
• there are cases where smarter versions of line
followers are used to deliver mail within
an office building and deliver medications in a
the technology has been suggested for
running buses and other mass transit systems,
and may end up as part of autonomous cars
navigating the freeway.
just some thoughts.
• The robotics field is quite promising but to
make a really intelligent robot take supreme
effort. The ultimate goal of robotics is super
human system that embodies all the skill(such
as intelligence, touch and sensitivity) of
human without of any their limitation(such as