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  • Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay

Transcript

  • 1. Defining Motivation
    • Key Elements
    • Needs: A physiological or psychological imbalance
    • Drives: A force that leads to attain the goal
    • Incentives: Anything that mitigate the need
    Motivation A condition which is initiated by a physiological or psychological need and causes the individual to behave in a certain manner in order to achieve a particular goal. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 2. Content Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 3. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. E X H I B I T 6–2 Source: Motivation and Personality , 2nd ed,, by A.H. Maslow, 1970. Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 4. Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 5. Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction E X H I B I T 6–3 Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review . An exhibit from One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? by Frederick Herzberg, September–October 1987. Copyright © 1987 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College: All rights reserved. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 6. Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction E X H I B I T 6–4 Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 7. Classification of Motivation
    • Primary Motives
    • Physiologically based motives, not learned by the individual
    • Examples: hunger, thirst, sleep etc.
    • 2. General Motives
    • Not purely physiological, not purely learned, something between.
    • Examples: curiosity, manipulation, desire to remain active, affection etc.
    • 3. Secondary Motives
    • Motives that has been learned over the times.
    • Examples: nPow, nAch, nAff etc.
    Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 8. Other Secondary Motives Security Motive Need to place oneself in a secured position. This motive is largely based on fear and avoidance oriented action. Status Motive Need to place oneself to the relatively higher rank than others within a group organization or the society. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 9. David McClelland’s Theory of Needs (Secondary) Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay nAch nPow nAff
  • 10. High Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6–1 Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 11. ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 12. Process Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. E X H I B I T 6–5 Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 13.
    • Effort–Performance Relationship
      • The probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance.
    • Performance–Reward Relationship
      • The belief that performing at a particular level will lead to the attainment of a desired outcome.
    • Rewards–Personal Goals Relationship
      • The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s goals or needs and the attractiveness of potential rewards for the individual.
    Expectancy Theory Relationships Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
  • 14. The Porter-Lawler Model
    • Factors Associated with Organizational Performance:
    • Desire to perform the task
    • Not only motivation, employee should have the ability and skill to perform the task.
    • Clear perception about the role and accurate knowledge of the job requirement
    Key Elements Effort: Amount of energy spent by the individual Performance: Effective out of an individual. Rewards: Incentives based on the performance Satisfaction: If actual reward exceeds the expected rewards Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay