Motivation A condition which is initiated by a physiological or psychological need and causes the individual to behave in a certain manner in order to achieve a particular goal. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Content Theories of Motivation Hierarchy of Needs Theory (Maslow) There is a hierarchy of five needs—physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization; as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant. Self-Actualization The drive to become what one is capable of becoming. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Lower-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied externally; physiological and safety needs. Higher-Order Needs Needs that are satisfied internally; social, esteem, and self-actualization needs. E X H I B I T 6–2 Source: Motivation and Personality , 2nd ed,, by A.H. Maslow, 1970. Reprinted by permission of Prentice Hall, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Two-Factor Theory (Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Physiologically based motives, not learned by the individual
Examples: hunger, thirst, sleep etc.
2. General Motives
Not purely physiological, not purely learned, something between.
Examples: curiosity, manipulation, desire to remain active, affection etc.
3. Secondary Motives
Motives that has been learned over the times.
Examples: nPow, nAch, nAff etc.
Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Other Secondary Motives Security Motive Need to place oneself in a secured position. This motive is largely based on fear and avoidance oriented action. Status Motive Need to place oneself to the relatively higher rank than others within a group organization or the society. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
David McClelland’s Theory of Needs (Secondary) Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay nAch nPow nAff
High Achievers and Jobs E X H I B I T 6–1 Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer) Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. ERG Theory There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth. Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Process Theory Expectancy Theory (Victor Vroom) The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. E X H I B I T 6–5 Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay
Factors Associated with Organizational Performance:
Desire to perform the task
Not only motivation, employee should have the ability and skill to perform the task.
Clear perception about the role and accurate knowledge of the job requirement
Key Elements Effort: Amount of energy spent by the individual Performance: Effective out of an individual. Rewards: Incentives based on the performance Satisfaction: If actual reward exceeds the expected rewards Organizational Behavior: Dr. Rachana Chattopadhyay