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    Text types Text types Document Transcript

    • Session 2 Title : Writing as a Social Activity Text types Techniques for idea generation In this session we will be looking at writing as a social activity, reviewing the text types that teachers teach in schools and brainstorming a given topic using different essay writing techniques such as: Questioning, Making a list, Diagramming, and Outlining. ACTIVITY 1: Writers among us a. Play a familiar game called “Find Someone Who ….” The aim is to look at the writing practices of people you know. Refer to Tasksheet 2 below. TASKSHEET 2 : Find Someone Who … Find among the members of your group someone who…. No Description Name 1. Wrote a letter in the past month 2. Knows someone who writes for a living 3. Has never written an e-mail 4. Writes cheques at least once a month 5 Has written a letter of complaint before 6 Has never written a short story before EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • 7 Has written a short story before 8 Has written to an editor of a newspaper 9 Has written a letter of invitation in the last three years 10 Has written an article for a magazine/newspaper 11 Knows someone who writes speeches 12 b. Fill in the name of one person from the group who matches the description given. As an additional variation, you can provide your own interesting description (No. 12) and find someone who matches it. c. Complete a short reflection of the purpose of the activity in the space provided below. ACTIVITY 2: Text types that teachers teach in schools a) Name some common text types that teachers usually teach in schools. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • b) List the key features of these text types Example: Descriptive essays: Features include the use of descriptive words (clever use of adjectives), words that appeal to the five senses, clear pattern of organization (Introduction moves from general to specific) _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ ACTIVITY 3: Task 1: Read the descriptions/features of some common text types. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • Descriptive: Examples: A descriptive essay could describe . . . * a tree in my backyard; * a visit to the children's ward of a hospital; * a hot fudge sundae; * what an athlete did in order to make it to the Olympics. The descriptive essay provides details about how something looks, feels, tastes, smells, makes one feel, or sounds. It can also describe what something is, or how something happened. These essays generally use a lot of sensory details. The essay could be a list-like description that provides point by point details. Or, it could function as a story, keeping the reader interested in the plot and theme of the event described. Examples:A narrative essay could tell of . . . * my brother's and my fishing trips; * a boring trip to the grocery store; * my near-death experience at the beach. The narrative essay tells a story. It can also be called a "short story." Generally the narrative essay is conversational in style, and tells of a personal experience. It is most commonly written in the first person (I). This essay could tell of a single, life-shaping event, or simply a mundane daily experience. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • Compare and Contrast Examples: A compare/contrast essay may discuss . . . * the likenesses and differences between two places, like Kuala Lumpur and Penang; * the similarities and differences between two people. The compare/contrast essay discusses the similarities and differences between two things, people, concepts, places, etc. The essay could be an unbiased discussion, or an attempt to convince the reader of the benefits of one thing, person, or concept. It could also be written simply to entertain the reader, or to arrive at an insight into human nature. The essay could discuss both similarities and differences, or it could just focus on one or the other. A comparison essay usually discusses the similarities between two things, while the contrast essay discusses the differences. • Compare/Contrast and Cause and Effect essays are part of an expository essay. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • Examples:A cause/effect essay may explain . . . * why a volcano erupts, and what happens afterwards; * what happens after a loved one's death. The cause/effect essay explains why or how some event happened, and what resulted from the event. This essay is a study of the relationship between two or more events or experiences. The essay could discuss both causes and effects, or it could simply address one or the other. A cause essay usually discusses the reasons why something happened. An effect essay discusses what happens after a specific event or circumstance. The example below shows a cause essay, one that would explain how and why an event happened. If this cause essay were about a volcanic eruption, it might go something like: "Pressure and heat built up beneath the earth's surface; the effect of this was an enormous volcanic eruption." The next example shows an effect essay, one that would explain all the effects that happened after a specific event, like a volcanic eruption. If this effect essay were about a volcanic eruption again, it might go something like: "The eruption caused many terrible things to happen; it destroyed homes, forests, and polluted the atmosphere." Argumentative: Examples: An argumentative essay may persuade a reader that . . . EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • * he or she should use public transportation instead of driving. * cats are better than dogs. An argumentative essay is one that attempts to persuade the reader to the writer's point of view. The writer can either be serious or funny, but always tries to convince the reader of the validity of his or her opinion. The essay may argue openly, or it may attempt to subtly persuade the reader by using irony or sarcasm. Source: http://depts.gallaudet.edu/englishworks/writing/main/index.htm TASK 2 b. Identify the text type of the following snippets of essays by filling in the blanks in Tasksheet 2A below . Justify your answer by listing out the features of the text type Tasksheet 2A EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • SNIPPETS OF ESAYS TEXT TYPE/FEATURES 1. A well-known proverb states “Money is the root of all evil.” I whole-heartedly agree with this proverb and that is why I say that money and possessions do not bring happiness. With money, it is possible to acquire possessions and often people who have a lot of money become arrogant and over- confident. With lots of money to spare, people sometimes develop unhealthy habits … 2. The culture of a place is an integral part of its society whether that place is a remote Indian village in Brazil or a highly industrialised city in Western Europe. The culture of Japan fascinates Americans because at first glance, it seems so different. Everything that characterises the United States ------- newness, racial heterogeneity, vast territory, informality, and an ethnic of individualism ------- is absent in Japan. There, one finds an ancient and homogenous society, an ethnic that emphasises the importance of groups, and a tradition of formal behaviour governing every aspect of daily living, from drinking tea to saying Hello. On the surface at least, American and Japanese societies seem totally ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • opposite. 3. I was shocked to hear of her death. Only the other day she seemed so full of life and energy, She visited some orphans and cooked a big meal for them. Puan Salmah was to me, a power of strength. In spite of her heavy burdens, she always wore a smile. She seemed to have this rare quality. 4. Obesity is a complex problem because it does not simply mean being overweight. A person is considered obese if he weighs 20 per cent above the generally accepted desirable weight for his height and age, in addition to having a certain amount of excess body fat. For example, a person can be overweight because he has large bones but he is not considered obese. 5. I did not expect to fail again. How could I? Maybe it was true after all, that I was a miserable failure in life. I ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • worked so hard to pass the examination. I put in more and more hours each day. When my friends invited me out, I always refused. In fact, I even gave up watching television. Yet, this was the result ----- failure in four subjects out of eight! ------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- ACTIVITY 4: Brainstorming/generating ideas on a given topic using different essay writing techniques. 1a. Form four groups. Members from each group will work on their respective techniques on poster sheets. Group leaders will later present their work to the class. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • b. Members of Group 1 are to read the notes on “Questioning” in Tasksheet 2B below. TASKSHEET 2B Technique 1: Questioning In questioning, you generate ideas and details by asking questions about your subject. Such questions include why, when, where, who, and how. Ask as many questions as you can think of. Questioning: A Student Model Here are some questions that Sheila (a student) might have asked while developing her essay. Questions Answers Why don’t I like to go to a movie? Just too many problems involved. When is going to the movies a problem? Could be any time ----- when a movie is popular, the theatre is too crowded; when traffic is bad, the trip is a drag. Where are problems with moviegoing? On the highway, in the parking lot, at the concession stand, in the theatre itself. Who creates the problems? I do by wanting to eat too much. The patrons do by creating disturbances. The theatre owners do by not having enough parking space and showing too many commercials. How can I deal with the problem? I can stay at home and watch movies on DVD or cable TV. Asking questions can be an effective way of getting yourself to think about a topic from a number of different angles. The questions can really help you generate details about a topic. To get a sense of the questioning process, use a sheet of paper to ask yourself a series of questions about a good or bad experience that you have had recently. See how many details you can accumulate in ten minutes. And remember again not to be concerned about mistakes, because you are just thinking on paper. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • c. Using the above technique, you are to ask as many questions as you can think of about ONE of the following topics: i) Advantages and disadvantages of surfing the internet. ii) Why people like to read about movies and celebrities? 2a. Similarly, members of Group 2 are to read the notes on “Making a list” in Tasksheet 2C below. Tasksheet 2C Technique 2: Making a list In making a list, also known as brainstorming, you collect ideas and details that relate to your subject. Pile these items up, one after another, without trying to sort out major details from minor ones or trying to put the details in any special order. Your goal is just to make a list of everything about your subject that occurs to you. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • Making a List: A Student Model Look at the following list of details that Sheila has come up with. Traffic is bad between my house and theatre Noisy patrons Don’t want to run into Jeremy Hard to be on a diet Children running along aisles I’m crowded into seats between strangers who push me off my armrests Not enough parking Parking lot needs to be expanded Too many previews Can’t pause or fast forward as you can with a DVD Long lines High ticket prices Too many temptations at snack stand Commercials for food on the screen Can prepare healthy snacks for myself at home Tubs of popcorn with butter Huge chocolate bars Candy has always been my downfall Movie may be sold out People who’ve seen movie before talk along with actors and give away plot twists People coughing and sneezing Icky stuff on floor Teenagers yelling and showing off One detail led to another as Sheila expanded her list. Slowly but surely, more details emerged, some of which she could use in developing her essay. By the time she was done with her list, she was ready to plan an outline of her paragraph and then to write her first draft. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • Activity To get a sense of list-making, list on a sheet of paper a series of realistic goals, major or minor, that you would like to accomplish between today and one year from today. Your goals can be personal, academic, and career-related. b. Make a list of ideas and details that relate to ONE of the following topics: i) Advantages and disadvantages of surfing the internet. ii) Why people like to read about movies and celebrities? 3a. Members of Group 3 are to read the notes on “Clustering” in Tasksheet 2D below. Tasksheet 2D Technique 3: Clustering Clustering, also known as diagramming or mapping, is another strategy that can be used to generate material for an essay. This method is helpful for people who like to EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • do their thinking in a visual way. In clustering, you use lines, boxes, arrows, and circles to show relationships among the ideas and details that occur to you. Begin by stating your subject in a few words in the centre of a blank sheet of paper. Then, as ideas and details come to you, put them in boxes or circles around the subject and draw lines to connect them to each other and to the subject. Put minor ideas or details in smaller boxes or circles, and use connecting lines to show how they relate as well. Clustering: A Student Model Keep in mind that there is no right or wrong way of clustering or diagramming. It is a way of thinking on paper about how various ideas and details relate to one another. Below is an example of what Sheila might have done to develop her ideas. EP /P3/S2 /TM Too many people Moviegoing Traffic getting to theatre Line at box office Might see old boyfriend
    • b. Use this technique to show the relationships among ideas and details pertaining to EP /P3/S2 /TM Temptations Chocolate bars Popcorn Noisy people AdultsTeenagers Yelling Showing off Telling plot Coughing and sneezing TIP In addition to helping generate material, clustering can give you an early sense of how ideas and details relate to one another. For example, the cluster for Sheila’s essay suggests that different kinds of noisy people could be the focus of one paragraph and that different kinds of temptations could be the focus of another paragraph.
    • ONE of the following topics: i) Advantages and disadvantages of surfing the internet. ii) Why people like to read about movies and celebrities? 4a. Members of Group 4 are to read the notes on “Scratch Outline” in Tasksheet 2E below. Tasksheet 2E Technique 4: Preparing a Scratch Outline A scratch outline is an excellent sequel to the three prewriting techniques mentioned earlier. A scratch outline often follows questioning, list-making, or clustering; or it may gradually emerge in the midst of these strategies. In fact, trying to make a scratch outline is a good way to see if you need to do more prewriting. If you cannot come up with a solid outline, then you know you need to do more prewriting to clarify your main point or its several kinds of support. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • In a scratch outline, you think carefully about the point you are making, the supporting items for that point, and the order in which you will arrange those items. The scratch outline is a plan or blueprint to help you achieve a unified, supported, well-organised essay. When you are planning a traditional essay consisting of an introduction, three supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion, a scratch outline is especially important. It may be only a few words, but it will be the framework on which your whole essay will be built. Scratch Outline: A Student Model As Sheila was working on her list of details, she suddenly realised what the plan of her essay could be. She could organise many of her details into one of three supporting groups: (1) annoyances in going out, (2) too many tempting snacks, and (3) other people. She then went back to the list, crossed out items that she now saw did not fit, and numbered the items according to the group where they fit. Here is what Sheila did with her list: 1 Traffic is bad between my house and the theatre 3 Noisy patrons Don’t want to run into Jeremy 2 Hard to be on a diet 3 Children running along aisles 3 I’m crowded into seats between strangers who push me off armrests 1 Not enough parking 1 Parking lot needs to be expanded 1 Too many previews Can’t pause or fast-forward as you can with a DVD 1 Long lines 1 High ticket prices 2 Too many temptations at snack stand Commercials for food on the screen EP /P3/S2 /TM jjjj
    • 2 Can prepare healthy snacks for myself at home 2 Tubs of popcorn with butter Candy has always been my downfall 2 Huge chocolate bars 1 Movie may be sold out 3 People who’ve seen movie before talk along with actors and give away plot twists 3 People coughing and sneezing 1 Icky stuff on floor 3 Teenagers yelling and showing off Under the list, Sheila was now able to prepare her scratch outline: Going to the movies offers some real problems. 1. Inconvenience of going out 2. Tempting snacks 3. Other moviegoers Sheila was pleased with what she had done in the prewriting stage. She knew that she had a promising essay -------- one with a clear point and solid support. She saw that she could organise the material into a traditional essay consisting of an introduction, several supporting paragraphs, and a conclusion. She was now ready to write the first draft of her essay, using her outline as a guide. EP /P3/S2 /TM
    • b. Use this technique to plan/organise the ideas you have generated pertaining to ONE of the following topics: i) Advantages and disadvantages of surfing the internet. ii) Why people like to read about movies and celebrities? ACTIVITY 5: Presentation and feedback a) A representative from each group presents their work to the class. b) Members from the other groups are encouraged to provide feedback ACTIVITY 6: A 5-minute creative writing activity a) Write an acrostic poem beginning with the following letters: EP /P3/S2 /TM TIP Chances are that if you do enough prewriting and thinking on paper, you will eventually discover the point and support of your essay.
    • W- R- I- T- E- R- S- EP /P3/S2 /TM