What is Positioning? Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market. It is at the heart of marketing strategy.
Brand Positioning-CBBE MODEL Issues in deciding on a positioning- Define competitive frame of reference Target market Nature of competition Define desired brand knowledge structures Points-of-parity Necessary-to be a legitimate and credible product offering within a certain category. Competitive- to negate competitor’s points of differences. Points-of-difference strong, favorable, and unique brand associations
Value Propositions Scorpio, Mahindra and Mahindra A vehicle that provides the luxury and comfort of a car, and the adventure and thrills of an SUV Domino’s A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price
Defining Associations Points-of-parity (POPs)
Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands
Points-of-difference (PODs) Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand
2 key issues in arriving at the optimal competitive brand positioning-
Defining and communicating the competitive frame of reference-
Establish and convey category membership
Choosing and establishing points of parity and points of difference
11-6 Establishing Category Membership This “four-in-one entertainment solution” from Konica failed to establish category membership. Straddle positioning worked however for BMW when it entered the US mkt in the 1980s-luxury+performance
Conveying Category Membership Announcing category benefits Comparing to exemplars Relying on the product descriptor-Vaseline Intensive care lotion
Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits Low-price vs. High quality Taste vs. Low calories Nutritious vs. Good tasting Efficacious vs. Mild Powerful vs. Safe Strong vs. Refined Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive Varied vs. Simple
Addressing negatively correlated PODs and POPs Present separately-e.g H&S campaign in Europe. Leverage equity of another entity-Miller Lite used former professional athletes who debated the merits of ‘great taste(POP) as opposed to ‘Less filling/light(POD)’. These ae negatively correlated benefits. Redefine the relationship-Apple launched the Macintosh with key POD-”user friendly”. Tag line used “ Power to be your best.”
Major Challenges in Positioning Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (MacMillan & McGrath, HBR, ‘97) How do people become aware of their need for your product and service? How do consumers find your offering? How do consumers make their final selection? How do consumers order and purchase your product or service? What happens when your product or service is delivered? How is your product installed? How is your product or service paid for?
Major Challenges in Positioning Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (cont.) How is your product stored? How is your product moved around? What is the consumer really using your product for? What do consumers need help with when they use your product? What about returns or exchanges? How is your product repaired or serviced? What happens when your product is disposed of or no longer used?
Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s Create POP’s and POD’s in the face of attribute & benefit trade-offs Price & quality Convenience & quality Taste & low calories Efficacy & mildness Power & safety Ubiquity & prestige Comprehensiveness (variety) & simplicity Strength & refinement
Strategies to Reconcile Attribute & Benefit Trade-Offs Establish separate marketing programs Leverage secondary association (e.g., co-brand) Re-define the relationship from negative to positive
Sustaining & EvolvingPOP’s & POD’s Core Brand Values & Core Brand Proposition These piontout the importance of internal branding-making sure that members of the organization are properly aligned with the brand and what it represents.
Core Brand Values Set of abstract concepts or phrases that characterize the 5-10 most important dimensions of the mental map of a brand. Relate to points-of-parity and points-of-difference Mental Map Core Brand Values Brand Mantra
Brand Mantras A brand mantra is an articulation of the “heart and soul” of the brand. Brand mantras are short three to five word phrases that capture the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand positioning and brand values. Nike Authentic Athletic Performance Disney Fun Family Entertainment