Teachers can set up clear expectations for behavior and classroom management techniques using two methods: establishing clear rules and procedures, and providing consequences for student behavior.
Research indicates the significance of developing clear rules and procedures for general classroom behavior, seat work, group work, transitional periods and interruptions, rules for going to the bathroom, using materials and equipment, and the start and end of each period or subject.
If possible, the classroom rules and procedures should involve both teacher and student input and should be consented by both parties (Glasser, 1969).
Classroom Management Consequences In addition to designing classroom rules and procedures, it is necessary for the teacher to recognize students' behavior by reinforcing acceptable behavior and providing negative consequences for unacceptable behavior. ** It is important not to ignore inappropriate behavior or be sidetracked by students denying, arguing, or blaming someone else for the misbehavior. Instead, listen to legitimate explanations**
Strategies from Stage and Quiroz (1997) for Classroom Management Consequences to Occur
Prompt the class about specific expected behaviors through prearranged signals.
Use extensive and various verbal and physical reactions to students' misbehavior.
Types of Motivation There are two types of student motivation: Intrinsic motivation : satisfies a student’s curiosity, the need to know and feelings of competence or growth. Extrinsic motivation : comes from outside the learner and has to do with external rewards for completing a task. The overuse of extrinsic rewards can eventually undermine the intrinsic rewards that students would gain. It is important to use extrinsic rewards minimally. Students might come to rely too heavily on what they stand to physically gain from completing a task, rather than the more important academic gains.
Motivation is an essential component of classroom management. Therefore, teachers should plan for motivation in the same way they plan for instruction. When teachers and parents nurture a young child’s natural curiosity and encourage exploration, they are sending the message that learning is worthwhile, fun and interesting.
A procedure becomes a routine when the student does it automatically without prompting or supervision. It is important to have very clear and concise procedures so that students are less likely to act up in frustration.
“ Positive reinforcement is anything that occurs after a behavior that increases the likelihood that the behaviour will reoccur.” (Special Connections) “ The results of current research indicate that an over reliance on punitive policies is not only ineffective at changing behaviour … but possibly exacerbates problems.” (Morrissey et. al)
Students save up tokens and then have an opportunity to bid on rewards
Sample rewards include; using the good chair for a period (teachers chair), 15 minutes in the gym at recess, working in the hall with a partner, having a period on the computer (teacher chooses activity), having a 1-day extension on an assignment, no homework pass, sit with a friend, silent reading in the library, recess extension of 5 minutes for the whole class (one who bid on it got to pick the day), etc.
** An advantage to using the action system is that the students who consistently demonstrate desired behaviors have more tickets to bid with at the action and usually get the best prizes. Students can save their tickets for later actions to get better prizes (Jackson)
Students to Learn. Retrieved on 2010/06/13 from http://books.google.ca/books?hl=en&lr=&id=BbJJzPLe_9IC&oi=fnd&pg=PP13&dq=motivation+and+classroom+management&ots=gqBAjzlHUI&sig=MsnCguTJQZHNyt2wMpFsUMYtHSU#v=onepage&q=motivation%20and%20classroom%20management&f=false
Byer, John L., “A Comprehensive Method for Effective Substitute Teaching,”