Responsible scholarship.part1


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  • Ignorance: NOT ALL plagiarism is cheating ! Many people are truly ignorant and do not understand that they doing something illegal. Guidance on what exactly plagiarism is should be provided at all times and regularly with examples students can easily relate to..Irrelevant courses : Beating the system:Improving marksPoor time managementPoor learning environmentCultural differencesLow self-esteem: ;ow efficacy and sense of ability
  • Document style and layout : appearance, change in fonts, indentation, punctuation that do not make senseChanges in writing style : after some style changes might indicate text from another authorHard to find or out of date sources : obscure sources, sometimes just to fill the bibliography. Students should always be up-to-date with latest resources and research and reference accordingly. Sources should be checked That sources are actually available and how they were accessed.Failure to answer the question : Work should be consistent throughout and have the Research question in mind. If student is unable to talk about his/her work and justify their own argument, it is dubiousTuritin : leading plagiarism software against a vast database of student work, online sources and archived content. An originality report is sent on the value of the authenticity of a piece of workSpelling and phrases: a different way of spelling than in the local area is used is supicious. Word and meaning could change if copied.
  • Assess the process: start with research, notes, linking ideas, redrafting are as important as the end result. Submit work-in-progress, reports, comments, review notes which are all important factors to avoid PL…on the journey, make it a REGULAR feature!Offer constructive feedback : Expect a high quality feedback REGULARLY from your supervisor at all stages of the writing process, which will help you to stay motivated and address potential issuesMake it personal : Pick a research topic that is relevant to you! This will generate aunique piece of work and puts YOU in controlThink for yourself : Don’t “list” and “describe”. Use critical thinking to evaluate and synthesise the work of others. Find your unique voice! Remember Bloom’s taxonomy of learning!Encourage peer review: Let your work be reviewed by peers . Research shows that researchers are more likely to produce an original and well researched piece of work if “peer-pressure” is used. Peers are good in detecting unoriginal work!Use technology : live in the digital world. Use blogs and forums to generate debate. Use video and audio sources. Encourage contributions through Social Media.Be aware of changed assessments tactics..what counted last year as “good” writing and ideas, might be outdates this year.Nuture AI and AH commitment all the time
  • Model, Hierarchy,Level of AbstractionRemember : recall previous learnt informationUnderstand : comprehend and state the problem in one’s own wordsApply : use the material in a new situationAnalize : separates material into concepts, distinguishes between facts and implicationsEvaluate : make judgments about the value of materialCreate : build a structure, form a whole, create new meaning
  • Why referencing is so important : Avoid being accused of plagiarism. Also motiavates for wieder reading and more and more thorough research, which makes it ANYWAY more interesting for the reader. Attribute and achknowledge sources ALL the time.Paraphrasing : is a skill that can be learnt! It is NOT replacing words with synonyms, AND still needs to be referenced and be present in the reference list.Different referencing styles: Referencing standards, some are particular to certain subjects. Get clear guidance! Includes in-text-citation and bibliography. DIANNE will expand.Patchworking sources : Patchworking quotes form different sources, even if referenced correctly is NOT a good writing style. Turnitin demonstrates CLEARLY visually patchworking techniques and why it is so important to add your own thoughts and opinions.Good research techniques : Keeping track of sources and references all the time; Bookmarking webpages, manually taking notes on cards, highlighting text in different colours. Use reference management tool software.Building a COMPLETE reference: Author, year, title, chapter, Place of publication, volume or edition number, page numbers, URL or website, date information was accessed, Bill no, map sheet number
  • Relevant search terms : Write a list of search term and a list of synonymsAppropriate use of search engines : Key research and evaluation skills suffer because standard searches deliver low standard results. Google Scholar delivers peer reviewed results. Not ranked by popularity but by number of citations.Images : are also subject to copyright restrictions. Clicking on the image can determine its owner.Wikipedia: Starting point – GOOD source, HOWEVER< entries can be edited by anyone; question accuracy and reliabilityDatabases: continuous high standards, written and reviewed by expertsElectronic journals : high standards, peer-reviewed, latest research, wide subject area, expensiveEvaluate all sources : be critical especially where sources are located, learn how to evaluate, i.t.o.relevancy, reliability
  • 10 Types of original work according to TurnitinClone : submitting another’s work word by word as one’s ownCntrl C: Text form a single source without alterationsFin-replace Changing keywords and titles, but retaining the essential contentRemix : Paraphrases from multiple sourcesRecycle: from writer’s previous work without citationHybrid : combination b/w perfectly cited sources and copies passages without citationMashup mixes copied materials from multiple sources404-error citations to non-existent or inaccurate information about sourcesAggregator : proper citations but no original workRe-tweet : proper citations, but relies too closely to the text’s original wording or structure.
  • Responsible scholarship.part1

    1. 1. • What is “Responsible Scholarship”?
    2. 2. What are we going to talk about today? • What exactly is PLAGIARISM? • Tips on fostering a culture of honesty and academic integrity • (following slides loosely based on a plagiarism webinar of “2013 webinar series of”)
    3. 3. What we want to look at in this session is :  the meaning and context of plagiarism,  the nature of plagiarism by students,  how do students perceive plagiarism,  how big a problem is student plagiarism,  why do students cheat,  what challenges are posed by digital plagiarism and  is there a need to promote academic integrity?  Plagiarism is common and getting more so (particularly with increased access to digital sources, including the Internet),  there are multiple reasons why students plagiarise and that students often rationalise their cheating behaviour and downplay the importance of plagiarism by themselves and their peers.  develop cohesive frameworks for dealing with student plagiarism that are based on prevention supported by robust detection and penalty systems that are transparent and applied consistently.
    4. 4. According to Wikipedia… • “Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "purloining (stealing) and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work.[1][2] The idea remains problematic with unclear definitions and unclear rules.[3][4][5][6] The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement. • Plagiarism is considered academic dishonesty and a breach of journalistic ethics. It is subject to sanctions like expulsion. • Plagiarism is not a crime per se but in academia and industry it is a serious ethical offense,[7][8] and cases of plagiarism can constitute copyright infringement.”
    5. 5. Responsible scholarship • Plagiarism is a complex issue • Not only one definition, description and meaning exist. • All universities treat plagiarism differently, according to their own needs and occurrences. – Some have clear guidelines, some have hidden guidelines, some try to avoid the issue. • For a students responsible scholarship means to find out exactly what is required in the academic world. • It is important to understand and comprehend fully the steps, procedures, practices and processes. • Best practice, fairness and seeking continuous advice are essential • Students should be introduced to the concept of a.s.a.p. in their academic career as a fundamental policy. • Vocabulary: responsible, accountable, procedures, best practice, fairness, continuous advice, essential, fundamental, ownership, straightforward, ethical, honest, assertive, self-reliant, self- leadership, learning improving • REDUCES : dishonesty, problems, cheating, defensiveness, policing, victimhood and plagiarism,
    6. 6. Why do students plagiarise (even when they know it’s wrong) ?
    7. 7. Irrelevant courses Ignorance Cultural differences Poor learning environment Poor time management Improving marks Beating the system Why do students plagiarise (even when they know that it’s wrong)? Low self- esteem
    8. 8. • It is important at this stage to understand that PUNISHMENT is not necessarily the best way to deal with plagiarism. • Develop a CULTURE of honesty and promote integrity rather than punish dishonesty. • Educators, supervisors, professors, academics do NOT feel like policing students, catching them and punishing them.
    9. 9. Plagiarism from then to now has merely changed in the format • Conventional • Copy by hand or on person from someone else and submit as your own • Work on an assignment with others when instructor asked for individual work • Copy or paraphrase from a book magazine journal a few sentences without citation • From a friend or another student : obtain or purchase a complete paper and submit it as your own • Digital • Copy from instant messaging or e-mail and submit as your own • Same but work online via email or instant messaging, when instructor asked for individual work • Paraphrase or copy form the internet a few sentences or papagraphs without citation • From an internet website: obtain or purchase a complete paper and submit as your own
    10. 10. • Identifying plagiarism in student work
    11. 11. Turnitin Spelling and phrases Document style and layout Changes in writing style Hard to find or out of date sources Failure to answer the question Identifying plagiarism in student work
    12. 12. More tools to improve your writing • For students: • (improve your writing) • For researchers and publishers: • protect your reputation, • avoid costly retractions, • prevent copyright infringement, • fair use • For admission professionals : ( Verifies : – Admissions essays – Personal statements – Residency statements – Application question responses – Scholarship essays • For educational resources : • Plagiarism 101, citing sources, Ask the experts, • resources, websites, webcasts, news, facts, stats,
    13. 13. Reducing plagiarism through self assessment
    14. 14. Let the process be assessed Expect constructive feedback Encourage peer review Use technology Assessment tactics change Make research personal Think for yourself Reducing plagiarism through self assessment Nurture AI and AH COMMITMEN T all the time
    15. 15. Goals: students should focus on developing competence • Engage : in own interests and passions • Elaborate : make connections b/w learning and the world outside • Emphasize : focus on self-referenced efforts, learning and improvement • Empower : develop a sense of control over your product • Evaluate : expect personalized and private assessment from your supervisor • TAKE OWNERSHIP
    16. 16. Bloom’s taxonomy of learning • 3 DOMAINS of learning – Cognitive : mental skills (knowledge) – Affective ; emotional skills ( attitude or self) – Psychomotor (manual or physical (skills) (Bloom, 1956)
    17. 17. A quick guide to referencing Paraphrasing Why referencing is so important Building a complete reference Different referencing styles Patchworking sources Good research techniques
    18. 18. • Using electronic resources appropriately
    19. 19. Relevant search terms Appropriate use of search engines What about images WikipediaDatabases Electronic journals Evaluate all sources
    20. 20. Turnitin assessment measures
    21. 21. UCT US WITS Oxford Stanford Purdue Lafayette,Indiana Guide to committees of assessors No documents on Plagiarism available for outside staff and students It is your responsibility to familiarise yourself with all guidelines on plagiarism. The Department practices a no-tolerance approach to plagiarism. Any evidence of plagiarism will be dealt with by disciplinary measures that may result in the expulsion of the student from the course as well as the university. "Academic Good Practice" (Through the office of the ombud) Research and Citation Plagiarism in postgraduate research courses: A guide to examining bodies One very formal policy document, no explanation to students Why does plagiarism matter? What Is Plagiarism? Using Research Avoiding plagiarism: a guide for staff members Why should you avoid plagiarism? The definitions and rules on plagiarism can be difficult to ascertain, especially when taking into consideration factors such as your audience or environment. To that end, on May 22, 2003, the Board on Judicial Affairs adopted the following statement: Writing with Statistics Avoiding plagiarism: a guide for students What to avoid Strategies for Fair Use Senate Policy on Referencing Conventions and Declaration Regarding Plagiarism What happens if you are suspected of plagiarism? 
For purposes of the Stanford University Honor Code, plagiarism is defined as the use, without giving reasonable and appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form(s). Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing Proposal to Amend the Standard Plagiarism Declaration Does this mean that I shouldn’t use the work of other authors? Paraphrase Exercises Does every statement in my essay have to be backed up with references? 
In considering the subject of plagiarism for purposes of Stanford's Honor Code, it is also imperative to consult the Intent/Reasonable Person Standard. Documenting Electronic Sources Does this only matter in exams? Avoiding Plagiarism Unintentional plagiarism It is also important to note, when in doubt about whether something is or is not plagiarism, a general rule would be to ask the faculty member in charge. Overview Plagiarism Quiz Is It Plagiarism? Sources on Plagiarism Safe Practices Bedford/St. Martins: “Strategies for Teaching with Online Tools – Plagiarism” Plagiarism Exercise Council of Writing Program Administrators: “Defining and Avoiding Plagiarism: The WPA Statement on Best Practices” Best Practices for Teachers
    22. 22. Conclusions: • We want to avoid academic misconduct at all costs. How can we achieve that? • Have CLEAR guidelines visible and UNDERSTAND them completely. • Ask if anything is unclear. • Reinforce by several and regular statements about self-respect and honour • Emphasize honesty in general and academic honesty in particular • It is not about busting, policing and punishing at all. • Be willing to sign an honour code or academic integrity pledge • Understand the meaning and purpose of scholarship • Be ready to DEFEND your thesis orally and answer tricky questions about the content