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  • Talk about the relationship between urban form and light. My goals are to present some thoughts on the future of urban lighting as it relates the potential for highly programmable and dynamic light sources. This is very informal so please feel free to ask questions, interrupt etc. Also I’m hoping to get some of your feedback on challenges that you’re facing when it comes to dreaming up new products and application ideas.
  • The course was very successful. Student engagement was strong and they produced high-quality innovative projects. We also had the active participation of representatives from the planning, urban design, and public art departments of the City of Cambridge, as well as a local real estate developer, all of whom were excited by the projects and the possibility of future nighttime interventions.
  • It was then time for one of the most spectacular public events Boston had ever seen – an outdoor performance of “The Masque of Power” with more than 1,000 students and faculty participating. Steam engines blasted out mists that in turn were illuminated by hidden colored high-powered lights lights – all designed by the same firm that created the much-admired night lighting of the Pan-Pacific Exposition in San Francisco in 1915. p. 90-91As a final good-bye to the old building, one of the searchlights raised its beam into the air until it crossed in the sky with the searchlight on top of Old Rogers. Then slowly the two lights died out, leaving everything in blackness, except for a single shaft of light rising skyward from the new courtyard. p. 91
  • T10 = 1.25” diameterT8 is what we’re using in the end…
  • In the 19th century engineers began specifying public lighting in great deal. 5.3: Lamps with and without light-deflecting globes. Shown above are the patterns of light thrown by each lamp. Shown below is the related light intensity measured in foot-candles. On the left the luminance is substantially deflected down on the street, on the right it is not. ….the above diagram shows the patterns of light thrown by each lamp. Light intensity is in foot-candles. Light A deflects more light onto the street. 5.8 (p. 105) Recommended lighting for residential street. Hierarchically ordered. 2,500-10,000 lumens at various heights…1929. Engineering perspective / priority. Quantification Automobile and driver’s needs shaped direction/development.Focused on asking “how much light” should there be?”, rather than “what should the quality of light should there be”?”
  • The result of this engineering specification was a hierarchical organization of the city which works well…..however…..what happens when you can rearrange, reprogram and respond to the changing nature of urban life? Infrastructures of imageability….Lighting zones by category of street in a hypothetical city. (1930), Ward Harrison, O.F. Maas, Kirk M. Reid, NY: McGraw-Hill, 122. Diagram shows how city streets were characterized by their importance. Busiest and downtown were the brightest…How lighting engineers organized city streets hierarchically, busiest thoroughfares and downtown areas lit at highest intensities. (Jakle 2001, p. 104)
  • Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, provides “Illuminance Recommendations” organized by visual tasks (orientation and simple, common, special) and seven categories (A public spaces, B simple orientation for short visits, C working spaces, D and so on…)primary focus is still to achieve the best light levels on the surfaces which are supposed to be illuminated, even if the calculations are more complexMost measurement instruments utilize either photodiodes, charge-coupled devices (CCDs) or photomultiplier tubes (PMTs)determining appropriate levels of lighting mixed vehicular and pedestrian areas defined in terms of horizontal illuminance and uniformitydifferent heights for roadway lighting (8-10 m) and pedestrian areas (5-6 m)uniformity: ratio of the minimum illuminance value divided by the average value, e.g. 0.8 for the working area in an office (ibid., p. 93), otherwise called the light distribution on task planeRobert Bean. (2004) Lighting: Interior and Exterior. Oxford, Burlington, MA: Architectural Press, Part 3: Chapter 24, p. 275-280.Or from the thesis in New York IT:Lighting of roadways, sidewalks, avoiding objects and wayfindingSafety of users security against crime and theftHorizontal illuminance: “density of luminous flux falling onto a horizontal surface, measured in lux (lumens per square meter) or footcandles (lumens per square foot), measured 0.91m or 36 inches above the ground at grade outdoorsVertical illuminance: Same thing only on vertical surfaces
  • The result of this engineering specification was a hierarchical organization of the city which works well…..however…..what happens when you can rearrange, reprogram and respond to the changing nature of urban life? Infrastructures of imageability….
  • From left to right references:
  • Showing some work on lightingmasterplans…
  • CK-Presentation-rev1

    1. 1. Future City Lighting:<br />Philips Color Kinetics <br />Media Lab Post-Doc<br />March 14, 2010<br />Susanne Seitinger,<br />Fluid Interfaces Group, MIT Media Lab<br />Please note that videos are available online at <br />1<br />
    2. 2. 1 World of Night Class  FAST Light<br />
    3. 3. Teaching the Role of Programmable Lighting in the City<br />
    4. 4. Topics Covered<br />Conceptual Themes<br />physiological and psychological perception of light darkness<br />social interaction after dark<br />history of lighting and display technologies<br />nighttime economy and labor<br />impact of night and light on urban form<br />celebration<br />environmental concerns<br />night as a frontier to be colonized <br />surveillance and fear<br />the politics of lighting<br /> contradiction of night as a time of anxiety, alienation, and loneliness<br />but also one of beauty, excitement, spectacle, and freedom<br />
    5. 5. Night Poetry, Victoria Lee, MArch Thesis Student (2009)<br />
    6. 6.
    7. 7.
    8. 8.
    9. 9. Shadow Playgrounds, Wayne Higgins, MArch Thesis Student (2009)<br />
    10. 10.
    11. 11.
    12. 12.
    13. 13.
    14. 14. Light and Shadows in Fleischner’s Nature, Julian Hernandez, MS Student (2010)<br />
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Night of Numbers, Praveen Subramani, MS Student (2010)<br />
    17. 17.
    18. 18. Luminescent Handwarmers, Li Sun, Landscape Arch GSD (2010)<br />
    19. 19.
    20. 20.
    21. 21.
    22. 22. Water Texture, Juliet Hsu & Saki Mizuguchi, MArch Students (2010)<br />
    23. 23. <ul><li>MIT Killian Court
    24. 24. Videos of water projected onto diffuser
    25. 25. Reflective strings attached to temporary structure
    26. 26. Piezo electric sensor switches projection</li></li></ul><li>
    27. 27. Visual Noise Contest, PolPla, MS Student (2010)<br />
    28. 28. Light and Sound Tug-of-War, PolPla, MS Student (2010)<br />
    29. 29. Lessons from the Courses<br />Demonstrated the importance of teaching lighting and embedded technology with a focus on nighttime from an interdisciplinary point-of-view <br />Successful seminar and design workshop<br />Strong student engagement<br />Innovative, varied, high-quality installations<br />Active participation from the City and other stakeholders<br />Findings presented at Color & Light in Architecture Symposium, IUAV, Venice, Italy, November 11-12, 2010<br />
    30. 30. MIT 150th FAST Light, MIT Campus, Saturday, May 7<br /><br />
    31. 31. 2LightBridge & SmootLight<br />
    32. 32. Celebrating the Movements of Pedestrians in Light<br />Low-resolution display integrated with sensors to create a dynamic and interactive public lighting installation<br /><ul><li>Explore potential for responsive light infrastructure in the city
    33. 33. Animate a key pedestrian thoroughfare connecting the cities of Cambridge and Boston
    34. 34. Respond to the movements of pedestrians only
    35. 35. Work with low-resolution and subtle animations (4 pixels by 1,500 feet or ca. ¾ of the Mass Ave. Bridge)
    36. 36. Provide a live web-feed of the animation patterns
    37. 37. Create ephemeral, short-term installation (May 7)</li></li></ul><li>Responsive Railing<br />LED Lights to be installation the exterior of the bridge railing in a 1,500-foot long gradient<br />Bridge is approx. 2,000’ (610m) long<br /><br />31<br />
    38. 38. Illustration of the “The Masque of Power” opening ceremony of 1916. The searchlight was borrowed from a Navy ship and crossed beams with another light on the old campus in Boston. The show also featured what may have been the first color-illuminated floor in a performance context. Jarzombek, Mark. 2004. Designing MIT.<br />
    39. 39. 33<br />Interaction Patterns<br />abstract patterns to visualize ambient urban data, e.g. traffic<br />interactive games using simple, low-resolution animations like lines<br />glowing light to accompany pedestrians as they cross the bridge<br />
    40. 40. 34<br />Interaction Patterns<br />mock-up of interaction on MIT Campus, collaboration with Philips ColorKinetics<br />people at both ends of the bridge (or more locations) can speak into a microphone and see their voice travel<br />the colors from both ends mix where they collide, many visual effects possible<br />
    41. 41. 35<br />System Overview<br />sensors<br />software<br />diffuser<br />network infrastructure<br />LED lights and power supplies<br />
    42. 42. 36<br />LED (light-emitting diodes) Flex Lights<br />9,400 low-voltage (7.5V) individually addressable pixels<br />Please note that these images are visualizations. For actual brightness levels see LED light specifications.<br />For more details see:<br />
    43. 43. Diffuser Workshop <br />Tested many different <br />ideas and materials <br />during January 18, 2011<br />diffuser workshop <br />with students and <br />Philips CK guests<br />
    44. 44. Diffuser System<br />Indirect, diffuse light via acrylic tube system on the exterior of railing<br />Lights become denser towards Cambridge<br />Boston-side 12” spacing 10” spacing 9” spacing Cambridge 4” spacing<br />Acrylic tubes (1” outer diameter) are zip-tied to the railing with a linear spacer<br />4 rows of LED lights facing upwards inside acrylic tubes<br />
    45. 45. Diffuser System<br />Testing capabilities of the diffuser and small-scale mock-up using T10 fluorescent tube covers and mylar<br />Add additional video here of the diffuser…<br />
    46. 46. Network Configuration<br />Power Requirements and Data Network<br />Total average load ~3,300W, Maximum Capacity 4x20A Circuits<br />Network for data transmission via Ethernet<br /><ul><li>100 outdoor-rated Philips ColorKinetics Power and Data Supplies </li></ul>(PDS-60 7.5V, 8.3W with no load<br /><ul><li>two 50-light string per PDS-60
    47. 47. 25W/50-light string
    48. 48. Avg. Load = [10,000 FlexSL nodes X 0.5W per node] X 0.5 + [100 PDS-60 X 8.3W]
    49. 49. Maximum power requirements 5,830W/120V = 49A
    50. 50. Additional 15A for network switches and sensors
    51. 51. 4 circuits required (Assuming 20A circuits derated by 20% to 16A for safety 16A x 4 = 64A)
    52. 52. each PDS-60 linked via CAT5e cable to a network switch
    53. 53. 16 network switches (10x 8-port, 6x 24-port) for data transmission over Ethernet
    54. 54. Fiber-optic cable for long home-runs
    55. 55. Data link via MIT wireless or wired through MIT Sailing Pavilion
    56. 56. Network switches and junction boxes inside enclosures
    57. 57. Hardware grouped inside hollow of bollards or adjacent to bollards
    58. 58. Cables will run on the exterior of the bridge between railing and edge (7”)</li></ul>Outdoor rated enclosure for network switches and junction boxes<br />PDS-60<br />
    59. 59. Sensors<br />400 PIR Sensors in a RS485 Network, 4 per 15-foot Segment<br /><ul><li>Enable as many interactive experiences as possible
    60. 60. Approximate position of pedestrians for interactive games
    61. 61. Approximate distance of participants from lights
    62. 62. Integrated with the light control
    63. 63. PIR proximity sensors
    64. 64. Collaborating with Max Shaffer, Philips Color Kinetics, Panasonic Research Lab San Jose, Leaf Labs Cambridge
    65. 65. May need some help buying materials from Digikey (approx. $700)</li></ul>PIR<br />PIR<br />PIR<br />PIR<br />PIR<br />PIR<br />PIR<br />PIR<br />--3.5’--<br />--3.5’--<br />--3.5’--<br />--3.5’--<br />Computer<br />MCU + RS485<br />MCU + RS485<br />Arduino + Ethernet Shield<br />Network Switch<br />15’<br />10x<br />
    66. 66. Testing SmootLight Software<br />Workshop January 28, 2011<br />
    67. 67. 43<br />Sponsorship & Team<br />Primary sponsor is Philips Color Kinetics<br />Additional support raised from the following groups:<br /><ul><li>CISCO (Network Switches)
    68. 68. Panasonic (PIR Sensors)
    69. 69. SparkFun Electronics (Network Shields)
    70. 70. LeafLabs (MIT Electronics start-up, ARM processor MCU boards at cost)
    71. 71. MIT Council for the Arts (Funding for Diffuser)
    72. 72. MIT Media Lab (Funding for undergraduate research assistants)
    73. 73. MIT UROP Office (Funding for undergraduate research assistants)
    74. 74. FAST Festival Budget</li></ul>Diverse team of Graduate Students (PolPla, Masters Student, Fluid Interfaces Group), Undergraduate Research Assistants UROPs, volunteers, Necsys Media Lab Network Group, MIT IS&T, MIT Office for the Arts (Meg Rotzel), and more<br />
    75. 75. 3 Other Deployments<br />
    76. 76. Low-Resolution Screen for Play: Building on the Tug-of-War Game<br />Exploration with two fifth-grade classes (10-year olds) at a Boston public school<br />
    77. 77. Other Possible Deployments and Project Ideas<br /><ul><li>New Koch Center Plaza (see below) – Wayfinding
    78. 78. Partial installation at Panasonic San Jose Lab
    79. 79. 3D-Screen hanging in Media Lab atrium
    80. 80. …</li></li></ul><li>4 Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book<br />
    81. 81. Lamps with and without light-deflecting globes, General Electric Review 22, December 1919. <br />(Jakle2001, Figure 5.3)<br />48<br />Pattern Languages for Urban Form and Light: Then<br />
    82. 82. Lighting zones by category of street in a hypothetical city. <br />Ward Harrison, O.F. Maas, Kirk M. Reid, (1930). NY: McGraw-Hill, 122. (Jakle 2001, Fig. 5.7.)<br />49<br />Pattern Languages for Urban Form and Light: Then<br />
    83. 83. IESNA Guidelines for Outdoor Lighting<br />Illuminating Engineering Society. (2000) Lighting Handbook. Ch.10, p.10, Figure 10-6. Restaurant entry/parking lot<br />
    84. 84. IESNA Recommended Light Levels for Outdoors (2000)<br />MIT RotchLibrary - Reference Collection | TK4161.I29 2000<br />
    85. 85. 52<br />Pattern Languages for Urban Form and Light: Now<br />How do we teach students to do urban design when we can rearrange and reprogram infrastructures that respond to the changing nature of urban life? How do we design for this urban environment? <br />Presentation at Face to Face – The Rhetoric Functions Of Media Architecture, Architecture Media Biennale, Vienna, Austria, October 8, 2010<br />Check out catalogue:<br />(Luminair,<br /><br />
    86. 86. Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book: Categories<br />
    87. 87. Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book: Content Type<br /><ul><li>Several detailed scenarios
    88. 88. Storyboards of interactions
    89. 89. Technical implications
    90. 90. Product implications
    91. 91. Links to regulatory contexts</li></ul> Motivations and vision for future city lighting products, systems and concepts<br />Example: Showing “shared space” concepts at night. How can programmable lighting support the organization of these spaces at night?<br />
    92. 92. Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book: References<br /><ul><li>Brandi, U. (2002) Light for Cities
    93. 93. Haeusler, H. (2009) Media Facades
    94. 94. Haeusler, H. (2010) Chromatophoric Architecture: Designing for 3D Media Facades
    95. 95. Kronenburg, D. (2007) Flexible: Architecture that Responds to Change Philips Design (1997, 2007) City People Light
    96. 96. Philips Design (2010) DeStrijp
    97. 97. Santen, C van. (2006) Light Zone City
    98. 98. Schmidt, J. A. and M. Töllne (2006) StadtLicht - Lichtkonzepte für die Stadtgestaltung
    99. 99. ...</li></li></ul><li>Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book: Inspirations<br />Visions for mobile street lighting, Lyon workshop (Philips 2007, p. 37) <br />Buildings covered in 3D displays<br />(Philips 1997, p. 17) <br />Ulrike Brandi, Light for Cities (Birkhaeuser 2002)<br />
    100. 100. Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book: Photorealistic Pattern Book<br />Urban Pixels for Milla Digital, Zaragoza, Spain with Franco Vairani, rendering by Franco Vairani, now of squared design lab,<br />
    101. 101. Responsive City Lighting Pattern Book: Photorealistic Pattern Book<br />Work-in-Progress<br />
    102. 102. Additional Samples of squared design lab’s work<br />Images below from left to right Cover for MIT Press Bill Mitchell (2011) Reinventing the Automobile, CityCar, and more like September 11 Memorial,<br />
    103. 103. Comparing Urban Lighting Masterplans<br />Presenting on Urban Lighting Masterplans in Nightscapes: Geographies of Urban Nights at the Association of American Geographers Annual Meeting on April 12, Seattle<br />
    104. 104. Light and Content for Illuminated Cities<br />PechaKucha Session at the Illuminated City Workshop, Portland State University<br /> <br />
    105. 105. Key Dates – Email Susanne to participate!<br />
    106. 106. Las Vegas Strip: Topographical Views, Scott Gilchrist, Casino neon light sign for Frontier, (1992) <br />