Elimination of bias in profession
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Elimination of bias in profession

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This was the original presentation on the topic of diversity and inclusion for West Legal Ed/Celesq in 2009-2010.

This was the original presentation on the topic of diversity and inclusion for West Legal Ed/Celesq in 2009-2010.

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  • What is social identity? What is privilege? What is unconscious bias? How does the experience of privilege create unconscious bias? These questions should be on your mind right about now. This will be our common language, which will use to talk about eliminating bias in the legal profession. We’ll start by defining the terms. None of these attributes: privilege, social identity, or unconscious bias is, in itself, good or bad. I’m not suggesting that you try to eliminate or deny any of these. What I am suggesting is that developing an awareness of these attributes and how they create opportunities for success for some and deny opportunities for others is the way to eliminate bias and create inclusion in the legal profession.
  • Social identity: Think Title VII plus
  • Philosophers have given us their take on perception and sense-making. Now psychologists and neuroscientists are weighing in. What they all tell us is that perception and sense-making isn’t rational,, linear, and logical as we would like to believe. Decision-making is a process of mostly unconscious pattern recognition and equally unconscious emotional tagging (Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A.). We experience an event and analogize it to past events in a sense-making process. We then consider possible judgments about the situation, in a one-at-at-time process, as we have made sense out of it. Our past events and judgments have been tagged with simple emotions, like “good” or “bad.” Problems in our decision-making arise when we think we recognize something, but in reality, it’s different from that which is stored in our memories. Problems also arise when we misjudge what to do about the situation.
  • People can be primed to think of themselves in ways, which will encourage or discourage behavior and even better performance. Think of it this way. We unintentionally create law firm cultures, which will serve to prime certain behaviors. This means that we can also intentionally create cultures, which will serve to prime inclusive behaviors. “Research on stereotypes shows not only that we react differently when we have a stereotype of a certain group of people, but also that stereotyped people themselves react differently when they are aware of the label that they are forced to wear (in psychological parlance, they are ‘primed’ with this label). (Ariely). Reacting based upon our sterotypes of others: When asked to judge how likely it is that A belongs to category B, people answer by asking themselves how similar A is to their stereotype of B. Experiment. Linda is thirty-one year old, single, outspoken, and very bright. She majored in Philosophy. As a student she was deeply concerned with issues of discrimination and social justice and also participated in antinuclear demonstrations.” People were asked to rank possible futures for Linda. Two crucial answers were “bank teller” and “bank-teller and active in the feminist movement.” Most people picked latter, even though it is not logically possible for any two events to be more likely than any one event alone. (Tversky, A. & Kahneman) In a law firm, this behavior might show up in hiring (Who will be successful here?) or work assignments (Who will do a good job?). Reaction based upon our sterotypes of self: An experiment that pitted two stereotypes against each other showed the affect of this sort of priming. A group of Asian American women were split into two groups. The first group was primed to think of their race, the second was primed to think of their gender. Stereotypes of Asian-Americans include being especially gifted in mathematics. Stereotypes of women include being weak in mathematics. Priming was by asking questiosn related to race or gender prior to taking an objective math exam. The group primed to think about race outperformed the group primed to think about gender. A second priming experiment looked at the influence priming has on behavior unrelated to stereotyping. Two groups were created. Participants in each group were tasked with unscrambling sentences. The sentences in the first group related to politeness, while those in the second group related to rudeness. After completing the task, participants were sent to another laboratory and told that they were going to complete a second task there. At the second site, they found the experimenter busily trying to explain the task to an apparently uncomprehending participant. Those in the group primed with sentences relating to politeness waited 9.3 minutes before interrupting the conversation and asking what they should do, while those in the group primed with rude words waited 5.5 minutes before interrupting. Another similar priming experiment exposed a group of undergraduates at NYU to words related to the elderly (like Bingo, Florida, and ancient). As compared to the control group, they walked down the hallway to leave the building much more slowly. Against this background, we will look at how to eliminate bias in the legal profession.
  • First, we’ll look at what we mean by “eliminating bias in the legal profession” and “inclusion.” Then we’ll look at the current state of the profession and your organizations when it comes to inclusion. Finally, we’ll talk about building the motivation to create inclusion and how to do it.
  • Start by reframing the conversation. Go from the negative to the positive. It’s easier to find the right path when you know where you are headed rather than where you don’t want to be. Finding and taking the path, is of course, a metaphor for strategy design and implementation. The strategy will require that we examine perception, thinking, and decision-making from two perspectives: (1) the individual who may be excluded or included and (2) those individuals, teams, and the law firm itself, which has the power to exclude or include. Programs that focus on how an individual can empower himself or herself are important, but not enough
  • “ I want to be at a firm where there are people who look like me and want me to succeed.” I heard this uttered by a woman of color at a diversity summit. Respect and valued for who one is as an individual means no lumping together of all those within a broad ethnic or racial group. Ex. EEO-type groupings. What is Asian? Does Chinese = Korean = Japanese? Why does this matter? It matters because experiences vary, create privilege or the lack of, and create our social identity. If I am to be at a firm where people want me to succeed, they need to value me for who I am and not who they think I am. Inclusion is a group of organizational model and strategy for effective performance. The goal of the model is to create a system where people feel psychologically safe. Neuroscience backs the human need to feeling included and safe. fMRI shows same response to physical pain and feelings of rejection, exclusion, and unfairly treated. Without inclusion, segment of talent will not be able to perform in top form. (Rock) It is the responsibility of firm leadership to create an inclusive environment. Doing so is strategic initiative. (Miller and Katz)
  • Malcolm Gladwell’s book Outliers provides evidence that success depends upon one’s context (everything from socioeconomics, to birthday). Even before a lawyer meets the minimum bar of professional success; i.e., a law degree, bias both pro and con has likely been at play. In addition to law firm dynamics; socioeconomics, family dynamics, social legislation, and lifestyle preferences all affect a person’s ability to succeed. Further, what groups do you have to be invited into and participate in to be successful at your firm? Clubs, golf outings, football and sports. Who gets to be there most? Do you need a full-time wife, other family, or paid-help to be able to be in the right place at the right time? Do you need a champion to get the most desirable work assignments, client face time, and leadership opportunities? Who gets the champions? What will this mean to the Orrick, Cravath, or Latham associates who have accepted the offer to take $75 -$80K in lieu of working the year at the firm? Did they disadvantage their opportunities for advancement by accepting the offer?
  • Current economics, downsizing, capacity solutions to complexity problems have hurt whom? Most of the problems faced by firms have been addressed with cost-side action, less has been aimed at designing new growth goals or business models.
  • Eric Holder, 1 st black AG, Sonia Sotomajor, first hispanic Sup Ct. Justice, but this is not the progress at big law firms. James Leipold of NALP reports that it’s just harder to achieve in our industry because of structural and cultural barriers of firms. How to make progress: Robert Grey Jr. partner at Hunton & Williams and interim executive director of newly formed Leadership Counsel on Legal Diversity (members are large law firms and corporations) said that a new group had been formed so that companies and firms will work together on these issues instead of working through other organizations. Perhaps this will make a difference. At least it encourages clients their firms to take about how to solve the problem together. What happens to a firm that tries to make a difference? McGuire Woods partner was criticized for being less than perfect in efforts. Microinequities: stories of success, who is subtly devalued when trying to speak, getting assignments, spoken to and negotiations (Nice Girls Don’t Get Raises and Not Every Woman Wants to Be a Partner …not every man wants to be a partner – which remains unsaid because whether or not someone wants to become a partner is not the issue. The issue is whether the playing field is level for everyone who wants to attain that particular goal.) Who takes notes at meetings? Who socializes with whom? How do people get the good work? How are clients transitioned? Who is asked to go to meet potential clients? Stories of success and microinequities: In June 2009, Diane Elderkin and Barbara Mullin, led a team of lawyers, representing J&J (Centocor) and NYU against Abbot. The got the largest patent verdict in US history ($1.6 Bil). The AM Law story was told from the perspective of Bill Lee’s (Wilmer Hale) loss. “But it wasn't just the gaudy award that made the win so impressive. Elderkin was also up against one of the best IP trial lawyers around: William Lee of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr.” IP Law and Business opened their article this way “News of Monday's record-setting $1.67 billion patent verdict against Abbott labs had patent lawyers slack- jawed across the country. But perhaps even more surprising to some was the lawyer on the losing side: WilmerHale's William lee, one of the biggest names in intellectual property litigation.”
  • A first step to creating an inclusive law firm is to ask these questions and encourage discussion about then in your law firm. If the answer is “yes” to many of these questions, the system is not very inclusive. (Miler and Katz). Leadership is responsible for building the motivation for inclusion, over and over and over, until it becomes the mindset of the organization. When that happens, firm-wide discussions will become part of the culture.
  • We have some corporate leaders, like Roderick Pallmore of General Mills who encourages and expects diversity in outside counsel law firms. Real motivation answers the questions: What’s in it for me? What’s in it for the Firm? In addition to feeing good by doing the right thing or keeping business of clients like Pallmore, motivation comes from enhancing firm effectiveness. Diversity enhances a firm’s ability to build innovative solutions to the complexity problems law firms now face. Complexity problems are generally solved through relationships with clients, each other, and vendors. These relationships are the sources of needed information and new ideas, both of which are necessary to solve our complexity problems. The newer models of leadership are collaborative and depend upon relationships. (Haque)
  • Accept the “everything affects everything” reality of systems and you will want to create diversity in your law firm. Diversity brings greater awareness of the threats and opportunities in the external environment and the strengths and weaknesses of the internal processes and strategies. Without diversity, there is no innovation. Without innovation, developing a competitive business strategy and business development process is difficult. Instead of being a competitive leader in the legal marketplace, a firm becomes a follower attempting not to fall too far behind the real leaders.
  • A group of lawyers may share an experience, like working with a particular client on a particular matter; but, each lawyers experiences the situation differently. The same mechanism that leads to unconscious biases that act like blinders also sensitizes some of us to notice one aspect of the experience, while others of us will notices something else. This is what is meant by diversity of perception. The best way to create the most complete picture of any situation is through a lot of different lenses. The best way to create the most complete analysis of these perceptions and make the best decisions is with a lot of different thinkers. This is what is meant by diversity of analysis and decision-making. (Finkelstein, et al.)
  • Inclusion is a firm-wide and system-wide behavioral change. There are multiple levers which will serve to nudge people to move toward the new behaviors and ways of making decisions. Some levers exist at the system level, like when associations create signatory programs, disseminate information about how to achieve inclusion, and bring people together: NAWL Challenge, NYC Bar, and Project for Attorney Retention. Some levers exist at the law firm level, like talent hiring, development, and retention programs, growth strategies with embedded inclusion strategies, and attorney performance evaluation and compensation programs. Finally, some levers exist at the individual level for allies and the minority and women lawyers. There are skill-building programs that help people to develop self-awareness, effective listening, and strategic communication skills. Every change begins with and is supported by ongoing conversations among the right people (allies, women, and minority lawyers).
  • Constructivism: Collaborative creation of shared meaning through communication of what is and what can be. It is a fluid process characterized by ongoing inquiry, active engagement, problem-solving, questioning, forming and reforming ideas, leading to real and lasting change. This means there is both a Doing and a Talking component to bringing about inclusion. Make the case for inclusion until it becomes part of the firm values and culture Lead discussions about law firm power, privilege, politics, business development, diversity and inclusion Lead discussions about diversity and growth strategy So what else works? Interestingly, it seems like quotas work to motivate change. (See: article http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/dec/02/french-government-gender-equality-plan/print “ French Plan to Force Gender Equality on Boardrooms. Proposal would turn Paris stockmarket 50% female. Voluntary signatory programs, like the NAWL challenge are promises to meet quotas. ) Public statements of intention also work. (See: Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C.R.) Allies, champions, mentors, and coaches as support for minority and women lawyers Transparent performance and reward standards and evaluation processes. When standards and expectations are not publicized and their application is not transparent, it’s like being in a neighborhood without street signs. The message is that if you belonged here, you would know how to get where you want to go. At the end of the 2009 summer, Thatcher Simpson appointed its first two women ever to their executive committee in a process with unpublished criteria for inclusion and a secret vote. How soon would this have happened if criteria were published? Programs, which celebrate success with proper attribution Pressure to do what others are doing, so that the more law firms change the culture the more law firms will also change their culture. (See: Thaler, R.H. & Sunstein, C.R.) Take a look at the NAWL checklist
  • Specific conversation starters: If the dominant culture is shaped by the middle-aged white male with the stay-at-home wife, have a conversation about how has that has shaped the way success is measured, inclusion is granted, and marginalization is created? What norms, beliefs, and assumptions arose as a result? How are they related to the culture, rather than the goals of the firm? What do we do at our firm to institutionalize the “isms” by institutionalizing these norms, beliefs, and assumptions? What do we believe about our clients that keeps us marginalizing certain identity groups? What norms do we cherish that certain identity groups lack the privileges to follow? What perspectives and conversations are privileged and more powerful? Are they tied to beliefs and perspectives connected to one social identity group over another? What would it take to develop a willingness to value multiple perspectives? Are we losing out on skills and competencies that would advance our strategic goals because of how they are expressed or who is expressing them? These are difficult conversations to have and may require help of neutral and experienced facilitator. They are a very important step in creating inclusive law firms. Also ask who should participate in these conversations. Should the conversation cross the firm – client boundary? Think of the Leadership Counsel on Legal Diversity (slide 11).
  • This type of conversation is best done in smaller groups and with the help of an experienced facilitator.
  • Strategy Design and Implementation : Diversity in groups responsible for strategy design and explain the connection between diversity and effective strategy. Development Programs : Explicitly connect performance with values of inclusion and advancing women and minorities,. Have a formal process for identifying and promoting candidates to leadership positions. Identify the characteristics of successful partners and leaders. Does everyone know what it takes to be successful in the culture of their firm and based upon competent performance have an equal chance of being successful (i.e. books of business, managing teams, practice group status within the firm, management skills, having a champion)? Institute formal succession planning for long-term client relationships. Make Skill building mandatory for self-awareness, uncovering unconscious bias and strategic communication. Introduce a systemized and monitored approach to assignments for significant matters. Reward partners for bringing new attorneys into client relationships, promoting diverse teams, and assigning significant matters to diverse attorneys. Provide Coaching, mentoring, allies, and championing for women and minority lawyers, too. I’m not advocating lockstep over merit compensation or the reverse. I don’t think it matters as long as there is transparency and fairness in evaluation and reward systems. For that , take a look at the ABA Commission on Women in the Legal Prof Fair Measure: Toward Effective Attorney Evaluations, Second Edition Organizational Roles: Introduce integrative roles that link diversity efforts with law firm strategy and effectiveness such as: Director of Organization Development and Director of Attorney Development and Inclusion. Quotas: Set percentage goals for equity partnership and meaningful leadership positions so that there is greater diversity at the true power and governing levels in law firms Public statements of intentions: Become a signatory firm for challenge programs (NAWL, NYC Bar) Collect Data and Publicize it: Measure effectiveness of intentions and actions above and link to reward systems. Publicize who is chosen to go on client pitches which are successful and who works on significant matters and contributes to successful outcomes. Publicize whether or not target goals for inclusion have been met and how.
  • Coaching Develop skills to ask for and negotiate terms for your success Develop skills to identify and build the relationships integral to your success. This means finding and building relationships with allies, who can champion your cause (your success). This means also finding mentors and coaches to help you develop skills and building relationships with client contacts. Become the expert in a particular area of law and then inform firm decision-makers of your expertise. Be an ally to minority and women lawyers if you are in a position of privilege. Be a mentor or a coach.
  • There are several ways to develop self-awareness. NTL T-Groups are designed for executives (and others) to help them discover more about themselves and others in group and interpersonal interactions and to become more effective in their interpersonal and group interactions. Action Learning Programs are consultant and leadership driven programs to link the solving of a real-time organizational problem with individual and group skill-building, including self-awareness. MBTI and other strategic communication programs are designed to give the participant experiential learning, where topics are explained and then experienced. There are also common unconscious biases that lawyers tend to have and which interfere with inclusion initiatives.
  • As lawyers, we act as if the following three beliefs are true. (1) The only thing that matters for success is competence and lawyers know how to identify and measure competence objectively. Denying differences is what we do when we say that we treat everyone equally and forget about the standards we apply that effectuate discrimination. Malcolm Gladwell in his book Outliers talks about the ways in which certain people are given preferential treatment, which translates into opportunities to develop success. (Who gets preferential treatment because of the standards in cut-offs and additional training?)(2)Mistakes are bad. Having the conversations necessary to create inclusion and making the changes already discussed will entail making mistakes and learning from them. If we believe mistakes are bad, then we aren’t likely to be willing to make them. We will try solutions that will not work before we find the best solutions. (3) Always act autonomously. If we believe that we act autonomously, then we will not acknowledge when we’ve had help to make us successful and we will not see the benefit of helping others and creating diverse teams.
  • The first three beliefs are signs of an exclusive environment. Although on the surface, denying differences might seem like treating everyone equally and leveling the playing field; it’s not. In reality, denying differences is more like devaluing differences from the privileged position.
  • Diversity in committees and teams lessens the effects of bias, increases the appearance of fairness, leads to discussions about differences and triggers learning to readjust our own lenses. Diversity supports the flow of knowledge in all directions and is important for complete data gathering, analysis, and decision-making. More valuable data result because different people have different experiences of the same event.
  • In my consultation practice, I see lawyers everyday, who think this way. This is a great quality IF AND ONLY IF you are acting in your role as a lawyer. The problem is that you cannot learn without making mistakes and then reflecting on them. Embracing diversity and using it in designing and implementing your growth strategy is certain to be filled with mistakes and hurt feelings as we practice better communication and decision-making skills. If we act in a particular way and it doesn’t lead to the outcome we were hoping for, we can learn from that mistake. If we are afraid to make mistakes, we won’t even try new behaviors or seek out new ideas. If we ignore or move too quickly from our mistakes and try to fix them, we lose the opportunity to learn from them. Think about the McGuire Woods example earlier.
  • In a system, with a low tolerance for leadership and mistakes, others identify many actions of leaders as “mistakes.” We learn through our mistakes as much, if not more, than through our successes. Our mistakes are opportunities to ask why and plan for a better outcome next time. Developing new skills, like improving ability to communicate strategically or work together effectively as a group requires a willingness to try new behaviors and make mistakes, like learning how to ride a bike or play a new sport.
  • What follows is an example of an inclusion initiative, which is part of a law firm’s growth strategy.
  • This is an idea for creating an inclusive culture, which serves its business purpose of innovation through diversity to solve a strategy goal/ priority. Adjustment from Cisco’s model used to develop talent and a culture of talent.

Elimination of bias in profession Elimination of bias in profession Presentation Transcript

  • STRATEGIES FOR THE ELIMINATIONOF BIAS IN THE LEGAL PROFESSIONCREATING FIRMS WHEREEVERYONE HAS A CHANCE TOSUCCEED ©Susan Letterman White 2009 Letterman White Consulting www.lettermanwhite.com susanlettermanwhite@gmail.com 610.331.2539 twitter @susanletterman
  • 2 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009It takes a type of privilege, which not everyone has, to become a lawyer. Experiencing, any type of privilege or the lack of, builds one’s social identity and a connected unconscious bias.
  • 3 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009What is social identity?• Social identity is a comparison based on perceptible characteristics, like gender, race, age, able-bodiedness, education, sexual orientation, socioeconomics, and culture.• Culture is the visible expression of the way we do whatever we do – our values and other hidden beliefs in action including religion or ethnic background
  • 4 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009What is unconscious bias?• We make sense of our world through comparisons of perceptible characteristics and experiences.• We make sense of our world to protect ourselves from danger.• Our perception and decision-making processes are flawed.
  • 5 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009What is privilege?• Privilege is the power connected with any characteristic.• Education level is a privilege that makes it possible to attain a professional degree.• Competency is a contrasting power to privilege and often not as strong.• Privilege leads to stereotyping and priming.
  • 6 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009OUR TOPICS
  • 7 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009WHAT ARE WE TALKING ABOUT?
  • 8 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009WHAT IS INCLUSION?
  • 9 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009INCLUSION FOR WHAT?
  • 10 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009CURRENT REALITY IN PROFESSION
  • 11 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009CURRENT REALITY IN PROFESSION Cont’d
  • 12 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009CURRENT REALITY IN YOUR FIRM ORORGANIZATION? HOW INCLUSIVE IS IT?
  • 13 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009CURRENT REALITY IN YOUR FIRM ORORGANIZATION CONT’D
  • 14 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009WHY CHANGE?MOTIVATION FOR CREATING INCLUSION
  • 15 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009SYSTEMIC IMPACT OF INCLUSION
  • 16 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009MOTIVATION: IMPROVE THESYSTEM
  • 17©LettermanWhite.com 2009
  • 18 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009WHAT WORKS?• Strategy conversations that discuss differences and their connection to growth strategy of the firm.
  • 19 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009OFTEN AND WITH EVERYONE
  • 20 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009CONVERSATIONS ABOUT THE LAW FIRM• What is the dominant culture here and how is it shaped by the unconscious biases of individuals?• Who is in the dominant culture and who is out?• How are people who are out, excluded and marginalized?• How can I use my privileged “in” status to create ally, coaching, or mentoring partnerships with less privileged people in the firm?• Look at dominance, power, and marginalization
  • 21 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009MAKE THE CONVERSATIONS PERSONAL• What are the various social identities that I hold?• What are my values, beliefs, biases, and assumptions about people whose social identities are different from mine?• What are the unconscious biases, which I and others hold that interfere with inclusion?
  • 22 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009Law Firm Changes• Strategy design and implementation• Attorney development programs• Organizational roles• Quotas• Public statements of intentions• Collect data• NAWL list
  • 23 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009Individual Changes• Have a career plan;• Express interest for firm leadership positions;• Get to know firm leaders so they know you;• Exercise leadership roles outside the firm in bar associations, industry groups, and on boards;• Advising superiors of ones leadership capabilities and achievements;• Asking to be included in client pitches;• Affirmatively courting clients, particularly women in leadership positions;• Developing a reputation in practice areas through writing, speaking and appearing at client events;• If you are privileged, become an ally or champion• Skill building for effectiveness in speaking up for self and others, negotiating• Initiate the conversations• Actively search for and find allies, mentors, coaches, champions
  • 24 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009UNCOVER UNCONSCIOUS BIASES
  • 25 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009LAWYER UNCONSCIOUS BIASES
  • 26 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009DENYING DIFFERENCES IS GOOD
  • 27 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009EMBRACING DIFFERENCES IS BETTER
  • 28 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009MISTAKES ARE BAD
  • 29 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009MISTAKES ARE THE STEPS TOWARD ABETTER SOLUTION
  • 30 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009ACT AUTONOMOUSLY ALWAYS
  • 31 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009THE LIMITS OF AUTONOMY
  • 32 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009SOLVE REAL TIME PROBLEMS OF LAW FIRMS WHILEBUILDING INCLUSION AND SKILLS FOR INDIVIDUALS
  • 33 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009INCLUSION IN STRATEGY DESIGN ANDIMPLEMENTATION PROCESS
  • 34 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009CONCLUSION
  • 35 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009• REFERENCES Miller, F. A. and Katz, J.H. (2007) The Path from Exclusive Club to Inclusive Organization retrieved on December 23, 2009, from http://www.kjcg.com/news/articles/documents/The_Path_from_Exclusive_Club.pdf• Finkelstein, S., Whitehead, J., & Campbell, A., (2008) Think Again.• Ariely, D. (2008) Predictably Irrational: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions• Rock,D. (2009)Managing with the Brain in Mind, Strategy + Business, Iss. 56• Report of the National Association of Women Lawyers, July 2208, Actions for Advancing Women into Law Firm Leadership• The Project for Attorney Retention, September 2009, Reduced Hours, Full Success: Part-Time Partners in U.S. Law Firms• Wall Street Journal Blog More Female Partners: A Noble Goal, but How to Get There? (and comments) retrieved on December 23, 2009, from http://blogs.wsj.com/law/2009/09/30/more-female-partners-a-noble-goal-but-how-to-get-there/• Hampson, S., Nice girls don’t get raises Globe Life retried on December 23, 2009, from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/work/nice-girls-dont-get-raises/article1208401/• Hinton, E. (2004) Microinequities: When Small Slights Lead to Huge Problems in the Workplace, DiversityInc.com.• Levine, C. Little progress on diversity retrieved on December 21, 2009, from http://www.law.com/jsp/nlj/PubArticleNLJ.jsp?id=1202436981762• Above the Law. Lack of Commitment to Diversity Angers McGuire Woods Partner retrieved on December 23, 2009, from http://abovethelaw.com/cgi-bin/mt/mt-search.cgi?IncludeBlogs=12&search=diversity+mcguire+woods&sa.x=19&sa.y=8&
  • 36 ©LettermanWhite.com 2009• REFERENCES Williams, J.C., Manvell, J. & Bornstein, S. ( 2006) Opt Out or Pushed Out?: How the Press Covers Work/Family Conflict retrieved on December 26, 2009, from http://www.uchastings.edu/site_files/WLL/OptOutPushedOut.pdf• Haque, U. The Builders Manifesto retrieved on December 23, 2009, from http://blogs.hbr.org/haque/2009/12/the_builders_manifesto.html• Thaler, R. H. & Sunstein, C. R. (2008) Nudge• Gladwell, M. (2008) Outliers• Levey, L. D. (2009) New York City Bar Association Diversity Benchmarking Study: A Report to Signatory Law Firms retrieved on December 27, 2009, from http://www.nycbar.org/Diversity/pdf/Final_Benchmarking_Report.pdf