Through other eyes……Your own OTHER eyesThe eyes of OTHERS
Distressed Students……. those with diagnosed learning difficulties or those privileged adolescents alienated from a society which stresses superficial beauty, fluke talent and blatant consumerism or the gifted who cannot conform to traditional schooling
DramaDrama is not only a tool for expressing and communicating ideas, thoughts and feelings: it is also a powerful medium by which to explore social understanding – why people think and behave as they do – in the safety of it being one-step-removed. It can be used to access meanings embedded in stories and events and to explore human intentions, motivations and consequences in a range of social situations across the curriculum. This understanding of the patterns and sequences in life, in narrative, is fundamental to human experience. National Curriculum for English UK
Drama Frames for Transformation Action *Context building *Narrative Action *Poetic Action *Reflective Action
Context Building Action Fix time, place, people in the dramatic context Create atmosphere: space, light, sound Contextual constraints/opportunities Find or make symbols and themes for the work Check different perspectivese.g. Games Still image
“Captain’s coming”• Chief’s coming :stop and salute• Huddle up!: get together in a huddle and listen in• Shots!: Duck down, hands over head• Stones!: Pick up and throw stones• Banners!: March forward in rows with arms up• Broadcast!: Stop and listen intently• Chant!: Stand still and chant slogan
Narrative Action Significant events, incidents, encounters Introduce and develop PLOT “Living through” cultural patterns Mainly actor/ spectator roles E.g. Monologues Mantle of the Expert Overheard conversations
Poetic Action Looking beyond the plot Awareness of form, symbol and imagery Often stylized use of time space and presence Allow for incongruities and discordEg: Come on Down! Ritual Role Reversal
Reflective Action Need to stand back/aside to take stock To review the issues and meanings To articulate characters’ thoughts To provide a psychological commentary Similar to “soliloquy”E.g: Voices in the Head The Walls have Ears
Five Emphases in Humanism (the 5Hs)• (H1) Feelings, personal emotions and aesthetic appreciation. Rejects whatever makes people feel bad, or forbids aesthetic enjoyment.• (H2) Social relations, friendship and cooperation, and opposes competition.• (H3) Responsibility. The need for public scrutiny, criticism, and correction. Disapproves of “light”.• (H4) Intellect. Knowledge, reason, and understanding. Fights against interference with the free exercise of the mind. Is suspicious of anything that cannot be tested intellectually.• (H5) Self-actualization. The quest for full realization of one’s own deepest true qualitites. Conformity leads to enslavement/the pursuit of uniqueness brings about liberation. Stevick EW 1990 Humanism in Language Teaching OUP Pg 23
Stevick’s Questions Stevick asks three questions about a number of approaches in order to define how humanistic they are:• Which uniquely human attributes of the learner does this approach emphasize?• What sort of freedom does it offer the learner?• How does this method contribute to human dignity?
Drama*can tranform attitudes through thinking actionexpressed through the mind, the body, the voiceand the soul of adolescents around the world. Susan Hillyard 2010
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Tran- scendence Self- Actualization Aesthetic Needs Need to Know & Understand Esteem Needs Belongingness & Love Needs Safety Needs Physiological Needs
Looking through others’ eyes A Gun toWhat is? •a child? •a murderer? •a policeman?A Compact Disk to A Red Light to•a native in the jungle? •a pedestrian?•a deaf person? •a blind woman?•a music lover? •a tribesman?Red Meat to •A Snake to•a hungry man? • a zoologist?•a vegetarian? •a mother with a baby?•a farmer? •a mouse?
Role play……In role play, children collaborate on two levels, the real and thefictional, as they explore social meanings such as differentsocial roles and perspectives; how responses may be construed;possible consequences in terms of social behaviour; how tomanage themselves and their emotions in situations; andcultural conventions and possibilities. In play, childrenconsciously stretch themselves, and allowthemselves to be extended by a more able player, beyond theircurrent abilities. Thus play becomes development itself.(Vygotsky, 1978).
Maslow and Moskowitz• Experience pleasurable, awesome feelings related to everyday life;• Are creative in their approach to things;• Are natural and spontaneous rather than conforming;• Accept themselves and others;• Have great empathy and affection for humanity;• Are not prejudiced;• Have a strong sense of responsibility;• Are independent and look to themselves for their own growth;• Have a mission in life. Adapted from Moskowitz G. 1978 Caring and Sharing in the Foreign Language Class Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House Pg 12
Aesthetic activity Aesthetic activity proves that we are alive by awakening our senses and forcing us to make our own sense of what they seem to be telling us. Conversely, that which is anaesthetic deprives us of our consciousness and ability to act. No doubt we have all had anaesthetic experiences in the theatre: let those of us who teach drama to young people with special needs try to avoid subjecting them to the same.
The Banking Concept T teaches and the Sts are taught T knows e.thing and Sts know 0 T thinks and the Sts are thought abt T talks and Sts listen….meekly T disciplines and the Sts are disciplined T chooses content and Sts comply T acts and Sts have the illusion of acting T confuses the authority of knowledge with profesional authority T is subject and Sts are objects Adapted from Freire P, A Pedagogy of the Oppressed Continuum, New York
“Conscientizacao”……learning to perceive social, political and economic contradictions, and to take action against the oppressive elements of reality Freire Ibid Pg 17
The Paradox of HAVING and BEING In their eagerness to possess, the oppressors develop the conviction that it is possible for them to transform everything into objects of their purchasing power; hence their strictly materialistic concept of existence. Money is the measure of all things and profit the primary goal…..for them, to BE is to HAVE and to be the class of the HAVES ( my emphasis) Freire ibid pg 40
Conclusions• Kindness more effective than coercion• Firmness more effective than permissiveness• Sense of “feel good” improves learning outcomes• No pain no gain• Undreamed-of possibilities• Growth related to concentration, introspection, courage and patience• Skilled and sensitive understanding necessary• Rational, critical inquiry essential• Emphasis on strengths is superior to emphasis on weaknesses Adapted from Stevick EW.1990 Humanism in Language Teaching OUP Pg 143
Haim GinotI’ve come to the frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom.It’s my personal approach that creates the climate. It’s my daily mood that makes the weather.As a teacher, I possess a tremendous power to make a child’s life miserable or joyous.I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration.I can humiliate or humour, hurt or heal.In all situations, it is my response that decides whether a crisis will be escalated or de-escalated and a child humanized or de-humanized.