Dramathink:Teaching Thinking Skills through Drama
Teaching Children to Think Robert Fisher (1995) METACOGNITION (thinking/inner speech) reading writingKNOWLEDGE PERFORMANCE(learning input) listening speaking (linguistic output) Linguistic intelligence – the modes of language
H.O.T.S. from D HeathcoteA A problem must be seen in Must be interesting for the action participants. Must seem to employ their ‘interest’.B The new element Old familiar matter in new form to ‘shock’ into awareness.C Decisions must be called for The active area of commitment to action and the solving of problems.D Employing experience Relevant previous experience productively not passively comes into action.E Getting feedback – not to No escape from the immediate be ducked! outcome and results of decisionsF Conscious examination of A standing back from the action changes if any to review present conceptualization.
Provide Contexts to Support Language Development Cummins (81/89) Cognitively Demanding Context B D Context Embedded A C Reduced Cognitively Undemanding
Cognitive Processes B DA A C• reading to find specific information identifies names matches retells• transfers information from one medium to another• applies known procedures• describes observations• sequences• narrates with sense of beginning, middle, end
B B A D C• generalises• compares and contrasts• summarises• plans• classifies by known criteria• transforms,• personalises given information• recalls and reviews• seeks solutions to problems
B DC A Cparrots: repeats utterances of adultor peercopies: reproduces informationfrom board or texts
D B A D C• argues a case / evidence persuasively• identifies criteria• develops and sustains ideas• justifies opinion or judgment• evaluates critically• interprets evidence, makes deductions• forms hypotheses, asks further questions forinvestigation• predicts results• applies principles to new situations• analyses, suggests solutions and tests
The Relationship between Thinking and DramaHigh quality thinking High quality dramaIs not routine – the path of Is not just re-enactment of what is known. The children action is not fully known in make decisions that influence the direction of the advance drama and they are given ownership, with their ideas being used to develop the drama.Tends to be complex – the total Drama explores through role, the same situation from path is not visible from a the viewpoints of different characters. It is not a single viewpoint linear process.Yields multiple rather than Drama is “open”. Scenes can be reworked and replayed unique solutions in many ways with a multiplicity of solutions and outcomes.Involves nuanced judgment Nuance is key to drama. Meanings are arrived at and and interpretation communicated in a variety of ways, verbal, visual and kinaesthetic. Each person in an audience and each participant in the drama will interpret the drama somewhat differently, depending on their present understandings and experience.
Can involve the application of Drama involves problem solving and the resolution multiple criteria which of dilemmas both within the drama and in the may conflict with one process of making the drama. anotherInvolves uncertainty – not Drama in education develops. It cannot be known everything about the task what will emerge in the process as it is interactive at hand is known and dynamic by nature. It is not about re- enacting what is known and certain, but about discovering and exploring what is uncertain.Involves imposing meaning – Drama is all about finding, making and finding structure in communicating meanings. It is structured, mainly apparent disorder by the teacher initially, but as children become more experienced and develop their drama skills they are more able to take over responsibility for structuring their own drama and communicating meaning to others through performance.Is effortful – considerable Good drama is an active and interactive experience, mental work is needed for which is both intellectually and emotionally the kinds of elaboration demanding for both participants and audience. and judgements required Adapted from Baldwin P. and McGuinness C.