The So-called Four Skills The Big Q:What kind of reading,writing, speaking and listening?
Exercise 1What do you understand by the term Literacy?
LiteracyThe ability to deal with words and derive meanings from them which relate to the world in which we live.
A Potted History of Literacy South Asia: 3.000 + BC Literate minority Islamic Countries: 800 AD High rate Jewish Communities: Middle Ages, men learned Hebrew Lutheran countries: 1686 enforced literacy New England: 17th Century 50% literate, rising to 70% by 1710 Wales: 1750 Highest rate of literacy England :1870 Govt Financed Education available.
Ex 2: The new ICT life……What kinds of literacies can you list that our students will need to have in their futures?
The New Literacies Visual Computer Spatial Body TV Film Internet Print Art Music
Scottish Dept of Education“The ability to read and write and use numeracy to handle information, to express ideas and opinions, to make decisions and solve problems, as family members, workers, citizens and lifelong learners.”
The four areas: 1.Personal 2. Family 3. Work4. Community
Five Core Skills 1. Communication 2. Numeracy 3. Problem Solving4. Working with others 5. ICT
UK National Strategy for Teaching English“ Drama develops thinking, speaking, and listening, reading, writing and critical analysis through emotionaland imaginitive engagement”
Drama“Drama is the collaborative exploration and analysis of meaning through the enactment of events” ( DfES 2003)
Heathcote`s Drama“Drama is anything which involves people in active role-taking situations in which attitudes, not characters, are the chief concern, lived at life-rate ( that is discovery at this moment not memory-based) and obeying the natural laws of the medium:
The Natural Laws of Drama 1. A willing suspension of disbelief 2. Agreement to pretence 3. Employing all past experiences 4. Employing any conjecture of the imaginationto create a living, moving picture of life which aims at surprise and discovery for the participants rather than for any onlookers.
The Spice of Life S for Social P for Physical I for Intellectual (cognitive) C for Creative E for Emotional
Drama is PolysemicDrama produces multiplemeanings through multiple signs
The Relationship between Thinking and DramaHigh quality thinking High quality dramaIs not routine – the path of Is not just re-enactment of what is known. The children action is not fully known in make decisions that influence the direction of the advance drama and they are given ownership, with their ideas being used to develop the drama.Tends to be complex – the total Drama explores through role, the same situation from path is not visible from a the viewpoints of different characters. It is not a single viewpoint linear process.Yields multiple rather than Drama is “open”. Scenes can be reworked and replayed unique solutions in many ways with a multiplicity of solutions and outcomes.Involves nuanced judgment Nuance is key to drama. Meanings are arrived at and and interpretation communicated in a variety of ways, verbal, visual and kinaesthetic. Each person in an audience and each participant in the drama will interpret the drama somewhat differently, depending on their present understandings and experience.
Can involve the application of Drama involves problem solving and the resolution multiple criteria which of dilemmas both within the drama and in the may conflict with one process of making the drama. anotherInvolves uncertainty – not Drama in education develops. It cannot be known everything about the task what will emerge in the process as it is interactive at hand is known and dynamic by nature. It is not about re- enacting what is known and certain, but about discovering and exploring what is uncertain.Involves imposing meaning – Drama is all about finding, making and finding structure in communicating meanings. It is structured, mainly apparent disorder by the teacher initially, but as children become more experienced and develop their drama skills they are more able to take over responsibility for structuring their own drama and communicating meaning to others through performance.Is effortful – considerable Good drama is an active and interactive experience, mental work is needed for which is both intellectually and emotionally the kinds of elaboration demanding for both participants and audience. and judgements required Adapted from Baldwin P. and McGuinness C.
A comparison between Drama and Reading Reading DramaPrediction The reader predicts what the next In drama children anticipate a words will be, and looks at the range of responses and check their print to confirm it own actions to fit what occursCue 1 Readers process semantic cues – Drama students use the second they have some experience of the dimension – that part of the topic field where they can use theirCue 2 Readers process graphophonic experience Drama students interpret body cues – they know that letters language and paralinguistic cues correspond to sounds such as tone, pitch and pace – these each convey meaningCue 3 Readers process syntactic cues – Drama students learn that they know the grammar of the individual events have wider more language universal meanings; that drama operates as metaphor ( Simons & Quirk)
Differences between Narrative and Drama Narrative Drama What has happened. What is happening. First-order Second-order abstraction abstraction (unmediated by (mediated to us by another) another: we are present at it) Summarises drama Elaborates narrativeDifferences 1. Involves a private Its interactive nature meansin relationship between reader participants have a shared, publicviewpoint and fiction relationship with the fiction 2. The reader’s viewpoint is Operating directly upon being selected for him by the present at the fictional events, writer, who mediates the participants can select their fiction to him viewpointsDifferent 1. Operated through a single Uses multiple sign system inuse of sign sign system (written text) combinationDifferent 1. Tends towards linear, Dwells in the present momentuse of time sequential development – onward movement of events (Ken Byron 1986)
Forming Objectives Stage Sequence of mental activities1. Unreflective Predicting what might happen short interest in action term1. Empathising Forming mental images of affect; forming expectations about character1. Analogising Drawing on the repertoire of personal experiences, making connections between characters and one’s own life Adapted from Thomson 1987) (
The Sound-bite Multi-tasking Zapping i-pods Snippets of news E-mail brevity MSN abbreviations Interruptions
The new BREED A new breed of STUDENT demands a new breed of TEACHER
The Catharsis of Acting Out….Role adoption seems to allow for students to put on the mask of security and to air their private feelings in the public forum in a way that responding to print may not