• Dr. Susan M. Hansen
Psy250 Lifespan Development
Early Childhood
Ages 2 through 6
BioSocial Development
September 20, 2013
2
Physical Development
Fact or Fiction? Fiction Fact
1. By age 6, the child’s body is proportionately not
very different from that of the adult.
...
How does the body
change by age 6?
A healthy 6-year-old
in a developed nation:
Weight: 40-50 pounds (18-22 kilograms)
Heig...
5
Brain Development
Prefrontal cortex
(outer layers)
Performs brain’s
“executive functions”
– planning, selecting, and
coordinationg thoughts
...
7
Executive Functioning
Can children sort things one way and then sort them another way?
Sort by animalSort by color
8
Planning and Analyzing
As t...
myelination: The process by which axons become coated with
myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve...
10
The Process of Myelination
What brain parts make up the limbic system?
amygdala
hippocampus
hypothalamus
pituitary glandpituitary gland
Adrenal corte...
What gross motor skills do young children develop?
12
Motor Skills
Culture, locale,
socioeconomics
influence the
particula...
What fine motor skills do young children develop?
13
Fine Motor Skills
The corpus callosum and
prefrontal cortex may be th...
14
Nutrition
In the United States, only about one-
fourth of toddlers and young children
eat a balanced diet, according to...
Young Children’s Insistence on Routine
“just right” principle: Although a sign of pathological obsessive-compulsive disord...
16
Food Insecurity in the United States
17
Iodine Deficiency
18
Vitamin D Deficiency
Substantiated Child Maltreatment in the United States, 2000 and 2007
Numberofvictims
1,000,000
750,000
500,000
250,000
0
2...
20
Child Maltreatment – Stolen Childhoods
injury control/harm reduction: Practices that are aimed at anticipating,
controlling, and preventing dangerous activities;...
Were We Accidents Waiting to Happen?
Childhood Accident Record
Closing Thoughts
Imagine that a friend of yours has a toddler and also knows
that you are taking a course in developmental...
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Une 9 psy250 9.20 session early child physical (no video)

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  • Between the ages of 2 and 6, ideally, children are spending most of their waking time discovering, creating, laughing and imagining. The chase each other (developing their minds) , play with sounds, words and ideas (developing their minds) Invent games and dramatize fantasises (learning social skills and morals) physical development (3:20), begins by outlining the changes in size, weight, and shape that accompany the loss of baby fat. The development of gross motor and fine motor skills is described, focusing on the importance of the underlying processes of brain growth and myelination that enable difficult tasks such as fastening buttons and enjoying arts and crafts. Program 8 introduces the developing person between the ages of 2 and 6. The program begins by outlining the changes in size and shape that occur from ages 2 through 6. This is followed by a look at brain growth and development and its role in the development of physical and cognitive abilities. The program also addresses the important issues of injury control and accidents, the major cause of childhood death in all but the most disease-ridden or war-torn countries. A description of the acquisition of gross and fine motor skills follows, noting that mastery of such skills devel- ops steadily during the play years along with intellec- tual growth. The program concludes with an in-depth exploration of child maltreatment, including its preva- lence, contributing factors, consequences for future development, treatment, and prevention. Physical development during the first two years is so rapid that infants often seem to change before their parents’ very eyes. Chapter 3 describes the typical patterns of growth and maturation that occur in the infant’s body and nervous system and looks at how the development of sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities keeps pace with physical development. For the most part, development takes place as rapidly as a baby’s genetic history allows, and the developmental sequence is the same for all healthy infants. The age at which certain skills are mastered, however, varies because development of many skills depends on the interaction of biological and environmental forces. One critical variable in development is nutrition. In developing countries, where poverty and poor hygiene are the rule rather than the exception, malnutrition is common, sometimes resulting in lifelong impairment of both physical and cognitive development. Preventive medicine and the importance of immunizations during the first two years are also discussed, along with the possible causes of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Infants grow and develop in extraordinary ways during their early years of life. In fact, in the first two years of life infants grow to half their adult height and develop critical new skills with their rapidly growing bodies.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal each statement, then the category. Please note, this page is available to use with a clicker system.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal each statement, then the category. Please note, this page is available to use with a clicker system.
  • Instruction: Automatic animation. Cartwheels and other motor skills are possible as the center of gravity moves from the toddler’s belly to the young child’s breast. Click to reveal details about six-year-olds. Height differences vary among children around the world, but differences are greater within than between ethnic groups.
  • Instructions: Click to play a video
  • Instruction: Click to reveal the function of each brain part. Between ages 2 and 6, the brain grows from 75 percent to 90 percent of weight, with increases particularly in the areas that allow advanced language and social understanding . As you look at this illustration of the developing brain, know that although each area has particular functions, the entire brain is interconnected. The processing of emotions, for example, occurs, primarily in the limbic system, but many other brain areas are involved. Brain Development Instructional Objective: To characterize development of the brain during early childhood, and to show how brain maturation relates to children’s increasing abilities in thinking and emotional regulation. 1. During childhood, the brain develops faster than any other part of the body. This maturation underlies children’s rapidly expanding cognitive and motor abilities. By age 2, 34 Chapter 5 Early Childhood: Body and Mind most pruning of the brain’s dendrites has occurred. Between ages 2 and 6, the brain grows from 75 percent to 90 percent of its adult weight. The prefrontal cortex is called the executive because planning, prioritizing, and reflection occur there. Maturation of this area allows young children to begin to plan ahead and to think about past experiences. The continued proliferation of communication pathways and substantial pruning, along with myelination, a process that insulates the axons of neurons and speeds transmission of neural impulses, accounts for part of this rapid brain growth. Myelination enables the child to think and react much quicker than the toddler can. The prefrontal cortex assists in impulse control and emotional regulation. Two signs of an undeveloped prefrontal cortex are impulsiveness and perseveration, the tendency to stick to a thought or action for a long time. The corpus callosum , the long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two sides of the brain, grows and myelinates rapidly during early childhood. It allows children to better coordinate functions that involve both sides of the brain and body, which are not identical. The specialization of the two sides of the body and brain is called later- alization (prompted by genes, practice, and time). This process is apparent in hand- edness and in the feet, eyes, ears, and the brain itself. Throughout the world, societies are organized to favor right-handedness. Experts advise against trying to switch a child’s handedness. The left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body and contains areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and contains brain areas dedicated to emotions, creativity, and appreciation of art, music, and poetry. The brain’s limbic system plays a crucial role in the expression and regulation of emotions. Within this system is the amygdala, which registers emotions, both posi- tive and negative, especially fear. Next to this area is the hippocampus, which is a central processor of memory, especially for locations. Another limbic structure, the hypothalamus, produces hormones that activate parts of the brain and body.
  • Instruction: As the prefrontal cortex develops during early childhood, sleep becomes more regular, emotions become more nuanced, temper tantrums subside, and uncontrollable laughter or tears subside. But prefrontal maturity has not yet been reached, as this slide demonstrates. In the series of experiments that this demonstration is based on, 3-year-olds consistently made a stunning mistake (Zelazo et al., 2003). Click 1 to reveal how children sorted cards by animal. Click 2 to reveal how the same children next sorted the same cards by color. When another group of children were first asked to sort cards by color, they did so correctly. But when followed up with a request to sort by animal, they could not perform that task correctly—they get stuck on their initial sorting pattern.  Older children correctly make the switch—something in the executive function of their brains has changed. Does this remind you of “Simon Says,” when younger children cannot easily obey the changing commands?
  • Everything is done more slowly by 6-year-olds than by 16-year-olds, because information processing is slower. Thanks to myelination, preschoolers are much quicker than toddlers, who may forget what they were doing before they even finish doing it!
  • Instructions: Click to play a video that shows brain myelination. This video clip follows the development of myelin from a fetus at age 16 weeks through adolescence and into a person’s early 20s. Summarize what you observed in this video clip. How does this myelination process match up with changes in cognition from infanthood to childhood, and beyond?
  • Instructions: Click each brain part to reveal its function. Increased amygdala activity is one reason some children experience terrors, like nightmares. Memories of location may be fragile in early childhood as the hippocampus develops, but deep emotional memories can be retained. Stress can be harmful, but it can also be helpful, such as when children meet new neighbors or visit a new place. The brain’s limbic system plays a crucial role in the expression and regulation of emotions. Within this system is the amygdala, which registers emotions, both posi- tive and negative, especially fear. Next to this area is the hippocampus, which is a central processor of memory, especially for locations. Another limbic structure, the hypothalamus, produces hormones that activate parts of the brain and body.
  • Instruction: Automatic animation. What specific, large body movements—or gross motor skills—do you see the children in these photos using? Culture and locale influence the particular skills children display—for instance, some small children learn to ski; others learn to sail. Research on lower animals raises concerns about dozens of substances in the air, food, and water that can affect the brain and impede balance, finger dexterity, and motivation.
  • Instructions: Automatic animation. Many fine motor skills involve two hands and thus both sides of the brain—for instance; one hand steadies the paper while the other writes. The corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex may be the underlying reason for problems with fine motor skills and the use of two hands—for instance, when shoelaces can’t get tied. The corpus callosum , the long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the two sides of the brain, grows and myelinates rapidly during early childhood. It allows children to better coordinate functions that involve both sides of the brain and body, which are not identical. The specialization of the two sides of the body and brain is called later- alization (prompted by genes, practice, and time). This process is apparent in hand- edness and in the feet, eyes, ears, and the brain itself. Throughout the world, societies are organized to favor right-handedness. Experts advise against trying to switch a child’s handedness. The left hemisphere of the brain controls the right side of the body and contains areas dedicated to logical reasoning, detailed analysis, and the basics of language. The right hemisphere controls the left side of the body and contains brain areas dedicated to emotions, creativity, and appreciation of art, music, and poetry.
  • lassroom Activity: Correcting the “Big Five” Nutritional Deficiencies in Young Children As the text indicates, most children in developed nations are well fed. However, that doesn’t mean that they are eating the right foods. In the United States, only about one-fourth of toddlers and young children eat a balanced diet, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. “When children stop having breast milk and jarred baby foods, their parents tend not to replace these foods with regular servings of milk, fruits, and vegetables ,” says Shirley Watkins, under- secretary of Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services (cited in Vander Schaaf, 2000). One current view is that the most common nutrient deficiencies among school kids are vitamin D, calcium, fiber, and potassi- um (WebMD, 2011). Other sources also mention mag- nesium, vitamin E, and iron. Following are WebMD’s recommendations: Vitamin D: The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends getting at least 400 interna- tional units (IU) of vitamin D per day. The body makes vitamin D when exposed to strong sun- light, storing extra for future use. Common foods rich in vitamin D include most milk and other for- tified foods, such as some brands of breakfast cereals, orange juice, and yogurt. Other foods rich in vitamin D include fattier fish, such as salmon and light tuna. Supplements are another source of vitamin D. Calcium: The IOM's daily calcium recommenda- tions for children: ages 1-3: 500 milligrams; ages 4-8: 800 milligrams; ages 9-18: 1,300 milligrams. You get 300 milligrams of calcium from 8 ounces of any type of milk (including lactose-free) or yogurt, or from 1.5 ounces of hard cheese (such as cheddar). Orange juice with added calcium and vitamin D is a calcium-rich, but dairy-free, option. Children who don't get enough dairy or fortified choices may need a calcium supplement. Fiber: How much fiber to get depends on the child's age, according to the AAP. Figure your child's daily fiber quota in grams by adding five to his age. For example, a 5-year-old should get 10 grams of daily dietary fiber. Boost your family's fiber intake by serving a fruit or vegetable (or both) with meals and snacks. Opt for whole-grain breads and cereals, pasta, and other grains. Also, try to include legumes, including chickpeas, lentils, and white beans in salads, soups, and omelets. Coincidentally, many of these same foods provide potassium and magnesium, too. Potassium: Daily potassium recommendations for children: ages 1-3: 3,000 milligrams; ages 4-8: 3,800 milligrams; ages 9-13: 4,500 milligrams; ages 14-18: 4,700 milligrams. Besides fruits and vegetables, dairy foods, meats, and seafood are also good potassium sources. For a child to get enough potassium, at least one fruit or vegetable should be served at every meal and snack and the child should eat a balanced diet.
  • Instruction: sense of control and order, mastery? Automatic animation. The “just right” principle plays out in various ways in a young child’s life—from insisting on the arrangement of food on a plate, to preparing for bedtime with a specific ritual, or to voicing strong preferences about clothing—including what to wear as well as what not to wear. The survey results are reports by parents about their children. Such compulsive behavior (for objects and routines as well as foods) tends to fade by age 6. Generally, appetite decreases between ages 2 and 6, because when compared with infants, young children need fewer calories per pound. Click to play a video on food insecurity in the United States. In this video clip, you’ll hear from the manager of Nutrition Programs for City Harvest, an organization in New York City.
  • Instructions: Video starts automatically. Nutritional needs of infants and children According to the video, what effect does food insecurity have on children in the United States?
  • Instructions: Video starts automatically. Children in china with iodline deficiency Most of the children of the world live in developing nations and grow up under impoverished conditions that place them at greater risk for impaired biosocial and cognitive development. In 1975, 82 percent (1.2 billion) of all children under age 15 lived in developing countries, while only 18 percent (275 million) lived in more developed countries. These statistics are still true today; in fact, the number of children in develop- ing countries may be even higher because of the high birth rates (World Bank, 2010). Children in developing countries are more likely to suffer malnutrition, dis- ease, and insufficient cognitive stimulation, which detracts from optimal intellectual growth (Narayan & Petesch, 2007). Since the early 1960s, several teams of research- ers have been conducting longitudinal studies of the biosocial and cognitive development of high, low, and middle socioeconomic status (SES) children in Guatemala. Biosocial development is assessed by measuring three variables: height, weight, and skele- tal age. Height reflects genetic history, as well as long- term nutrition and health care. Weight is considered a measure of more recent growth, reflecting current nutrition and health care. Skeletal age, which is meas- ured by bone X-rays, is an index of physical maturity and is used to predict a child’s potential for further growth. Cognitive development is typically assessed by comparing a child’s scores on standardized tests of reading ability and general intelligence with develop- mental norms for the child’s chronological age. Researchers have consistently found that low-SES children have delayed biosocial growth, as compared with middle- and high-SES children. In addition, biosocial development has been found to be positively correlated with cognitive development in young chil- dren in developing countries, so that where there is delayed growth, there is slower cognitive development. Previously, researchers had not examined whether the relationship between growth and cognitive devel- opment continues during the school years. Nor had they attempted to control for SES when comparing the cognitive status of small-for-age and normal-for-age children. These are important issues, for if the rela- tionship between delayed growth and cognitive devel- opment persists, small-for-age children may be cogni- tively handicapped throughout their lives. To address these issues, Barry Bogin and Robert MacVean studied a sample of 144 Guatemalan chil- dren: 46 of low SES, 52 of middle SES, and 46 of high SES. Height, weight, skeletal age, reading ability, and general intelligence were measured annually as the children progressed from grades 1 through 6. As in previous studies, low- and middle-SES boys and girls showed significantly delayed growth, as compared with high-SES children. However, when SES was sta- tistically controlled, there was no significant correla- tion between biosocial growth and cognitive status . Because large numbers of school-age children in developing nations are small for their chronological age, Bogin and MacVean’s findings are highly signifi- cant. The scientists conclude that low- and middle- SES children often suffer from undernutrition that delays their biosocial development during the pre- school years. Although delayed growth may persist during the years of primary schooling, the delays in cognitive development that were apparent in the pre- school years may be ameliorated by education. Bogin, B., & MacVean, R. (2003). Anthropometric varia- tion and health: A biocultural model of human growth. Journal of Children’s Health, 1 (2), 149–172. Narayan, D., & Petesch, P. (2007). Moving out of poverty: Cross-disciplinary perspectives. Washington, DC: The World Bank and Palgrave McMillan. World Bank. (2010). PovertyNet Home. Retrieved December 30, 2010, from www.worldbank.org/poverty/data/ trends. According to the video, what effect does iodine deficiency have on children in China?
  • Instructions: Video starts automatically. Vitamin D deficiency
  • Instruction: WE WILL DEVOTE MORE TIME TO THIS TOPIC IN SOCIOEMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT Click each square in the legend to reveal the data for the years 2000 and 2007. In a reported maltreatment, the authorities are notified; but in a substantiated maltreatment, the report has also been investigated and verified. Has the number of victims declined in the past decade, or have legal and social work responses improved? Then again, are there less optimistic explanations for this trend, according to the data? The U.S. Census, 2009, found that most victims of abuse (other than sexual abuse) are under 6 years old.
  • Instructions: Click to play a video about a UNICEF program meant to help children. Stolen Childhoods In this video clip, young children work in rug factories, and the UN has stepped in to give these children a better life. If you were a psychological researcher in the field of child maltreatment, what kinds of long-term effects would you want to study about the RUGMARK program? Frame a question you would like to have your study answer.
  • Instruction: Click to reveal second and third images. While primary prevention prevents injury, disease, or abuse by changing the overall background conditions; secondary prevention averts harm in a high-risk situation, and tertiary prevention are immediate and effective actions that occur after the adverse event takes place. For children, an immature prefrontal cortex or limbic system may incline them toward uninhibited and impulsive behavior or poor decision-making that can harm rather than help once an adverse event occurs.
  • Childhood Accident Record In the United States, twice as many children are hurt before age 6 as after because their new mobility is not yet controlled by brain maturity. The best approaches to safety education may be those that emphasize injury control/harm reduction. Preventive community actions that reduce everyone’s chance of injury are called primary prevention. Preventive actions that avert harm in high-risk situations and vulnerable individuals constitute secondary prevention. Actions aimed at minimiz- ing the impact of an adverse event that has already occurred constitute tertiary pre- vention. Children between 2 and 6 years old are generally very susceptible to accidents because they are extremely active and unaware of potential danger. If you cannot remember accidents from your own childhood, ask a relative if he or she recalls any. Alternatively, ask a relative with children in this age group to tell you about his or her children’s accidents. 1. Make a record of the accidents you sustained during early childhood. Or, if you prefer, make a record of the accidents sustained by one of your siblings or a child you know who was (or is) “accident-prone.” List broken bones, cuts requiring stitches, automobile accidents, and ingestion of poisons. Accident Age of Occurrence Early Childhood: Biosocial Development 25 2. Review the accidents listed above. Could any of them have been prevented? If so, describe some possible preventive measures. 3. Do you know of any laws passed recently to protect children from accidents? Can you suggest any laws that might be particularly helpful?
  • that might be particularly helpful?
  • Une 9 psy250 9.20 session early child physical (no video)

    1. 1. • Dr. Susan M. Hansen Psy250 Lifespan Development Early Childhood Ages 2 through 6 BioSocial Development September 20, 2013
    2. 2. 2 Physical Development
    3. 3. Fact or Fiction? Fiction Fact 1. By age 6, the child’s body is proportionately not very different from that of the adult. 2. Although the right and left hemispheres of the brain have specialized functions, cognitive skill requires both sides of the brain. 3. Accidents are the leading cause of childhood death. 4. Child maltreatment involves not only physical abuse, but failure to meet the child’s basic needs. Physical Development 3
    4. 4. How does the body change by age 6? A healthy 6-year-old in a developed nation: Weight: 40-50 pounds (18-22 kilograms) Height: 3’ 6” (100 + centimeters) Adult proportions: legs equal half of total height 4 3-year-old 6-year-old Growth Patterns center of gravity moves from the toddler’s belly to the young child’s breast.
    5. 5. 5 Brain Development
    6. 6. Prefrontal cortex (outer layers) Performs brain’s “executive functions” – planning, selecting, and coordinationg thoughts Relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex Cerebral cortex Limbic system Axon fibers connecting two cerebral hemispheres Left hemisphere Right hemisphereFront of brain Master endocrine gland Conscious processing of sights Visual cortex (on occipital lobe) Pathway for neural fibers traveling to and from brain; controls simple reflexes Coordinates voluntary movement and balance Auditory cortex (on temporal lobe) Conscious processing of sounds Hippocampus Neural centers in the limbic system linked to emotion A structure in the limbic system linked to memory Amygdala Controls maintenance functions such as eating; helps govern endocrine system; linked to emotion and reward Hypothalamus Right hemisphere (cross-section) Cerebral cortex (outer layers) Ultimate control and information- processing center Corpus callosum Thalamus Pituitary Spinal cord Cerebellum 6 Between ages 2 and 6, the brain grows from 75 percent to 90 percent of weight, with increases particularly in the areas that allow advanced language and social understanding Parts that develop during early childhood
    7. 7. 7 Executive Functioning
    8. 8. Can children sort things one way and then sort them another way? Sort by animalSort by color 8 Planning and Analyzing As the prefrontal cortex develops during early childhood, sleep becomes more regular, emotions become more nuanced, temper tantrums subside, and uncontrollable laughter or tears subside. But prefrontal maturity has not yet been reached, as this slide demonstrates.
    9. 9. myelination: The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron. 9 Speed of Thought
    10. 10. 10 The Process of Myelination
    11. 11. What brain parts make up the limbic system? amygdala hippocampus hypothalamus pituitary glandpituitary gland Adrenal cortex Positive feedback loop Negative feedback loop Brain amygdala hypothalamus hippocampus The HPA (Hypothalamus-Pituary-Adrenal Cortex) Axis Adrenal cortex CORTCORT ACTH CRH amygdala: A tiny brain structure that registers emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. hippocampus: A brain structure that is a central processor of memory, especially memory for locations. hypothalamus: A brain area that responds to the amygdala and the hippocampus to produce hormones that activate other parts of the brain and body. pituitary gland: A gland in the brain that produces hormones when signaled by the hypothalamus. 11 Emotions and the Brain Increased amygdala activity is one reason some children experience terrors, like nightmares. Memories of location may be fragile in early childhood as the hippocampus develops, but deep emotional memories can be retained.
    12. 12. What gross motor skills do young children develop? 12 Motor Skills Culture, locale, socioeconomics influence the particular skills children display
    13. 13. What fine motor skills do young children develop? 13 Fine Motor Skills The corpus callosum and prefrontal cortex may be the underlying reason for problems with fine motor skills and the use of two hands—for instance, when shoelaces can’t get tied.
    14. 14. 14 Nutrition In the United States, only about one- fourth of toddlers and young children eat a balanced diet, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. “When children stop having breast milk and jarred baby foods, their parents tend not to replace these foods with regular servings of milk, fruits, and vegetables.”
    15. 15. Young Children’s Insistence on Routine “just right” principle: Although a sign of pathological obsessive-compulsive disorder in adults, a normal and widespread phenomenon among young children (Evans & Leckman, 2006). Is it normal for a young child to only want to eat the same thing all of the time? Score on “just right” survey items Age (in years) 1 1.5 2.5 3.5 2 3 1 2 3 4 5 Source: Evans et al., 1997 15 Eating Habits The “just right” principle plays out in various ways in a young child’s life— from insisting on the arrangement of food on a plate, to preparing for bedtime with a specific ritual, or to voicing strong preferences about clothing—including what to wear as well as what not to wear.
    16. 16. 16 Food Insecurity in the United States
    17. 17. 17 Iodine Deficiency
    18. 18. 18 Vitamin D Deficiency
    19. 19. Substantiated Child Maltreatment in the United States, 2000 and 2007 Numberofvictims 1,000,000 750,000 500,000 250,000 0 2000 2007 Total Neglect Physical abuse Sexual abuse Other* * Other includes emotional and medical abuse, educational neglect and maltreatment not specified by the state records. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census, 20009 child maltreatment: Intentional harm to, or avoidable endangerment of, anyone under 18 years of age. 19 Child Maltreatment
    20. 20. 20 Child Maltreatment – Stolen Childhoods
    21. 21. injury control/harm reduction: Practices that are aimed at anticipating, controlling, and preventing dangerous activities; these practices reflect the belief that accidents are not random and that injuries can be made less harmful if proper controls are in place. Primary Prevention Secondary Prevention Tertiary Prevention What are three levels of prevention for injury control? 21 Avoidable Injury
    22. 22. Were We Accidents Waiting to Happen? Childhood Accident Record
    23. 23. Closing Thoughts Imagine that a friend of yours has a toddler and also knows that you are taking a course in developmental psychology. If this friend asked what he should know about how his child will develop in the next several years, what hallmarks of physical development would you pointout to him? What gets in the way of healthy development? 24
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