History and Geology of the
Oakland Hills
Home to the East Bay’s Urban
Redwood Forest
Susan Gard
Professor Lawler
Geology 1...
Presentation Contents
• Geologic history of area
• Observable rocks
• Redwood Regional Park
• Redwood Regional Park fauna
...
Background and Methodology
• I live below the Oakland Hills and visit East Bay Regional
Parks regularly with my dog
• Info...
Geologic History of Oakland Hills
• Region first at floor of Pacific Ocean—later
covered in shallow seas
• 12 million year...
Geologic History of Oakland Hills
• Eight to 10 million years ago volcanos covered
lowlands with thick basalt lava flows
•...
Geologic History of Oakland Hills
• One million years ago reached current heights
• Still rising about 1/16 inch/year sque...
Basalt Lava
• Abundant in Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Park
• Hard, dense, dark volcanic rock
• Dated at UC
• Berkeley—...
Breccia
• Many varieties of breccia in Sibley:
– Tuff breccia—volcanic ash hardened to stone
containing jumble of blocks a...
Chert
• A microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline
sedimentary rock material composed of silicon
dioxide
• Formed when
microc...
Actinolite Schist
• Found in Joaquin Miller Regional Park
• Foliated metamorphic rock dominated by the mineral
actinolite
...
Serpentinite
• Composed of one or more serpentine group minerals
• Metamorphic version of peridotite—deep-seated, low-sili...
Serpentine Prairie
• Many unique plants grow in serpentinite-rich
soils
• Redwood Regional Park’s Serpentine Prairie
home ...
Redwood Regional Park
• Millions of years ago
redwood trees found
across North America
• Drying and cooling
climates prece...
Redwood Regional Park
• Adapted to catch summer
fog in needles and drip it
down to roots
• Today’s redwoods
second and thi...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna:
Rainbow Trout
• Steelhead trout found and named in Redwood Creek in
1855
• Redwood Creek cut ...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna:
Rainbow Trout
• Steelhead/Rainbow from family salmonids
• Arose from three lineages: whitefis...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna:
Rainbow Trout
• Gap appears in salmonine fossil record after E.
driftwoodensis until late Mio...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts
• California or coastal newt (taricha torosa) 10 million years old
• Amphibious—must st...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts
• Newt of family Salamandridae but not all
aquatic salamanders are newts
• Newts in sub...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts
• Salamanders, newts and caecilians all belong
to order Amphibia along with frogs and t...
Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts
(Earth History 2012)
Convergent Ladybird Beetle
• Commonly called “ladybug”
• Feed on aphids and other soft-bodied insects in
grasslands and Ba...
Convergent Ladybird Beetle
• Coccinellidae are family of beetles belonging to
superfamily Cucujoidea
• Belongs to series C...
Convergent Ladybird Beetle
• Evolution of insects dates to Devonian period—
oldest definitive insect fossil Rhyniognatha
h...
Redwood Regional Park Flora
• Forest also supports evergreens, chaparral and
grasslands
• Western trillium, native wild-gi...
References
Bauer, Chris Feb 27, 2007. Ladybug Pajama Party Video Story for QUEST Northern California
Romans, Brian Aug 5, ...
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History and Geology of the Oakland Hills

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History and Geology of the Oakland Hills

  1. 1. History and Geology of the Oakland Hills Home to the East Bay’s Urban Redwood Forest Susan Gard Professor Lawler Geology 103, Summer 2014 Aug. 3, 2014
  2. 2. Presentation Contents • Geologic history of area • Observable rocks • Redwood Regional Park • Redwood Regional Park fauna • Redwood Regional Park flora
  3. 3. Background and Methodology • I live below the Oakland Hills and visit East Bay Regional Parks regularly with my dog • Information for report gathered on visits to various sites within hills parks including: – Redwood Regional Park – Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve – Joaquin Miller Park • Some photos are mine and some come from online research
  4. 4. Geologic History of Oakland Hills • Region first at floor of Pacific Ocean—later covered in shallow seas • 12 million years ago became coastal lowland filled by sediment • Active continental margin: – Pacific plate drifting eastward – North American plate drifting westward • Pacific plate sinks into mantle where two plates come together
  5. 5. Geologic History of Oakland Hills • Eight to 10 million years ago volcanos covered lowlands with thick basalt lava flows • Four million years later force of transpression made lowlands begin to rise • Tilted up to and beyond vertical in some places (Rademacher 2012)
  6. 6. Geologic History of Oakland Hills • One million years ago reached current heights • Still rising about 1/16 inch/year squeezed between Hayward fault to west and Calaveras fault to east • Actual growth minimal because erosion nearly balances tectonic uplift
  7. 7. Basalt Lava • Abundant in Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Park • Hard, dense, dark volcanic rock • Dated at UC • Berkeley— 10.2 million years old (Edwards) • Quarried in modern times
  8. 8. Breccia • Many varieties of breccia in Sibley: – Tuff breccia—volcanic ash hardened to stone containing jumble of blocks and chunks of lava – Basaltic breccia—composed of fragments of basalt and other rocks cemented together – Autoclastic basaltic breccia—basaltic breccia formed in place by grinding of dike rock
  9. 9. Chert • A microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline sedimentary rock material composed of silicon dioxide • Formed when microcrystals of silicon dioxide grew within soft sediments (Geology.com)
  10. 10. Actinolite Schist • Found in Joaquin Miller Regional Park • Foliated metamorphic rock dominated by the mineral actinolite • Actinolite: dark greenish-colored amphibole calcium Ferromagnesian hydroxy-silicate that forms long blades or needle-like crystals (St. John)
  11. 11. Serpentinite • Composed of one or more serpentine group minerals • Metamorphic version of peridotite—deep-seated, low-silica rock that forms upper mantle and bottom of oceanic plates • Study of serpentinite in California contributed to understanding of modern plate tectonic theory • Unique association with California due to gold deposits and thought to promote slower ‘creep’ along faults (Romans 2010)
  12. 12. Serpentine Prairie • Many unique plants grow in serpentinite-rich soils • Redwood Regional Park’s Serpentine Prairie home to rich array of native plants
  13. 13. Redwood Regional Park • Millions of years ago redwood trees found across North America • Drying and cooling climates preceding last Ice Age drove redwoods to Pacific Coast • Now only survive in narrow fog-influenced belt • Climate in East Bay Hills generally too arid
  14. 14. Redwood Regional Park • Adapted to catch summer fog in needles and drip it down to roots • Today’s redwoods second and third generation clones of ancient giants • Redwood forest supports unique ecosystem (Slack 2004)
  15. 15. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Rainbow Trout • Steelhead trout found and named in Redwood Creek in 1855 • Redwood Creek cut off from San Francisco Bay in 1869 • Steelhead and rainbow trout same species, but steelhead metabolically morph to tolerate salt water and return to fresh water to spawn • Current rainbow trout in creek direct descendants of steelhead
  16. 16. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Rainbow Trout • Steelhead/Rainbow from family salmonids • Arose from three lineages: whitefish (Coregoninae), graylings (Thymallinae), and char, trout and salmon (Salmonidae) • Share derived traits • Salmonidae appear in fossil record middle Eocene with fossil Eosalmo driftwoodensis found in British Columbia
  17. 17. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Rainbow Trout • Gap appears in salmonine fossil record after E. driftwoodensis until late Miocene when trout-like fossils appear in Idaho • Several appear to be Oncorhynchus—current genus for Pacific salmon and some trout • Presence so far inland established Oncorhynchus present in Pacific drainages before Pliocene and diverged before beginning of Pliocene (McPhail, J.D.; Strouder, D.J. 1997)
  18. 18. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts • California or coastal newt (taricha torosa) 10 million years old • Amphibious—must stay near water because no amniotic egg • Glands in skin secrete potent neurotoxin tetrodotoxin • Garter snake only natural predator • Evolved resistance to tetrodotoxin • Locked in “arms race” as tetrodotoxin-resistant snakes cause natural selection to favor ever-more poisonous newts and more poisonous newts drive selection for higher resistance in snakes (Shelby 2008)
  19. 19. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts • Newt of family Salamandridae but not all aquatic salamanders are newts • Newts in subfamily Pleurodelinae • Newts metamorphose through three distinct stages: aquatic larva, terrestrial juvenile and adult
  20. 20. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts • Salamanders, newts and caecilians all belong to order Amphibia along with frogs and toads • Evolved from fish over millions of years as water levels changed • Ultimately amniotic egg allowed colonization of all lands
  21. 21. Redwood Regional Park Fauna: Newts (Earth History 2012)
  22. 22. Convergent Ladybird Beetle • Commonly called “ladybug” • Feed on aphids and other soft-bodied insects in grasslands and Bay wetlands • When rains stop and prey begin to disappear fly to ancestral spots in East Bay Hills • Not understood how know to fly to specific ancestral sites • Enter energy-saving semi-hibernative state • Clusters in Redwood Park in March contain hundreds of thousands of insects (Bauer 2007) • http://science.kqed.org/quest/video/ladybug- pajama-party/
  23. 23. Convergent Ladybird Beetle • Coccinellidae are family of beetles belonging to superfamily Cucujoidea • Belongs to series Cucujiformia within the suborder Polyphaga of the beetles (Coleoptera) • Nearly 6,000 species known worldwide (University of Florida)
  24. 24. Convergent Ladybird Beetle • Evolution of insects dates to Devonian period— oldest definitive insect fossil Rhyniognatha hirsti, estimated at 407 to 396 million years old • Global climate changes affected diversity of insects • Most modern insect families appeared in Jurassic, and further diversity probably in Cretaceous (Wikipedia)
  25. 25. Redwood Regional Park Flora • Forest also supports evergreens, chaparral and grasslands • Western trillium, native wild-ginger, yellow stream violet and wood violet abundant
  26. 26. References Bauer, Chris Feb 27, 2007. Ladybug Pajama Party Video Story for QUEST Northern California Romans, Brian Aug 5, 2010. Learn the Facts About Serpentinite Before It's Removed as California's State Rock. Retrieved From: http://science.kqed.org/quest/2010/08/05/learn-the-facts-about-serpentinite-before-its-removed-as-californias-state-rock/ Slack, Gordy July 1, 2004. In the Shadow of Giants: The Redwoods of the Oakland Hills. Bay Nature. Retrieved From: http://baynature.org/articles/in-the-shadow-of-giants/ Oakland Geology. Retrieved From: http://oaklandgeology.wordpress.com/ Rademacher, Horst January 6, 2012. From the Inside Out: Digging the Geology of the East Bay Hills. Bay Nature. Retrieved From: http://baynature.org/articles/from-the-inside-out/ McPhail, J.D.; Strouder, D.J. (1997). Pacific Salmon and Their Ecosystems: Status and Future Options. The Origin and Speciation of Oncorhynchus. New York, New York. Chapman & Hall Martin, Shelby March 12, 2008. Snakes slither past toxic newts in evolving race. Stanford News. Retrieved From: http://news.stanford.edu/news/2008/march12/newts-031208.html "Current Biology – Newts” June 6, 2013. ScienceDirect.com. Retrieved From: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204010322 Earth History 2012. Fish to Amphibian. Retrieved From: http://www.earthhistory.org.uk/transitional-fossils/fish-to-amphibian University of Florida. Featured Creatures. Retrieved From: http://entnemdept.ufl.edu/creatures/beneficial/lady_beetles.htm Wikipedia. Evolution of Insects. Retrieved Form: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_insects Edwards, Stephen. A Self-Guided Tour of Round Top Volcanoes. Retrieved From: http://www.ebparks.org/Assets/_Nav_Categories/Parks/Maps/Sibley+map.pdf Geology.com. What Is Chert, How Does It Form and What Is It Used For? Retrieved From http://geology.com/rocks/chert.shtml St. John, James. OSU-Newark Geology. Retrieved From: http://www.newark.osu.edu/facultystaff/personal/jstjohn/Documents/Home- page.htm

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