Germans tribes (North of Europe) fought
against The Romans for the control of the
The Visigoth kingdom
In 400A.D, the Visigoth founded a
kingdom with Toledo as its capital.
The most important kings were
Liuvigild, Recarred and
They adopted Latin, laws and
They were experts in jewellery.
THE MOORISH CONQUEST
In 711 A.D an army of Moors
arrived from Africa and won the
They conquered the whole of the
Peninsula and Balearic Islands.
The Moorish called this territory
Al-Andalus with capital in
First, Al-Andalus was an EMIRATE = a province
which depended on the Caliph of Damascus.
In 756, Abd-ar-Rahman I proclaimed himself an
In 929, Abd-ar-Rahman III established the
CALIPHATE of Cordoba until 1031.
Al-Andalus made great conquest thanks to
ALMANZOR, the most important Moorish
CORDOBA was the most important cities of the
time, densely-populated with big markets
THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS
The Christians traded and learnt
some Moorish customs.
The Christians who lived in the North, put up
strong resistance against the Moorish.
In Cantabria (722) they founded the
kingdom of Asturias but in 910 A.D they
transferred the capital to Leon and change
the name to kingdom of Leon.
In the Pyrennes, they created: The kingdom
of Navarre, the Kingdom of Aragon and the
They fought against Al-Andalus 8 centuries.
The kingdom of Navarre was The
most important kingdom in the
which won the Roman
An army of Moors invaded
The Christians in the north
put up strong resistance
The Visigoth Kingdom.
This territory was called
They conquered almost the
Of the Peninsula an
They organised the Peninsula
into kingdoms and counties.
The most important was the
Kingdom of Navarre
The Moors were tolerants with the different
religions and customs (Christians and Jews).
Al-Andalus society was diverse, made up people
of different religions
The Moorish conquerors (the most powerful
groups: government and lands)
The Muladi (Christians converted the Muslim
religion) who don't pay taxes.
The Mozarabs were Catholic who continued to
practise their religion.
. The Jews lived in districts
separated from the other
Walled cities with narrow streets.
They were good farmers and built waterwheels and invented irrigation channels.
The MEDINA was the main part where the
most important buildings were situated.
The MOSQUE was the religious building to
The SOUQ was the market.
Cultivated lands surrounded the city.
The Moors were craftsmen and merchants.
They were experts at working silk, metals, leather, pottery.
They made products in their workshop and sold them.
ART and CULTURE
The Moorish built amazing buildings in Al-Andalus.
- Poor and not durable materials such as plaster and brick.
- The walls were highly decorated to look magnificent.
- Buildings were supported by many inside columns.
- Buildings were topped by arches: horseshoe-shaped, round and pointed.
- There were fountains, pools and waterfalls in all the buildings.
- From the 10th century, Al-Andalus became an important cultural centre: doctors,
writers, astronomers, mathematicians, philosophers (Averroes and
- Spanish culture conserved many influences: words, names, food and buildings.