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How can I plan my lessons using the Backwards Approach?<br />Identify the outcomes to be learned<br />N2.2 Demonstrate understanding of addition (limited to 1 and 2-digit numerals) with answers to 100 and the corresponding subtraction by:<br />• representing strategies for adding and subtracting concretely, pictorially, and symbolically<br />• creating and solving problems involving addition and subtraction<br />• estimating<br />• using personal strategies for adding and subtracting with and without the support of manipulatives<br />• analyzing the effect of adding or subtracting zero<br />• analyzing the effect of the ordering of the quantities (addends, minuends, and subtrahends) in addition and subtraction statements.<br />[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]<br /><ul><li>Now that I have listed my outcome:</li></ul>Determine how the learning will be observed<br />What will the children do to know that the learning has occurred?<br />What should children do to demonstrate the understanding of the mathematical concepts, skills, and big ideas?<br />What assessment tools will be the most suitable to provide evidence of student understanding?<br />How can I document the children’s learning?<br />Create your assessment tools before you create your lesson task.<br />These are some indicators taken from the curriculum.<br />For today’s lesson observational notes will be taken. We can also have students explain how to record the process by the use of a flip video or document camera during show and share time.<br />The process of modeling concretely, pictorially and symbolically will be ongoing over the next few weeks.<br />Model concretely, pictorially, or physically situations that c. involve the addition or subtraction of 1 and 2-digit numbers (with answers to 100) and explain how to record the process shown in the model symbolically.<br />Generalize and apply strategies for adding and subtracting 1 d. and 2-digit numbers (with answers to 100).<br />Select and explain a mental mathematics strategy that g. can be used to determine a sum of up to 18 (or related difference):<br />Grade 2<br />Mental Math blog: http://usingmentalmath.blogspot.com/<br /> http://www.amblesideprimary.com/ambleweb/mentalmaths/countersquare.html<br />online hundreds board<br />http://www.ixl.com/math/practice/grade-2-hundreds-chart<br />Teaching Strategies<br />The main focus is to assist students to visualize the patterns in the hundreds chart, which will improve their ability to calculate mentally. While initially students may need to see a chart, ultimately they will visualize the patterns and solve problems without reference to the chart.<br />http://www.education.vic.gov.au/studentlearning/teachingresources/maths/mathscontinuum/number/N15001P.htm#a1<br />Observational Notes during Hundreds Board Crash Game<br />NameConcretelyPictoriallySymbolically<br />Plan the learning environment and instruction<br />What learning opportunities and experiences should I provide to promote the learning outcomes?<br />What will the learning environment look like?<br />What strategies do children use to access prior knowledge and continually communicate and represent understanding?<br />What teaching strategies and resources will I use?<br />How can I differentiate the lesson to challenge all students at their learning ability? How will I integrate technology, communication, mental math, reasoning, visualization, etc into this lesson? (7 Processes) <br />Look at your outcomes to see which of the processes you should be including.<br />Plan your lesson here: What lesson format will you use?<br /> BEFORE-DURING-AFTER? Math PODS? ETC.<br />[C, CN, ME, PS, R, V]<br />communication, connections, mental math and estimation, problem solving, reasoning, visualization<br />Exploring Addition on a Hundreds Chart<br />Before Stage<br />Show students a hundreds chart.<br />Pose the question:<br />Entrance slip will be used as an evaluation.<br />“Describe one way you could use the hundreds chart to find the sum of 12 and 8.”<br />This will be used as a benchmark for what they already know about the use of the hundreds chart and addition.<br />Give only a few minutes for the entrance slip, and then have a few students share their answers.<br />You may want students to come up to the hundreds board and demonstrate their understandings. Teacher models the symbolic representation on the board.<br /> (Ex.10+8+2=20)<br />Tell the students that today they will explore addition and subtraction on the hundreds board by playing an arrow game.<br />Show the students the types of arrows and what they mean.<br />Guided Instruction:Have students place the colored counter on _17__number. Draw the symbol arrow one down.What number are we on now? 27.What operation did you do? What would be the addition sentence for that?Do a few more with the students introducing up and left/right arrows.<br />During: <br />With a partner they will play a hundreds board CRASH CAR game.<br />You and your partner each need:Hundreds boardA highlighter different color than your partnersCRASH CARSWipe board or Recording SheetCalculators can be introduced on day 2Directions:Oldest goes first.Draw one “car” from the pile.Read the numeral out loud. Continue to say out loud what you are doing and thinking with your arrows.Example: I pick up a car that has the # 16I would say, ”start at 16 and go down or add 10..26 I end at 26.”I write on my wipe board 16+10=26Then use your highlighter to cover the #26.Now it is your partners turn.Repeat the above process.8 If anyone draws a CRASH car they lose a turn.<br />After or Show and Share:<br />What did you like about this game? What was difficult? Easy?<br />What strategies did you use to find your number? What operations did you use?<br />Assess student learning and follow up<br />What conclusions can be made from assessment information?<br />How effective have instructional strategies been?<br />What are the next steps for instruction?<br />How will the gaps in the development of understanding be addressed?<br />How will the children extend their learning?<br />You had mentioned that adding 8 was not difficult for your students, but subtracting 8 was.<br />If they become proficient using the hundreds board to add ten and can visualize then they will be able to subtract 8 by subtracting 10 and adding 2.<br />EX. 26-8=?<br />I think… <br />26-10=16+2=18<br />26-8=18 proof… 18+8=26<br />89+8=?<br />I think…<br />84-10=74+2=76 76+8= 70+ 6+8<br /> 70+ 14<br /> 84<br />Let’s explore this concept of subtracting 8 next lesson.<br />Notes:<br />
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