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Types of chemical reaction. Concepts are aligned with NCERT/CBSE grade 10, India

Types of chemical reaction. Concepts are aligned with NCERT/CBSE grade 10, India

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  • 1. Types of Chemical Reactions
  • 2. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Lesson Objectives After completing this lesson you will be able to classify the chemical reaction and identify the type of chemical After completing this lesson you will be able to reaction. • classify the chemical reaction • identify the type of chemical reaction
  • 3. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions In a chemical reaction , a reactant and a reagent combine and form a new product and a by-product. Reactant + Reagent  Product + By-product
  • 4. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Let us watch this reaction. What happens in this reaction?
  • 5. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Magnesium ribbon burns in air to become magnesium oxide. 2Mg + O2 2MgO Magnesium Magnesium oxide
  • 6. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions We can classify reactions into combination reaction, displacement reaction, Types of reactions decomposition reaction, double displacement reaction, neutralisation reaction, red-ox Combination reaction reactions, thermal dissociation Displacement reaction reaction and irreversible and irreversible reactions. Decomposition reaction Double displacement reaction Neutralisation reaction Oxidation - reduction reaction Thermal dissociation reaction Reversible and irreversible reaction
  • 7. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Combination Reaction In this simple combination reaction, magnesium combines with oxygen to form magnesium oxide. 2Mg + O2  2MgO Magnesium ribbon Magnesium oxide powder
  • 8. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. Na + Cl2  ? (on heating) What could be the product? View answer
  • 9. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Sodium and chlorine combine on heating to form sodium Heat chloride. 2 Na + Cl2 2 NaCl Sodium metal Chlorine gas Sodium chloride
  • 10. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Sulphur combines with iron on heating to give iron sulphide. Fe + S FeS Iron Iron powder Sulphur powder Mixing iron Iron sulphide powder and sulphur
  • 11. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Let us see some more examples of combination reaction. Nitrogen combines with hydrogen and gives ammonia on heating. Similarly sulphur combines with oxygen Heat to form sulphur dioxide. N2 + 3H2 2NH3 S + O2 SO2
  • 12. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click on the view answer button to find out the product. Complete the reactions H2 + Cl2 __?__ View answer
  • 13. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Hydrogen and chlorine combine to form hydrogen chloride. H2 + Cl2 2HCl
  • 14. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Displacement Reaction We can classify displacement reactions further into metal- metal displacement and metal-nonmetal displacement Displacement Reaction reactions. Metal-metal Metal - non-metal
  • 15. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Metal – Metal Displacement According to reactivity series the most reactive metals replace the less reactive metals.
  • 16. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. Complete the reaction Cu + AgNO3  _____ + _____ View answer
  • 17. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Since copper is more reactive Cu + 2AgNO3  2Ag + Cu(NO3)2 than silver copper replaces silver in this reaction. Copper coil Silver nitrate solution Silver and copper nitrate solution
  • 18. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Metal – Non-metal Displacement Sometimes, a metal displaces a non-metal. Different metals have different reactivities with various non-metals such as 2Na + 2H2O  2NaOH + H2 ↑ oxygen and hydrogen. For example, sodium reacts violently with water, even at room temperature to replace hydrogen, the non-metal. Reaction of sodium with water
  • 19. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Hydrogen in water is replaced by magnesium only on heating. Heat Mg + H2O MgO + H2 ↑ Magnesium powder Magnesium oxide
  • 20. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Copper does not react with Order of reactivity of metals with water water. Sodium is more reactive with water. Thus we can predict the non-metal Na > Mg > Fe > Cu displacement by the order of reactivity. Reaction of sodium with water
  • 21. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the products. Iron reacts with steam when it is red hot. Complete the equation Fe + H2O Red hot _____ + ______ View answer
  • 22. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Iron replaces hydrogen from water. Red hot 3Fe + 4H2O Fe3O4 + 4H2 ↑
  • 23. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Decomposition Reaction When a single compound breaks up into two or many simpler substances it is called decomposition reaction. Decomposition Breaking of single compound into simpler substances
  • 24. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions When we heat lead nitrate it becomes lead oxide with the evolution of oxygen gas and 2Pb(NO3)2 Heat 2PbO + 4NO2↑ + O2 ↑ brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide. Brown fumes of nitrogen dioxide
  • 25. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Watch this experiment and Why does blue copper sulphate answer the question. solution become white on heating? View answer
  • 26. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Blue copper sulphate pentahydrate undergoes decomposition on heating to give white anhydrous copper sulphate and water vapour. CuSO4.5H2O  CuSO4 + 5H2O
  • 27. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Double Displacement Reaction Two compounds react to form different compounds by mutual exchange of ions or atoms in a double displacement reaction. Double Displacement Mutual exchange of ions in two different compounds
  • 28. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions When silver nitrate reacts AgNO3 + KCl  AgCl + KNO3 with potassium chloride, it gives silver chloride and potassium nitrate. Silver nitrate solution Silver chloride solution (Colourless) (Curdy white precipitate)
  • 29. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. What happens when barium chloride is treated with sodium sulphate? View answer
  • 30. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Barium chloride gives a white precipitate of barium sulphate and sodium chloride. BaCl2 + Na2SO4  BaSO4 ↓ + 2NaCl
  • 31. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Neutralisation Reaction Neutralisation is also an example of double displacement reaction. Acid reacts with base to form salt and water. Neutralisation Acid + Base Salt + Water
  • 32. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Equimolar mixture of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric Neutralisation acid result neutralisation NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O mixture, containing sodium chloride salt and water . Did you know? When we add a few drops of phenolphthalein indicator in a neutralisation mixture with a slight excess of alkali it gives pale pink colour. Pale pink colour of neutralisation Colourless neturalisation mixture with slight excess of mixture NaOH
  • 33. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. Complete the reaction Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4  ____ + ___ View answer
  • 34. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Calcium hydroxide reacts with sulphuric acid to form calcium Ca(OH)2 + H2SO4  CaSO4↓ +2H2O sulphate and water. Calcium hydroxide Calcium sulphate Sulphuric acid
  • 35. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Oxidation - Reduction Combustion of gasoline, burning of wood and burning of food in our body are examples of oxidation.
  • 36. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions An oxidation reaction occurs as a result of either the addition of oxygen or the removal of hydrogen. A reduction reaction occurs by either the removal of Oxidation Reduction oxygen or the addition of hydrogen. Addition of oxygen Removal of oxygen Removal of Addition of hydrogen hydrogen
  • 37. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Oxidation and reduction occur simultaneously in a reaction: hence it is called redox reaction.
  • 38. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Zinc oxide undergoes reduction by losing oxygen to Carbon become zinc, and carbon undergoes oxidation by gaining oxygen, to become carbon monoxide. Zinc oxide Calcium hydroxide
  • 39. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. Identify oxidation and reduction. H2S + Cl2  2HCl + S View answer
  • 40. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions H2S + Cl2  2HCl + S H2S undergoes oxidation by the removal of hydrogen. Cl2 undergoes reduction by the addition of hydrogen.
  • 41. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Thermal Dissociation A compound is dissociated into simple compounds on heating. Since this dissociation takes place due to heating it is called ‘thermal dissociation’. Thermal = By heating Dissociation = Splitting into simple compounds
  • 42. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Hydrogen peroxide dissociates on heating, to give water and oxygen, in the presence of In the presence of MnO2 manganese oxide. Heat 2H2O2 2H2O + O2 MnO2 Hydrogen Water Oxygen peroxide
  • 43. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. What happens when ammonia is heated in the presence of tungsten as catalyst? View answer
  • 44. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Ammonia dissociates into nitrogen and hydrogen in the presence of tungsten. Ammonia dissociates into nitrogen and hydrogen in the presence of tungsten. Heat 2NH3 N2 + 3H2
  • 45. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Reversible and Irreversible Reactions You can compare reversible and irreversible reactions as S.No. Reversible reaction Irreversible reaction shown in the table. 1. The reaction can be The reaction can be started started from either from the reactant side only. side. 2. Forward and Only the forward reaction backward reactions takes place. are in equilibrium. 3. Represented by an Represented by an normal equilibrium arrow arrow 4. The reaction is never The reaction proceeds to complete. completion. Next
  • 46. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Thermal decomposition of phosphorus pentachloride into phosphorus trichloride and chlorine is a good example of a reversible reaction. PCl5 PCl3 + Cl2Phosphorus pentachloride Phosphorus trichloride
  • 47. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Phosphorus pentachloride dissociates into phosphorus trichloride and chlorine in the forward reaction Forward reaction PCl5  PCl3 + Cl2 Reactant Products
  • 48. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Phosphorus trichloride and chlorine combine with each other to become phosphorus pentachloride in the backward reaction. Backward reaction PCl5  PCl3 + Cl2 Product Reactants
  • 49. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Neutralisation between a strong acid and strong base is an irreversible reaction, with the evolution of heat. NaOH + HCl  NaCl + H2O + 13.7 kcal
  • 50. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Interactivity Click the view answer button to find out the product. Match the type of reaction 1 ZnCO3 Heat  ZnO + CO2 A Redox reaction 2 Mg + H2SO4  MgSO4 + H2 B Combination reaction 3 2NaI + Cl2  2NaCl + I2 C Decomposition reaction 4 4Na + O2  2Na2O D Single displacement reaction View answer
  • 51. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions 1 ZnCO3 Heat  ZnO + CO2 C Decomposition reaction 2 Mg + H2SO4  MgSO4 + H2 D Single displacement reaction 3 2NaI + Cl2  2NaCl + I2 A Redox reaction 4 4Na + O2  2Na2O B Combination reaction
  • 52. CBSE - 10 Chemical Reactions and EquationsChemistry Types of Chemical Reactions Summary Combination In this lesson you have learnt different types of chemical reactions such as combination , Reversible Decomposition decomposition, thermal dissociation, redox, & neutralisation, displacement, Thermal double displacement , Irreversible dissociation reversible and irreversible reactions. Displacement Redox Double Neutralisation displacement Types of Reaction