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Cardiovascular system
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Transcript

  • 1. WELCOME TO SESSION OF CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
  • 2. Cardiovascular System
  • 3. Cardiovascular System • It is composed of Heart, Blood vessels and Blood. • The Cardiovascular System effects the circulation of blood around the body, which bring about transport of nutrients, hormones and oxygen to the tissues and the removal of waste products.
  • 4. Circulatory System • The Circulatory System is an organ system that passes blood and lymph to and from cells in the body. The Circulatory system as composed of the Cardiovascular System, which distributes blood, and the lymphatic system, which returns excess filtered blood plasma from the interstitial fluid (between cells) as lymph. The Circulation is divided into two parts- 1. General or systemic circulation. 2. Pulmonary circulation.
  • 5. The Human Circulatory System
  • 6. Systemic circulation Passage of blood from left ventricle to the tissues and from the tissues to right atrium.
  • 7. Pulmonary circulation Passege of blood from right ventricle to the lungs and from the lungs to the left atrium.
  • 8. Portal circulation A general term denoting the circulation of blood through larger vessels from the capillaries of one organ to those of another; applied to the passage of blood from the gastrointestinal tract and spleen through the portal vein to the liver.
  • 9. Coronary circulation It refers to the movement of blood through the tissues of the heart.
  • 10. Passage of Blood Through the Heart • Sequence of blood flow : superior and inferior vena cava → right atrium → right ventricle → pulmonary arteries → lungs → pulmonary veins → left atrium → left ventricle → aorta → to the body.
  • 11. Heartbeat animation on a loop or in stages.
  • 12. Paths of blood through the Heart
  • 13. Circulation Functions of circulation 1. To supply the O2, nutrition, vitamins to the tissues. 2. To carry away different metabolic waste products and CO2 from tissues for elimination. 3. To prevent intravascular coagulation of blood. 4. Helps to maintain thermal balance through out the body. 5. Maintain optimum environment for cellular function.
  • 14. It is composed of- a) Heart, b) Blood vessels- Artery, Vein, Capillaries. c) Blood Blood Circulatory System
  • 15. Blood Vessels Can be classified in two major types : Artery : Vessels that carry oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery) is called artery e.g. Aorta, arterioles. Veins : Vessels that carry deoxygenated blood (except pulmonary vein) is called vein e.g. Superior venacava, venules.
  • 16. Heart • It is a central pumping organ. It receives and pumps out blood to the whole body. • The Heart placed obliquely 1/3 of it lies to the right side and 2/3 to the left side. • The Heart measure about 12X9 cm & weight about 300gm in male & 250 gm in female.
  • 17. Location of the Heart
  • 18. Heart Contractions
  • 19. Filling of Heart Chambers – the Cardiac Cycle
  • 20. Chambers of Heart Upper portion of heart- • Right atrium • Left atrium Lower portion of heart- • Right ventricle • Left ventricle Receiving chambers Distributing chambers
  • 21. Septum • The wall separating the left and right ventricles & atrium
  • 22. Valves of Heart • The Heart is provided with valves to prevent the backward flow of blood. • There are four main valves- 1.Right atrioventricular valve or Tricuspid valve 1. Left atriventricular valve or Bicuspid valve or Mitral valve 1.Pulmonary valve 2.Aortic valve
  • 23. The heart consists of three layers: 1. The Pericardium or outer layer 2. The Myocardium or the middle muscular layer 3. The Endocardium or the inner layer Structures of Heart
  • 24. Blood Blood is a specialized fluid connective tissue that circulates through the whole body by the Heart. It forms about one-twentieth of the body weight. So that the average volume is 5-6 liters. Blood = blood cells + plasma
  • 25. Components of blood • Human body consists of a solid part(45%) and a fluid part (55%) • The components of Human blood are- 1.Plasma- It is liquid part of blood, which is a solution of protein and salts. 2.Blood cells (Solid part)- a) Red blood cells (RBC) or, Erythrocytes b) White blood cells (WBC) or, Leykocytes c) Platelets or, Thrombocytes
  • 26. Functions of Blood 1. Carry oxygen (O2) and carbon-dioxide (CO2) 2. Carry minerals, hormones,waste materials, antibody etc. 3. Temerature control.
  • 27. Blood Pressure It is the lateral pressure exerted by the moving blood on the vessel wall while flowing through it. BP = CO X PR BP = Blood Pressure CO = Cardiac output PR = Peripheral resistance
  • 28. Normal Blood Pressure : 120 / 80 mm of Hg
  • 29. Types of Blood pressure Systolic pressure: It is the maximum pressure during systole. It is about: 100-140 mm of Hg. Average: 120 mm Hg Diastolic pressure: It is the minimum pressure during diastole. It is about: 60-90 mm Hg Average: 80 mm Hg
  • 30. Measurement of blood pressure
  • 31. Functions of blood pressure  It is essential for the flow of blood through the circulatory tree  It provides motive force for filtration at the capillary bed which is essential for- • a. Tissue nutrition b. Formation of urine • c. Formation of lymph d. For venous return
  • 32. Multiple-choice quiz
  • 33. DISEASES Hypertension Hypertension is a clinical condition in which the Blood pressure is chronically elevated. Hypertension is a clinical • Primary or Essential Hypertension • When arterial blood pressure persistently exceeds 150/90 or 160/100 mm of Hg. Its cause is unknown. • Secondary Hypertension • It is due to other diseases, as renal diseases, phaeochromocytoma, by excess secretion of glucocorticoids or aldosterone, by coarctation of aorta.
  • 34. HYPERTENSION cont’d Types of Hypertension • Primary or Essential Hypertension When arterial blood pressure persistently exceeds 150/90 or 160/100 mm of Hg. Its cause is unknown. • Secondary Hypertension It is due to other diseases, as renal diseases, phaeochromocytoma, by excess secretion of glucocorticoids or aldosterone, by coarctation of aorta.
  • 35. Uncontrolled Hypertension Complications are- 1. Congestive Heart Failure 1. Heart Attack 2. Angina 3. Stroke 4. Effects on Eye 5. Effects on Kidney.
  • 36. Heart Failure Heart failure (HF) often called congestive heart failure (CHF) is an inability of the heart to provide sufficient pump action to distribute blood flow to meet the needs of the body.
  • 37. Heart Attack A state results from the interruption of blood supply to heart muscle.
  • 38. Angina Angina or angina pectoris is a discomfort/pain in the chest and adjacent area due to a transiently inadequate blood supply to the heart.
  • 39. Stable angina Stable angina is chest pain or discomfort that often occurs with activity or stress. It is relieved with rest or medicine called Nitroglycerin. Vasospastic angina This type of angina is caused by spasm of the coronary arteries
  • 40. Cardiac arrhythmia An abnormal heart rate, rhythm & conduction. Tachycardia Means fast heart rate. Usually more than 100 beat/minute. Bradycardia Means slow heart rate. Usually less than 60 beat/minute.
  • 41. Myocardial infarction Death of a segment of heart muscle, which follows interruption of its blood supply.
  • 42. Myocardial infarction