Torsion of uterus is the rotation of pregnant
uterus on its longitudinal axis.
Rotation of uterus may cause narrowing to
complete obstruction of the birth canal.
When this occurs the calf is unable to enter
the cervix and therefore the cow will not
enter Stage 2 of labor.
It is observed more commonly in multiparous
and advanced pregnant animals.
Delay in diagnosis results in the delivery of dead foetus
since hypoxia can result from placental separation, due to
venous congestion,even if the membranes have not
Severe vascular congestion of the uterine wall
In cases of sudden fall, sudden push from other
animal and bumpy movements during
transportation, the fetus in advanced pregnant
uterus may respond with violent movements
exposing unstable pregnant uterus to torsion.
Reduced amount of amniotic fluid leads to
decrease in distance between fetus and uterine
wall. Fetus feels abrupt movements of dam as a
painful stimulus and in response, performs
strong reflexive movements which may cause
the rotation of uterus.
Reduced amount of amniotic fluid also
decreases the size of uterus which allows free
intra-abdominal movement of uterus.
During pregnancy, there is a relatively small
increase in the length of the broad ligaments
causing the uterus to curve around the point of
attachment.This anatomical arrangement
permits an increased uterine mobility in late
gestation and predispose to development of a
uterine torsion .
Swimming in water is considered the most
common cause in case of buffaloes.
While lying down, buffaloes go down on fore
legs first and while getting up, the
hindquarters are elevated first, thus each
time, the pregnant uterus is temporarily
suspended in the abdominal cavity and is
prone to torsion.
The twisting of the uterus makes a pressure
on the middle uterine vein which results in
disturbances in the venous circulation and
increases the CO2 tension in foetal blood.
As a result the foetus makes vigorous
movements and this aggravates the
condition and causes the uterus to be turned
more to a severe degree.
This presses upon the middle uterine artery
and decreases the O2 going to the foetus.
If the case is neglected the foetus dies and
may undergo emphysemation or
Kicking at abdomen.
These symptoms disappear after few days
and the animal suffer only from anorexia.
NOTE -These signs should not be confused
with a case of simple digestive disorder.
History: It would reveal as if calving was eminent
but without true labor
pain, uneasiness, restlessness, kicking at
External examination: Weak and rapid
pulse, depression, low body
temperature, haemorrhagic symptoms like
▪ The dorsal commissure of vulva may be pulled forward
and to left or right.
Fig:Twisting of the vulva
due to right uterine
Per vaginal examination: It reveals spiral twisting
of vaginal wall and stenosis of vagina.
Rectal examination : It would reveal that one side
broad ligament pulled strongly downward and
under the twisted uterine body and cervix and the
opposite broad ligament pulled tightly across over
the uterine body and cervix.
▪ Tightly stretched middle uterine artery and twisting of
The relative portion of the broad ligament is diagramed for
A) 180 degree right (clockwise) uterine torsion (lower left)
B)180 degree left (counter-clockwise) uterine torsion ( lower
Rotation of foetus and uterus when hands
may pass through the twisted portion (for
lesser degree torsion).
Rolling of dam (very fast).
Rolling of dam using plank (Schaffer’s
Laparohysterotomy (Caesarean Section).
Rolling in the laying position in the direction
of torsion is indicated if the buffalo is
recumbent and the fetus can not be reached
due to the location or severity of the
torsion, or if the animal is pre-parturient.
This method was designed for buffaloes due to their
thick skin which causes skidding of plank during
detorsion of uterus and their pendulous abdomen
which warrants greater pressure for fixation of
Principle is to rotate the dam to the same
degree and direction to which the uterus has
rotated, keeping the fetus fixed by fixing
uterus with a plank (length: 11.9 feet,
width: 9 inch and thickness: 2 inch).
A) Three assistants are standing on the lower end of plank and another
assistant is ready to press the upper end of plank, B) and C) while the
buffalo is being rolled, two assistants fix the lower end of plank, one
assistant moves upon the plank and other assistant modulates the
pressure on the plank by pressing the upper end of plank.
Caesarean is usually attempted when
All other methods of detorsion had failed.
There is failure of complete cervical dilatation
subsequent to successful detorsion.
The uterine and cervical tissues in the vicinity of
the torsion have become extremely friable and
may subject to rupture when traction is applied