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Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011
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Csp600 lecture-2-sept2011

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  1. CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Lecture 2: Research in Academic ProjectCS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012
  2. CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATIONToday’s Lecture Outline 1. Concept of Research 2. Research Process 3. Research Methods and Technique 4. Research Ethics CONTENTCS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 2
  3. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE ProjectsFormal Definition: Merriam Webster (m-w.com). Encyclopaedia Brittanica.http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/research. Retrieved 13September 2011.The word research derives from Middle French (see French language); itsliteral meaning is to investigate thoroughly.Research can be defined as the search for knowledge, or as anysystematic investigation, to establish novel facts, solve new or existingproblems, prove new ideas, or develop new theories, usually using ascientific method. The primary purpose for basic research (as opposed toapplied research) is discovering, interpreting, and the development ofmethods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on awide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe.From literature review:Drawing from Kuhn (1996) and Lakatos (1978), research can be verygenerally defined as an activity that contributes to the understanding of aphenomenon. CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 3
  4. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE Projects Theory is a coherent set of generalDimensions of Research: propositions, used as principles of explanation of the amount of the Theories apparent relationships of certain observed phenomenon The WHAT Concepts DeductiveA proposition is a Reasoningstatementconcerned with RESEARCHthe relationship Abductivebetween concepts Propositions Reasoning The HOW Scientific Method Inductive Hypotheses are Reasoning propositions which are empirically Hypotheses testable. They are usually concerned Empiricism with the relationships between variables CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 4
  5. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE ProjectsIn general : to solve problem1 Make-sense-of what is happening: to understand a phenomenon (the problem, methods, used,processes involved in providing the solution).2 Explain what is happening (or validate an explanation): to describe a phenomenon (the problem, the solution, themethod of solving, the outcome).3 Predict what will happen: to analyse a phenomenon and find a pattern.4 Cause something particular to happen: to make a phenomenon exists (to develop a system to beused by users). CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 5
  6. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE Projects In need of decision-making in deciding the process to solve a problem or to choose alternative opportunities/method of solving the problem What is the problem or solution? How much Information is available? What Information is needed? Complete Absolute Decision-Making Certainty Ambiguity Situation Value of Research CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 6
  7. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE Projects1. Basic Research (fundamental or pure research) is defined as theoretical/experimental research conducted to develop hypothesis/theories to acquire new knowledge on phenomena/ observable facts without directly giving consideration to specific application/uses. Basic research is exploratory.2. Applied research is done to solve specific, practical questions; its primary aim is not to gain knowledge for its own sake. It can be exploratory, but is usually descriptive. It explores new applications of method which are already in practical application using knowledge discovered through basic research.3. Experimental Development is the utilisation of knowledge acquired from basic/applied research and actual experience and research designed for introduction of new materials, equipment, system or processes and their improvement. BASIC EXPERIMENTAL APPLIED Non-Specificity Specificity CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 7
  8. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE Projects THEORY Using deductive reasoning, one HYPOTHESES starts with a given theory as the basis for which we develop hypotheses and then confirm these with specific data acquired using observation OBSERVATION or experimentation (Is our theory valid or not?) CONFIRMATION CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 8
  9. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE Projects OBSERVATION Using inductive reasoning, one PATTERN starts with a specific observation as the basis for which we develop a general pattern and tentative hypothesis as the foundation TENTATIVE of a theory HYPOTHESIS THEORY CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 9
  10. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 What is Research? 600- PROJECT FORMULATION CSP2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Why research in Academic Project? 1.3 Types of Research?3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Types of Reasoning in Research 1.5 Research Opportunities in ISE ProjectsFor ISE PROJECT : Each stage of the complete ISE lifecycle exists elements of research that can beexplored, investigated, utilized or evaluated by a potential academic projectFor example (but not limited to):Schedule of Work & WBS DB Physical & Coding Planning Stage Development Stage D Application Framework Planning Methodology Resources Planning O Database Development Timeline Estimation C Coding and Programming Language Cost Estimation Architecture and Best Practices, ISP U Testing Documentation , User & Requirements Stage SRS M System Manual Implementation Stage Stakeholder behavior E System Testing Requirement Gathering Techniques N User Testing Requirement Engineering, Requirement Negotiation T System Deployment Requirement Analysis Validation & Verification Techniques A Change Request, Maintenance Contract SDD & DB Logical T Post-Implementation Stage Design Stage I Upgrading Data modeling, Database Design & Database Maintenance Engineering O User Acceptance Human Computer Interaction N Practice Improvement System Design Modeling Language Design Patterns Case Tools Database Security Project Management, Configuration Management Standard System Development Methodology, Risk Management, Change Management CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 10
  11. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Defining the Problem 2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Planning the Research Design 1.3 Gather Data 3. RESEARCH METHODS 4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Analyze Data 1.5 Reporting ResearchGenerally, research is understood to follow a certain structural process. Though step order may varydepending on the subject matter and researcher, the following steps are usually part of most formalresearch, both basic and applied: Define Conclusions Problem and Report The problem definition process involves the following steps: 1. Get the stakeholder’s issues/concern Planning a 2. Understanding the issues/concern Research Design (Observation, Preliminary Interviews, Literature Review) 3. Isolating and identify the problem (not the symptoms) to be solved Processing and 4. Determining the unit of analysis Analysing the Data 5. State objectives Gathering the Data CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 11
  12. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Defining the Problem2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Planning the Research Design 1.3 Gather Data3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Analyze Data 1.5 Reporting Research Define Problem Conclusions and Report The planning a research design process involves the following steps: 1. Conduct Literature Review 2. Decide on reasoning method Planning a 3. Decide on sampling data Research Design 4. Decide on data collection method 5. Decide on data analysis method 6. Propose research design (roadmap) Processing and Analysing the Data Gathering the Data CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 12
  13. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Defining the Problem2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Planning the Research Design 1.3 Gather Data3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Analyze Data 1.5 Reporting Research Define Problem Conclusions and Report The data collection process involves the following steps: 1. Conduct Literature Review 2. Prepare data gathering instrument (e.g. Planning a questionnaires, prototype, etc.) Research Design 3. Get the stakeholder’s time for appointment 4. Conduct selected data gathering method 5. Document and Video Taping Processing and 6. Prepare data for analysis Analysing the Data Gathering the Data CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 13
  14. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Defining the Problem2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Planning the Research Design 1.3 Gather Data3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Analyze Data 1.5 Reporting Research Define Problem Conclusions and Report The data analysis process involves the following steps: 1. Conduct Literature Review 2. Ensure thorough understanding of the data Planning a analysis method Research Design 3. Find tools for analysis (recommended) 4. Conduct ethical analysis 5. Synthesize findings Processing and 6. Prepare findings for reporting Analysing the Data Gathering the Data CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 14
  15. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Defining the Problem2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Planning the Research Design 1.3 Gather Data3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Analyze Data 1.5 Reporting Research Define Problem Conclusions and Report The reporting process involves the following steps: 1. Gather all Literature Review 2. Get reporting format 3. Decide on citation and referencing format Planning a 4. Write report according to standard format Research Design 5. Proof read 6. Present and Submit Processing and Analysing the Data Gathering the Data CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 15
  16. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Types of Research Method2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Scientific Method 1.3 Interpretive Method3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Options of research methodsResearch methods and research techniques are almost interchangeably used.However research method (refers to behaviour and instruments used inselecting and constructing techniques) is more general than techniques(behaviour and instruments used in research . Research method is classifiedGalliers(1992 ) specific for information system research as: “QUANTITATIVE” “QUALITATIVE” “Scientific” Scientific” and “Interpretive” “Interpretive” Lab Experiments Action research Field experiments Subjective / argumentative Surveys Descriptive / interpretive Case studies Futures research Forecasting Reviews Simulation Galliers, R., "Choosing Information System Research (Grounded research) Approaches," in Galliers, R. (ed.), Information System Research: Issues, Methods and Practical Guidelines, Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, 1992, pp. 144-162. CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012
  17. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Types of Research Method2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Scientific Method 1.3 Interpretive Method3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Options of research methodsThe scientific method concerns with the set of tools, techniques and procedures used by basic andapplied researchers to analyze and understand phenomena and prove or disprove prior conceptions Characteristics of the Scientific Method Objectivity Elements of the Systematic Analysis Scientific Method Logical Interpretation of Results Empirical Approach Observations Questions Hypotheses Experiments Basic General Laws Analysis Research Scientific Conclusion Method Replication Applied Information or Research Ideas for alternative Courses of action CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 17
  18. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Types of Research Method2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Scientific Method 1.3 Interpretive Method3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Options of research methodsThe scientific method concerns with the set of tools, techniques and procedures used by basic andapplied researchers to analyze and understand phenomena and prove or disprove prior conceptions Characteristics of the Scientific Method Objectivity Elements of the Systematic Analysis Scientific Method Logical Interpretation of Results Empirical Approach Observations Questions Hypotheses Experiments Basic General Laws Analysis Research Scientific Conclusion Method Replication Applied Information or Research Ideas for alternative Courses of action CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 18
  19. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Types of Research Method2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Scientific Method 1.3 Interpretive Method3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Options of research methods Problem Discovery Selection of Secondary (historical) data exploratory Pilot Study research technique Experience Survey Case Study Problem Definition (Statement of research objectives) Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Selection of Experiment (Laboratory, Field) basic research Secondary Data Study method Observation CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 19
  20. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Types of Research Method2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Scientific Method 1.3 Interpretive Method3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS 1.4 Options of research methods Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Collection of Data (Fieldwork) Secondary Data Study Observation Editing and Coding Data Sample Design Data Processing and Analysis Interpretation of Findings Probability Non-Probability Sampling Sampling Report CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 20
  21. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 The Concern of CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Ethics2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Ethical Interfaces 1.3 Ethical Consideration3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS Ethics & Morals Student’s Conduct and Discipline Societal norms and values Divergent perceptions of what is considered ethical and unethical What is “ethical” in information systems research? Ethical Guidelines and professional associations CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 21
  22. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 The Concern of CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Ethics2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Ethical Interfaces 1.3 Ethical Consideration3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS Users/Stakeholders’ Rights Faculty’s Rights Researchers’ Obligation Researchers’ Obligation Stakeholder Researcher (Student) Project Owner Researchers’ Rights Researchers’ Rights Stakeholder’ Obligation Faculty’s Obligation Stakeholders Rights & Faculty Obligation 29 August 2005 Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 CS226: BSc ISE 22
  23. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 The Concern of CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Ethics2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Ethical Interfaces 1.3 Ethical Consideration3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS STAKEHOLDER Truthfulness in giving information to the researcher if a stakeholder or respondent gives his or her consent to participate in a research study Sustained cooperativeness with the researcher throughout the course of the research study Adhere to responsibility if informed consent is given to the researcher State any constraints or limitations in advance CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 23
  24. 1. CONCEPT OF RESEARCH 1.1 The Concern of CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATION Ethics2. RESEARCH PROCESS 1.2 Ethical Interfaces 1.3 Ethical Consideration3. RESEARCH METHODS4. Introduction RESEARCH ETHICS RESEARCHER No deception, be truthful and do not conceal the true purpose of the research Maintain objectivity, courtesy and high professional standards through scientific process No falsification, alteration or misrepresentation of data for self-interest or other purposes Protect the confidentiality of the stakeholder, respondent and project owners No faulty conclusions No inclusion or use of information or ideas contained in competing research proposals CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 24
  25. CSP 600- PROJECT FORMULATIONConclusion : A Point to Ponder QUESTIONS ?CS226: BSc ISE Lecture By Dr Ariza Nordin Sept 2011 – Jan 2012 25

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