Carbon Capture And Grow Cc Sus Conf.

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Flue gas mitigation technology that will aid in alleviating our emissions from point sources (i.e. power plants) by supplementing growth of ALGAE to produces our transportation sector fuels.

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Carbon Capture And Grow Cc Sus Conf.

  1. 1. “ Carbon Capture and Grow ” ( CCG:Algae) Christopher Castro I.D.E.A.S. I ntellectual D ecisions on E nvironmental A wareness S olutions
  2. 2. I.D.E.A.S I ntellectual D ecisions on E nvironmental A wareness S olutions <ul><li>A proactive student organization started to inspire and promote environmental sustainability on campuses and provide student involvement/service learning opportunities towards environmental stewardship and conservation. I.D.E.A.S. also advocates and performs research in advanced biofuels, energy efficiency and renewable sources of energy. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Algae <ul><li>Simple photoautotrophic organisms that range from very small, unicellular microalgae to multicellular macroalgae, such as kelp. </li></ul><ul><li>Over 300,000 species of algae , most being photosynthetic, conducting photosynthesis within membrane-bound organelles called chloroplasts. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>deriving energy from the sun and naturally sequester CO 2 to produce energy and biomass. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fastest growing plant organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40x more efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Greatest lipid-to-biomass ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50% of weight is oil (biodiesel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 50% carbohydrates (ethanol) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Types of Algae <ul><li>Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>significant component of the marine nitrogen cycle and an important primary producer in many areas of the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diatoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most common types of phytoplankton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Microalgae (microphytes) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sizes can range from a few micrometers (µm) to a few hundreds of micrometers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>produce approximately half of the atmospheric oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less complex structure, fast growth rate, and high oil content </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Growing Algae <ul><li>The primary requirements for growing algae are sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide (CO2) </li></ul><ul><li>Photo bioreactors (PBR) vs. Open pond Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Algae requires nutrients and environmental conditions appropriate to the specific algal species </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- ranging from environments as diverse as the arctic and hot springs. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 8. Photo Bioreactors (PBR) <ul><li>The algae grow within closed plastic bags or tubes , which reduces the possibility of infestation drastically. </li></ul><ul><li>A low-energy temperature control system keeps the algae within a temperature range that optimizes growth. </li></ul><ul><li>CO2 is injected into the photo-bioreactor for supplemented photosynthesis reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much Greater Yields! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fresh, non-potable or salt water may be used. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Close Looped Systems </li></ul></ul>
  7. 11. Open Pond System <ul><li>Very low capital cost </li></ul><ul><li>Problems? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contamination problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of temperature, nutrient and pH variability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raceway ponds , usually lined with plastic or cement, are about 20 to 35 cm deep to ensure adequate exposure to sunlight. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paddlewheels provide motive force and keep the algae suspended in the water. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ponds are supplied with water and nutrients, and mature algae are continuously removed at one end. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 13. Aquatic Species Program <ul><li>DOE 16 year alternative energy research program (1978-1996) by President Jimmy Carter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the production of energy and biodiesel using algae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 3,000 species collected and tested </li></ul><ul><li>Overall investment ~$25M </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on increasing their lipid content by screening for tolerance of salinity, temperature, pH, and reducing the supply of key nutrients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nitrogen and silicon. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open pond system resulting in the creation of 1000 square meter pond systems in Roswell, New Mexico . </li></ul>
  9. 14. A.S.P. - Conclusions <ul><li>Production of bio-diesel from algae would only become cost effective if petro-diesel prices rose to twice the 1998 levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around $20 per barrel in 1998 vs. $60 per barrel today </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collection narrowed to 300 most promising strains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>greens (Chlorophyceae) and diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ample land, water and CO2 resources available in Southwest for “several Quads” (30+ billion gallons?) of fuel per year </li></ul><ul><li>Screw Press and Solvent extraction of oil through the cell wall is feasible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyclohexane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No perfect strain for all climates and water types </li></ul>NREL: http://www.nrel.gov/biomass
  10. 15. Carbon-Capture-and-Grow <ul><li>With low construction, energy and operational costs, the process mitigates CO2 emissions profitably and is able to produce extremely high algae growth rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Does not impact the operations of the power plant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>designed to be retrofitted to flue stacks with minimal impact on ongoing operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitigation of power plant emissions…!! </li></ul>
  11. 16. Algae in Numbers <ul><ul><ul><li>Algae can capture “flue gas” emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>90% of the CO 2 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>85% of the NO x </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50 Metric Tons of CO 2 per acre </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theoretical Photosynthesis Conversion Efficiency of 12% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Over 100 times that of the average of all other biomass </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bioreactors are currently running at 6% efficiency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically modified RuBsiCO could increase the efficiency to the theoretical potential of 12% </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing Current Consumption of Crude Oil </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At theoretical 12% conversion efficiency = 2.3 X 10 5 square miles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>At current 6% conversion efficiency = 4.6 X 10 5 square miles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 17. Costs <ul><li>CAPITAL COSTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$10000 - $80000 per acre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>OPERATION AND MAINTANENCE COSTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>$4000 - $10000 per acre </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TOTAL COST RANGE = $14,000 to $90,000 per acre. </li></ul>
  13. 18. Outputs <ul><li>PER ACRE / PER YEAR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50 tons of CO 2 sequestered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5000 to 50000 gallons of biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20 to 100 tons of algae </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ONE TON OF ALGAE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 2 TONS of CO 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- 1200 lbs. of biomass / 800 lbs. Lipids / Fats. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* Doesn’t take into account mitigation of CO2 and its potential profitability </li></ul></ul>
  14. 19. Existing Projects
  15. 20. Three Algal Production Strategies <ul><li>1. Oil independence. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large-scale algal farms will displace oil imports, enable energy independence and eventually end to the need to use fossil fuels with extensive help from other forms of carbon neutral fuels. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Halt and reverse climate change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Growing algae in large areas of the oceans, especially dead zones will sequester the CO2 released from fossil fuels and halt global climate change. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Solve world hunger. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-scale algal gardens will serve for ending hunger in America and the world. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Using Algae <ul><li>Advanced Bio fuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioethanol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biobutanol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biogasoline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jet Fuel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal feed </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient Supplement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen fixation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharmaceuticals </li></ul><ul><li>Desalinization </li></ul><ul><li>Biofilters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of Waste water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medicinal Purposes </li></ul>
  17. 22. Drying Solid Biomass Gasification Hydrogen, Synthesis gas Anaerobic Digestion Methane Fermentation Ethanol Extraction and Transesterification Biodiesel Primary Processing Steps Final Product
  18. 24. Algal Oil <ul><li>Converting algae oil into biodiesel uses the same process that turns vegetable oils into biodiesel. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transesterification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many strains of algae are 50% oil by weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction Methods Vary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Screw Press (70% of oils) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent Extraction (95% of oils) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Algae can produce 5,000 to 50,000 gallons per acre, per year </li></ul>
  19. 27. <ul><li>Algae Biodiesel contains NO sulfur, is non-toxic and highly biodegradable. </li></ul><ul><li>Less BTU. Better Lubricant . </li></ul><ul><li>Zero modifications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mixed, at any ratio, with conventional petroleum diesel. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 28. <ul><li>Table 2. Engine emission </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Emission 100% Ester Fuel (B100) 20/80 Mix (B20) </li></ul><ul><li>____________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbons - 52.4% -19.0% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Monoxide - 47.6% -26.1% </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrous Oxides - 10.0% -3.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon Dioxide + 0.9% +.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Particulates + 9.9% -2.8% </li></ul>Table 1. Fuel properties. Fuel Heat of Cetan Viscosity Weight Combustion Number Centistokes _________________________________________________________ Lbs./gal. BTU/gal. -No. 2 diesel 7.05 140,000 48 3.0 - 100% Biodiesel (B100) Methyl or ethyl ester 7.3 130,000 55 5.7 -B20 mix (20/80) 7.1 138,000 50 3.3 -Raw vegetable oil 7.5 130,000 35 to 45 40 to 50 Biodiesel Properties
  21. 29. Algae Ethanol <ul><li>&quot;Every gallon of ethanol made creates one gallon of fresh water out of salt water.“ -Algenol Biofuels </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Algae Carbohydrates (Biomass) for Fermentation </li></ul><ul><li>1. Does NOT require food based feedstocks like corn or sugarcane. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Does NOT require harvesting. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Does NOT require fossil fuel based fertilizers. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Does NOT require fresh water. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Does NOT require large amounts of fossil fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>6. Does NOT require arable land. </li></ul>
  22. 30. Corn vs . Algae <ul><li>20 million acres of corn to produce 7 billion gallons of ethanol (2009) </li></ul><ul><li>one quarter of non-arable desert ( 5 million acres ) of Algae has the potential to produce 50 billion gallons of ethanol or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn produces 400 gallons per acre per year of ethanol. </li></ul><ul><li>Algae could produce at the rate of over 6,000 gallons per acre per year of ethanol. </li></ul>
  23. 31. An easy choice! <ul><li>Why not use traditional oilseed crops such as corn, soybeans or rapeseed? </li></ul><ul><li>ALGAE HAS… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Yields </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better Use of Land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>( tackles Indirect Land use Change) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced Carbon Emissions/Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent Harvests </li></ul></ul>http://www.hrbp.com/Algae/AlgaeOil.html
  24. 32. Just a piece of the puzzle.. <ul><li>Using Algae for filtering flue gas and the making of advanced biofuels won’t stop the global warming cycle but this new process, along with other efforts, may very well lessen it’s overall effects in the long run. </li></ul>
  25. 34. IDEASforUs.org [email_address]

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