Functional groups and haloalkanes power point presentation

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Power point presentation regarding the fundamental understanding of the functional group.

Power point presentation regarding the fundamental understanding of the functional group.

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  • 1. Haloalkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes Functional Groups Haloalkanes 1
  • 2. Functional Groups  Part of an organic molecule where    chemical reactions take place Composed of an atom or group of atoms Replace a H in the corresponding alkane Provide a way to classify organic compounds 2
  • 3. Some Types of Functional Groups Haloalkane -F, -Cl, -Br CH3Cl Alcohol -OH CH3OH Ether -OO CH3-O-CH3 C H CH3CH Aldehyde Ketone O O O C CH3CCH3 3
  • 4. More Functional Groups Carboxylic acid -COOH CH3COOH Ester -COO- CH3COOCH3 Amine -NH2 CH3NH2 Amide -CONH2 CH3CONH2 4
  • 5. Haloalkanes An alkane in which one or more H atoms is replaced with a halogen (F, Cl, Br, or I) CH3Br 1-bromomethane Br (methyl bromide) CH3CH2CHCH3 2-bromobutane Cl chlorocyclobutane 5
  • 6. Learning Check HA1 Name the following: Br Cl Cl 6
  • 7. Solution HA1 Name the following: Br bromocyclopentane Cl 1,3-dichlorocyclohexane Cl 7
  • 8. Substituents List other attached atoms or group in alphabetical order Br = bromo, Cl = chloro Cl Br CH3CHCH2CHCH2CH2CH3 4-bromo-2-chloroheptane 8
  • 9. Learning Check HA2 The name of this compound is: Cl CH3 CH3CH2CHCH2CHCH3 1) 2,4-dimethylhexane 2) 3-chloro-5-methylhexane 3) 4-chloro-2-methylhexane 9
  • 10. Solution HA2 The name of this compound is: Cl CH3 CH3CH2CHCH2CHCH3 3) 4-chloro-2-methylhexane 10
  • 11. Haloalkanes as Anesthetics Halothane (Fluothane) F Cl F C C Br F H Fluothane is a haloalkane that is widely used as an anesthetic, which is a compound that decreases the ability of the nerve cells to conduct pain. 11
  • 12. Ozone Layer Ozone layer Stratosphere (10-30 miles Above Earth) 12
  • 13. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs and the Ozone Layer ozone O3 layer absorbs most of the sun’s harmful radiation. CFCs - chlorofluorocarbons - are depleting that ozone layer. CFCs are used as Freons in refrigeration, air conditioning, and foam insulation. Their use in spray cans is no longer allowed. 13
  • 14. Chlorofuorocarbons and the Ozone Layer In the stratosphere, the CFCs react with the high-energy UV radiation from the sun CF2Cl2 Freon-12 UV light CF2Cl• + Cl• free radical 14
  • 15. Chlorofuorocarbons and the Ozone Layer To become stable, the Cl• acquires an electron from ozone O3 and produces ClO. Cl• + O3 ClO + O2 The presence of ClO in the atmosphere is an indicator of the disappearance of ozone. 15
  • 16. Impact of Loss of Ozone Layer According to the National Academy of Sciences, each 1% loss of ozone increases by 2% the amount of UV radiation reaching the earth. More UV radiation means more skin cancer and cataracts in humans, more intense photochemical smog, and lower crop yields. 16
  • 17. Explore chemistry! Explore life!! 17