THAR DESERT THAR DESERT ECOSYSTEMSURESH SANGI SAMANI firstname.lastname@example.org +923333907567
TharDesert (also• The Thar Desert known as the Great Indian Desert), is a large, arid region in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent and forms a natural boundary running along the border between India and Pakistan. With an area of more than 200,000 km2 (77,000 sq mi), it is the worlds 9th
• It lies mostly in the Indian State of Rajasthan, and extends into the southern portion of Haryana and Punjab states and into northern Gujarat state. In Pakistan, the desert covers eastern Sindh province and the southeastern portion of Pakistans Punjab province. The Cholistan Desert adjoins the Thar desert spreading into Pakistani Punjab province.
Tharparkar• Tharparkar which consists of two words Thar and Parkar is a sea of cultural heritage in our country that we ourselves have forgotten for some reason. Thar means Desert while Parkar means the other side.• With the coming together of two of these areas Tharparkar has ceased to be a complete desert as Thar is the desert which is also the largest desert of Pakistan and the only fertile desert in the world while Parkar is the irrigated area and does not qualify to
• It is bounded in the north by Mirpurkhass and Umerkot. On east by Barmer and Jisselmir District of India. On west by district Badin and South by Ran of Kutch the total area of the district is 10,638 square kilometer. The district comprising with 4 (four) Taluka’s ciz.• Mithi• Diplo• Chachro• Nangarparkar• Though sand is all around in Thar. But, in the Nangarparkar, the egg-shaped hills of Karon-Jhar and the charm of its valleys coupled with some sacred places for
Origin• The origin of the Thar Desert is a controversial subject. Some consider it to be 4000 to 1,000,000 years old, whereas others state that aridity started in this region much earlier. Another theory states that area turned to desert relatively recently: perhaps around 2000 - 1500 BC. Around this time the Ghaggar ceased to be a major river. It now terminates in the desert but at one time was a watersource for the Indus Valley Civilization centre of Mohenjo-
Location and description• In India the Thar Desert extends from the Sutlej River, surrounded by the Aravalli Range on the east, on the south by the salt marsh known as the Rann of Kutch (parts of which are sometimes included in the Thar), and on the west by the Indus River. Its boundary to the large thorny steppe to the north is ill-defined, about 3/5th of the total geographical area of the State.
Rain Fall In Tharparkar• Rainfall in the area is very low, from 100-500mm per year, all falling between July and September, and the climate is harsh with temperatures ranging form near freezing up to 50°C. The habitat is greatly influenced by the extreme climate. The sparse vegetation consists of xerophilious grasslands.• The Thar desert seems an ideal place for generation of electricity from wind power.
Physiography and geology• There are three principal landforms in the desert region — the predominantly sand covered Thar, the plains with hills including the central dune free country and the semi-arid area surrounding the Aravalli range.• The Aravalli forms the main landmark to the south-east of Thar Desert.
Biodiversity• Stretches of sand in the desert are interspersed by hillocks and sandy and gravel plains. Due to the diversified habitat and ecosystem, the vegetation, human culture and animal life in this arid region is very rich in contrast to the other deserts of the world. About 23 species of lizard and 25 species of snakes are found here and several of them are endemic to the region.• Due to the lack of water in this region, transformation of the
Biodiversity (cont:)• The region is a haven for 141 species of migratory and resident birds of the desert. One can see eagles, harriers, falcons, buzzards, kestrel and vultures. Short-toed Eagles (Circaetus gallicus), Tawny Eagles (Aquila rapax), Spotted Eagles (Aquila clanga), Laggar Falcons (Falco jugger) and kestrels. There are also a number of reptiles.
Natural vegetation• The natural vegetation of this dry area is classed as Northern Desert Thorn Forest occurring in small clumps scattered more or less openly.• Natural vegetation of Thar Desert is composed of following tree, shrub and herb species.
Threats and preservation• Thar Desert, and its diverse fauna. The endangered Great Indian Bustard (Chirotis nigricaps), Blackbuck, chinkara, fox, Bengal fox, wolf, and caracal can be seen here and etc.• There are eleven national parks in the Thar desert area, the largest of which are the Nara Desert Wildlife Sanctuary and the Rann of Kutch.
Greening desertThe soil of the Thar Desertremains dry for much of theyear and is prone to winderosion. High velocity windsblow soil from the desert,depositing some onneighboring fertile lands, andcausing shifting sand duneswithin the desert, which buryfences and block roads andrailway tracks.
Desert economy• Due to severe weather conditions, there are few highways in the Thar desert. Shown here is a road in Tharparkar District of Sindh, Pakistan.
Agriculture• The Thar is one of most heavily- populated desert areas in the world and the main occupations of people living here are agriculture and animal husbandry. Agriculture is not a dependable proposition in this area— after the rainy season, at least 33% of crops fail. Animal husbandry, trees and grasses, intercropped with vegetables or fruit trees.• These crops are harvested in the months of September and October and include bajra (Pennisetum typhoideum), pulses, jowar (Sorghum vulgare), maize (zea
Livestock• A large number of farmers in Thar desert depend on animal husbandry for their livelihood. Cow, buffalo, sheep, goats, camel, and ox consists of major cattle population. Barmer district has the highest cattle population out of which sheep and goats are in majority. Some of the best breeds of bullocks such as Kankrej (Sanchori) and Nagauri are from desert region.• The live stock depends for grazing on common lands in villages. During famine years in the desert the nomadic rebari people move with large herds of
Agro-forestry• Forestry has an important part to play in the amelioration of the conditions in semi-arid and arid lands. If properly planned forestry can make an important contribution to the general welfare of the people living in desert areas. The living standard of the people in the desert is low. They can not afford other fuels like gas, kerosene etc. Fire wood is their main fuel, of the total consumption of wood about 75 percent is firewood.
Salt water lakes• There are a number of salt water lakes in Thar desert. These are Sambhar, Pachpadra, Tal Chhapar, Falaudi and Lunkaransar where Sodium chloride salt is produced from salt water.
People• The Thar Desert is mainly inhabited by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs. The portion in Pakistan is inhabited by primarily by Sindhis and Kolhis. A colourful culture rich in tradition prevails in the desert. The people have a great passion for folk music and folk poetry.• The main occupation of the people in desert is agriculture and animal husbandry. In past years there has been a tremendous increase in human population as well as animal population.• The increase of human and livestock population in the desert has led to deterioration in the ecosystem resulting in degradation of soil fertility.
• The living standard of the people in the desert is low. The Thar Desert is the most densely populated desert in the world, with a population density of 83 people per km2. vs 7 in other deserts.• In Pakistan part of Thar also has a rich multifaceted culture, heritage, traditions, folk tales, dances and music due to its inhabitants who belong to different religions, sects and castes.
Water and housing in the desert• Water scarcity plays an important role in shaping life in all parts of Thar. Natural (tobas) or man-made (johads), both types of small, intermittent ponds, are often the only source of water for animals and humans in the true desert areas. The lack of a constant water supply causes much of the local population to live as nomads.• Potable groundwater is also rare in the Thar desert.• Wells that successfully bear sweet water attract nearby settlement, but are difficult to dig, possibly claiming the