Water solubel fertilizers
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  • 1. 12/16/2011 1 Water soluble Fertilizers: Opportunities and Challenges T.B.S. Rajput Water Technology Center, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi - 110012 FAI Annual Seminar Dec 8, 2011 presentation Soil analysis Crop Nutrients requirements1 2 Choice of fertilizers 3 Method of application4 How much nutrients to apply Timing and quantity to apply 5 6 Fertigation components
  • 2. 12/16/2011 2 Crop nutrients requirementCrop nutrients requirement Depend on: yields Method of growing variety crop Specific needs greenhouse – open field Method of fertilization and different fertilizers !!! Type, quantity, concentration. Basal Top dressing Fertigation Foliar spray How to split between ?
  • 3. 12/16/2011 3 Irrigation + = Nutrients Fertigation Why? Soluble fertilizers FERTIGATION
  • 4. 12/16/2011 4 Advantages of Fertigation Integration of fertilizers with irrigation water. Uniformity of fertilizer distribution in active root volume. Same amount of nutrients for every irrigated plant. Ability to adjust concentration and composition of nutrients in active root volume according to plant consumption requirement, respectively to phonological stages. Repartition between base dressing and fertigation Base dressingBase dressing (before season) fertigationfertigation (during season) ??% N, % P2O5 % K2O
  • 5. 12/16/2011 5 Repartition between base dressing and fertigation depend on rainfall level and the ratio . (irrigation/irrigation+rainfall) during season Irr Irr + Rain in soilleveland nutrientsoil typedepend on analysis Mainly for P, K depend on method of irrigation and nutrient mobility in soil Repartition between base/top dressing and fertigation depend on rainfall level and the ratio . (irrigation/irrigation+rainfall) 1 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.2 0Ratio: Irr Irr + Rain No rain No irrigation fertigation Base and top dressing
  • 6. 12/16/2011 6 Repartition between base/top dressing and fertigation depend on soil type and nutrient level in soil analysis Mainly for P, K % clay Sandy soil Heavy Clay soil fertigation Base and top dressing 0 % 20% >40% medium soil Repartition between base/top dressing and fertigation Mainly for P, K drip fertigation Base and top dressing Micro-jet depend on method of irrigation and nutrient mobility in soil sprinklers Flooding
  • 7. 12/16/2011 7 Repartition between base/top dressing and fertigation Mainly for P, Kdepend on nutrient mobility in soil N03, urea P P P K ,NH4 K ,NH4 K ,NH4 N03, urea N03, urea Sandy soil medium soil clay soil Different methods and equipments in irrigation Flooding Micro-jet drippers N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO 30 60 40 80 80 70 40 60 20 20 Base dressing % Fertigation% Base dressing % N P2O5 K2O CaO MgO 30 100 100 100 100 70Top %
  • 8. 12/16/2011 8 Soluble fertilizers UREA 46%46% A.N 34% A.S 21% MAP 12-61-0 MKP 0-52-34 KCL 0-0-60 KNO3 13-0-46 K2SO4 0-0-50 N ---- P ----K Nitric acid Phosph. acid KOH Soluble fertilizers Calcium nitrate Magnesium nitrate Magnesium sulfate 16% Mg Amonium sulfate 21% N K2SO4 0-0-50Ca---Mg---S Calcium- Magnesium nitrate Kiserite 24% Epsom salts Amon. Thiosulfate Calcium chloride 15.5-0-26 35% 11-0-16
  • 9. 12/16/2011 9 Fertilizer N content (%) Solubility (g/liter) Ammonium sulphate 21 750 Urea 46 1100 Ammonium nitrate 34 1920 Calcium nitrate 15.5 1290 Nitrogenous Fertilizers Fertilizer K content ( % ) Solubility (g/liter) Potassium sulphate 50 110 Potassium chloride 60 340 Potassium nitrate 44 133 Solubility of Potassic Fertilizers
  • 10. 12/16/2011 10 Solubility of Micronutrient Fertilizers Fertilizer Content (%) Solubility (g/liter) Solubor 20 B 220 Copper sulphate 25 Cu 320 Iron sulphate 20 Fe 160 Magnesium sulphate 10 710 Ammonium molybdate 54 430 Zinc sulphate 36 965 Manganese sulphate 27 1050 Fertilizers Urea Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Sulphate Calcium Nitrate Mono Ammonium Phosphate Mono Potassium Phosphate Potassium Nitrate Urea C C C C C C Ammonium Nitrate C C C C C C Ammonium Sulphate C C LC C C LC Calcium Nitrate C C LC NC NC C Mono Ammonium Phosphate C C C NC C C Mono Potassium Phosphate C C C NC C C Potassium Nitrate C C L C C C Compatibility chart among different fertilizers
  • 11. 12/16/2011 11 Fertigation 2 methods: Quantitative: Kg/ha/day or week or month or growth phase Proportional : Kg/ m3 (or g/l) concentration in water Quantitative Proportional Fertilizer is applied in one pulse during a part of the irrigation time. The fertilizer concentration in the irrigation water is kept constant throughout the irrigation time. Fertigation Concepts Irrigation Fertigation solution gradient
  • 12. 12/16/2011 12 90, 120, 160 litres Fertilizer Tank The plant: 4 main phases sowing harvest Kc Crop Coefficient 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 1 2 3 4 Quant. 4 10 15 13 kg/ha/day
  • 13. 12/16/2011 13 Proportional method: (quantity/water unity) mg/l or ppm g/liter kg/m3 1 g/l or kg/m3 of “13-0-46” give 130 ppm N 460 ppm K2O 0.5 g/l or kg/m3 of “13-0-46” give 65 ppm N 230 ppm K2O
  • 14. 12/16/2011 14 Preparation of Stock Solution •Assume 20 kg of N is to be fertigated through urea •Amount of Urea required = 20/0.46 = 43.5 kg •Solubility of Urea (summer) is 1100 g/liter •Amount of water required for dissolution = 43.5/1.1= 40 liters •About 50 liter capacity container be taken and filled with 40 liters of water and then dissolve the 20 kg urea by mixing it slowly. •Siphon the clear solution for injecting through the fertigation applicator Fertilizer and fertigation strategy influenced the solutes distribution Solutes dynamics ( ) ),,,( 1 tzrCNU z Cq r Cq r Cq r C D z C D zz C D r C D rz C D r C D rt C zrr rzzzrzrrrzrr −      ∂ ∂ ++ ∂ ∂ −      ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ +      ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ +      ∂ ∂ + ∂ ∂ ∂ ∂ = ∂ ∂ θθθθθθ θ Convection-dispersion equation (CDE) for solute transport
  • 15. 12/16/2011 15 Soil type Fertigation % N leached of total N added DRIP Surface tape Subsurface tape SL B 22.5 23.11 6.64 M 33.15 23.12 8.65 E 13.41 22.68 6.58 M50 28.51 22.69 7.90 C 32.0 23.32 8.43 Av. 25.94 22.98 7.64 L B 9.20 13.20 0.19 M 7.20 12.28 0.194 E 2.78 11.38 0.139 M50 6.68 12.13 0.184 C 6.99 12.38 0.192 Av. 6.57 12.235 0.180 C B 1.964 3.596 0.015284 M 0.4542 8.140 0.015739 E 0.7813 13.849 0.007894 M50 0.9107 10.449 0.014177 C 0.8215 6.582 0.015451 Av. 0.986 8.523 0.014 Sandy loam (SL), Loam (L), Silty clay (C) B- Fertigation for a total duration of 2 h, starting 1 h after the beginning of the irrigation cycle M- Fertigation for a total duration of 2 h, in the middle of an irrigation cycle E-Fertigation for a duration of 2 h, starting 3 h before irrigation cutoff M50- alternating irrigation, starting the first and last 25% of each irrigation with fresh water, and fertigation during the remaining 50% in the middle of the irrigation cycle; C- continuous fertigation, with 1-h fresh water irrigation before and after fertigation Percentage of N leached as a fraction of the total N added Crop Stages of crop Transplant to 6 leaf, (kg/ha) 6 leaf to fruit set, (kg/ha) Fruit set to fruit development, kg/ha Fruit set to ripening, (kg/ha) N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O N P2O5 K2O Potato 44 32 16 26 26 58 130 87 196 - - - Tomato 55 98 58 35 17 35 30 15 45 30 15 172 Capsicum 55 122 58 35 17 35 30 15 45 30 15 172 Onion 60 107 60 32 33 32 31 15 171 32 32 32 Red cabbage 32 32 32 35 18 35 33 15 173 - - - Carrot 55 120 120 30 15 171 30 15 171 - - Lettuce 55 122 122 35 18 35 - - - - - Cucumber 55 121 121 35 17 35 35 17 35 - - Water melon 110 10 10 25 25 25 30 15 75 - - Melon 15 15 5 30 15 45 35 18 80 35 17 55 Suggestive schedule of fertigation for vegetable crops
  • 16. 12/16/2011 16 Constraints in Fertigation •There is lack of research and developmental information in respect of its rate of application, amount applied and frequency adopted. •The fertigation material is either not available in desired form or available at higher price, than the conventional fertilizer. •Once the fertigation practice is being followed along with Micro irrigation system causes higher clogging. The farmers must be trained to adopt fertigation along with other chemigation technique. Year Drip Irrigation (ha) *Nitrogen (N) requirement, matric tons *Potassium (K) requirement, matric tons *Phosphorous (P) requirement, matric tons Up to 2009-10 1897280 227673.6 151782.4 151782.4 Source: Progress reports from state governments *N = 120 kg/ ha, P =80 kg/ha and K = 80 kg/ha Area Covered under Drip/Sprinkler irrigation under CSS on Micro Irrigation
  • 17. 12/16/2011 17 Conclusions The Government of India (GOI) plans to cover 27 Mha under drip and sprinkler systems Presently the specialties WSF are not affordable by the farmers. If P requirement can be met, N& K can be taken care of through urea and KCl. Efforts should be directed for developing proper fertigation technology with the presently available conventional fertilizers till specially fertilizers becomes affordable. Integrated fertigation technology with organic/bio liquid fertilizer and WSF need be generated. Thanks